Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final

download Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final

of 22

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final











    Santiago, Chile


  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    Chapter I: Theoretical framework

    1.1 Error analysiss definition

    During the last decades, errors, from the point of view of English teaching as a

    second language, has been seen as a matter of less importance, considering that

    methods like audio-lingual or grammar translation prepare the student to achieve a

    perfect performance, instead of consider errors as an important data that can

    help them to improve their methods and the way they get connected with the reality

    of the student.

    Pit Corder, on 1967, release the publication The Significance of Learners Errors,

    where stated that errors are an important contribution to the teacher, creating a

    clear picture of the interference the student has from his mother tongue and/or the

    different ways they take to finally get an average linguistic competence. On this

    hand, error analysis can be defined as a branch of applied linguistics that is

    concerned to study the different types of errors students make and figure out the

    causes of them.

    This research will study the linguistic competence of an English teaching student,

    from first year at Universidad Bernardo OHiggins, considering the statements

    given by three different authors regarding this field: Pit Corder, Larry Selinker and

    Albert Ellis, identifying, quantifying and analysing the frequency of his errors in

    order to state an example of the importance of the consideration of errors on TESL.

    1.1.1 Error analysiss definition according to Corder

    As it was described above, Pit Corder can be named The father of errors

    analysis. It was in his article entitled The significance of Learner Errors (1967)where this kind of analysis took a new turn. Errors used to be flaws that needed to

    be eradicated. Systematically analysing errors made by language learners made

    him able to determine areas that need reinforcement in teaching.1

    1Corder, Pit. The Significance of Learners Errors. November 1967.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    The study of error analysis is significant in three different ways. First, for teacher:

    the learners errors could tell him how the individual has progressed and,

    consequently what remains to learn. Secondly, for researches: an error provides

    evidence of how language is and has been acquired, and what kind of strategies or

    procedures the learner is developing while is acquiring a second language. And

    finally to the learner himself: It provides process of language teaching and learning,

    in other words, error analysis gives us concrete conclusions that draw a picture of

    the results of analyses, about how a second language can be more effectively

    taught and learned.

    !Errors were predicted to be the result of the

    persistence of existing mother tongue habits in the

    new language!

    (Corder, Pit. 1981. 10).

    It has to be told that the behaviouristic notion of language learning is that of

    formation of correct habits from the reinforcement of the certain plausible response

    to stimulus, in the light of which errors were predicted to be the result of the

    persistence of existing mother tongue2.

    1.1.2 Corders Model (1967-1973)

    During the year 1967 to 1973, Corder developed a model that has three stages to

    analyse errors, which are describe below:

    a) Data Collection: It refers to the recognition of the idiosyncrasy. For this

    category, Corder define two stages:

    a. To detect and identify errors. This is not simple, since it involves the

    context and the interpretation of the sentence/speech.

    b. To interpret the real intention (semantic content) of the learner in his

    intention to reconstruct the sentence in the target language.

    b) Description: Accounting for idiosyncratic dialect.

    c) Explanation: The last objective of error analysis.

    2Corder, Pit. (1981). Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford University Press.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    1.1.3 Chomsky and Error Analysis

    From the early beginning of the process of language learning, errors appears as

    part of the process itself, in which any individual test his knowledge until the

    correct form is internalized.

    The first step to understand the process of second language acquisition in children

    -which is very useful for foreign language teachers- is to understand the process of

    acquisition of the first language (L1) or mother tongue. In the attempt to explain the

    cognitive processes involved in this learning, one of the most influential writers of

    the twentieth century linguistics, Noam Chomsky, developed a theory of language

    acquisition. This theory has as primary concept the "Universal Grammar", which

    state the existence of gaps and internal processes by which children develop the

    ability to speak. According to the author, children are born with an innategrammatical system that allows them to acquire a language. This "biological

    instinct" is based on a general grammar and unconscious underlying of all

    languages, and all individual grammar rules.

    Chomsky claims that all languages have similar patterns and that the infants

    generate language through their innate universal structures. Therefore, in second

    language acquisition, according to this hypothesis, the learner tend to test the

    grammatical structures and other patterns use on his mother tongue on the target

    language, promoting the progress and improving the learning process.

    1.1.4 Corders Errors Classifications (1981)

    Corder (1981) created five procedures to analysing errors in general:

    I. Collect samples of learner language: Data is collected over a period of time

    and compared.

    II. Identification of errors: What kind of errors are they? A difference is made

    between an error and mistake. An error is where the language learner does

    not possess the knowledge of the correct usage. A mistake is where the

    language learner possesses the knowledge, but has a lapse in memory.

    III. Description of errors: Once the mistakes are eliminated from the errors,

    what classification is the error? Is it language level (structural, phonology,

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    etc.), general linguistic (passive sentences, etc.) or specific linguistic

    elements (nouns, articles, etc.)

    IV. Explanation of errors: Why was the error made?

    A. Interlingual (between two languages): the error could be interference

    from first language to the second language.

    B. Intralingual (within the language): the error could be developmental

    which shows a gap in knowledge of the rule.

    V. Evaluation of errors: How serious are the errors? Does it cause a lack of


    1.1.5 The importance of errors

    Corder, on his article The Significance of Learners Errors expressed his ideasabout the importance of errors. He made a distinction between information that

    errors would be helpful for teacher, researchers, and student, among others. Make

    errors draw a picture of how a second language is acquired or processed in the

    leaner mind and what is the methodology the teacher has to use in order to help

    the learner to acquire the language in a successful way.

    Corder introduced the distinction between systematic and non-systematic errors.

    Unsystematic errors occur in ones native language; Corder calls these "mistakes"

    and states that they are not significant to the process of language learning. He

    keeps the term "errors" for the systematic ones, which occur in a second


    Errors are significant in three ways:

    1) To the teachers: They show a students progress.

    2) To the researchers: They show how a language is acquired and what

    strategies the learners use.

    3) To the learners: They can learn from these errors.

    Errors help the learner to create his own patterns, taken from his mother tongue,

    and errors are evidences that serve to choose effective strategies in order to

    achieve a successful learning process.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    1.2 Error analysis according to Selinker (1995)

    Learners can build or create a system by themselves, on first and second language

    system. This system is called Interlanguage, a term suggested by Selinker.

    Interlanguage can be defines as a continuum between the first language and the

    target language.

    The author omitted the concept error, considering the language used by the

    learner as a whole language system. Interlanguage evidences characteristic of two

    social dialects: the native language and target language.

    When the relevant principles are formulated for a theory of second language, will

    be fully justified, even obliged, to present as a hypothesis existence of an

    independent linguistic system: on the basis of observable data resulting from

    attempts by student production, a rule in the LO.We call "interlanguage" (IL) to thislanguage system (Muoz, 1972. Selinker Liceras.1992: 83-84).

    Adopting a psycholinguistic perspective is understood as a system intermediate

    between the codes L1 and L2.

    Selinker propose the latent structure of the language as it appears in Lennenberg

    (1967), to hypothesize the existence of a latent psychological structure. This

    structure is active in most of L2 learners every time they try to express meanings,

    which have been previously seen in the target language. He also argued that in

    this hypothetical latent psychological structure, there is what Weinreich (1953) calls

    interlingual identifications: a relevant concept for L2 learning model for adults,

    since they constitute a psychological link between the three linguistic systems (L1,

    L2, IL).

    Selinker rejected the concept of continuous IL and introduces the phenomenon of

    fossilization as the most important fact to explain in a theory of second language


    1.2.1 Selinkers model (2008)

    Selinker (2008) identified six steps for error analysis:

    1. Collect data: Written data and oral data serve as a base.

    2. Identify errors: What and where the error is.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    3. Classify the error: Is it an error of agreement or error in irregular verb?

    4. Quantify error: How many errors of each type occur?

    5. Analyse source: To analyse the source.

    6. Remediate: Depending on the frequency of a type of error the pedagogical

    intervention is executed.

    1.2.2 Interlanguage (1972)

    In order to acquire a foreign language, students will undoubtedly encounter many

    difficulties, difficulties that will generate errors. But as we have seen, mistakes are

    an essential part of this learning process. In the way of appropriation of this,

    learners develop their communicational skills by establishing rules that determine

    their own linguistic system. Their accuracy will never be exactly as equal as the

    performance of a native speaker, and therefore, there will always exist differencesbetween the language spoken by the learners of a foreign language and the actual

    target language. These mistakes are originated from the differences that

    distinguish each language, and here arises the concept of interlanguage, another

    notion closely related to errors and error analysis.

    1.3 Error Analysis according to Ellis

    This author analyses the mistakes that learners relate to the incorrect usage of

    either strategy. Thus, we have the following taxonomy, which depend on where the

    errors are in:

    a) Learning strategies.

    b) Production strategies.

    c) Communication strategies.

    d) Compensatory strategies.

    e) Recuperative strategies

    Around the categorization of errors, Ellis generated much controversy, since the

    lack of criteria established normalizes the skills that lead each taxonomy, which

    can be found in the study of the same area.

    In other words Ellis (1994) gave a distinction between errors and mistakes.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    1.3.1 Ellis model for error analysis (1995)

    According to Ellis this model (1995) stated a practical advice and clear examples of

    how analyse and identify learner errors:

    I. Selection of a corpus of language

    II. Identification of errors

    III. Classification of errors

    IV. Analysis and explanation of errors.

    1.3.2 The importance of error analysis according to Ellis

    The study of errors offers great advantages for improving language pedagogy; Theresults cannot be out of fashion since they evidence those areas of the language

    teachers that need to be focus on, such as grammar, lexis, discourse, etc. In other

    words, it is by analysing errors that important suggestions for language method

    design can be made, involving all the pedagogical areas designed, from syllabus to


    3Ellis, Rod (2003). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. UK. Oxford University Press.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    Chapter II: Methodological Framework

    2.1 Objectives

    The general convention about errors is that they play a negative roll in general.

    Particularly in language teaching, errors have been consider as a harmful element,

    since teachers tend to expect an almost perfect performance from their students.

    On the same hand, they have forgotten the important data that errors bring to the

    learning process: errors help to create a clear picture of the learner advance, of the

    level of his improvement and, as we have seen before on this paper, can even help

    the teacher to choose a most effective method in order to achieve a better and

    faster progress.In order to demonstrate and evidence the importance of error analysis, this

    research will identify, quantify and analyse the errors made by a student of first

    year of the English Teaching Program at Universidad Bernardo Ohiggins, on the

    attempt to identify how this data can collaborate on the learning process and how

    errors can be very useful for the learner to process the information, improve his

    performance and finally be able to use effectible a foreign language.

    2.2 General Objective

    To identify, quantify and analyse the errors made by a student of first year of

    English Teaching, specifically the errors made on auxiliaries and the use of third

    person singular in present simple tense.

    2.3 Specific Objectives

    I. Identify errors committed regarding the use of auxiliaries and third person

    singular on present simple tense.

    II. Quantify these errors in order to identify a frequency.

    III. Analyse how this data can collaborate with the learning process.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    2.4 Research Questions

    1) How many correct and incorrect verb forms were detected on the learners

    oral performance?

    2) How many errors, regarding these verb forms, were found?

    2.5 Sample description

    The individual to be interviewed studies in Bernardo OHiggins University, English

    pedagogy, he is in first year, second semester. He has the knowledge to

    understand questions in present simple, and also how to give full answer and

    create complete sentences, even though using only present simple tense.

    The student is 33 years old, he lives in Maip, Santiago and before study in

    Universidad Bernardo Ohiggins, he coursed the previous semester in Universidadde Las Amricas.

    2.6 Instrument

    The instrument to analyse the learner possible errors is an interview compound by

    four questions listed above:

    1) What do you do in a regular day?

    2) Tell me about your daily routine.

    3) What does your mother do?

    4) Who is your favourite person in the world?

    2.7 Procedure

    i. The student was selected from the evening program English teaching, first

    year at Universidad Bernardo Ohiggins randomly, asking for a volunteer.

    ii. He was interview by Mauricio Oyarzo (researcher) according to the question

    presented above.

    iii. Once the data was collected, it was separated into sentence (one verb per


    iv. Once the errors were identified, the quantitative results were represented in


    Chapter III: Data Analysis

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    At this point of the research, the data collected will be quantified analysed

    according the classification exposed on the Theoretical Framework. As it has been

    exposed on Chapter II, even though the learner to be analysed has committed

    different kind of errors/mistakes, for the purpose of this research, we will consider

    only the errors regarding the use of auxiliaries and third person singular.

    4.1 Quantitative analysis of data

    After the analysis of the sample, the next results has been found:

    Total number of sentences


    Total number of errors


    39 20

    Table A

    As is shown on Table A, over a total of 39 sentences, 20 errors were found. This

    total comprehends all the errors detected, which represent the 51% of total

    sentences analysed.

    As it has been said, this research will focus only on the errors regarding the use of

    auxiliaries and third person singular. On this sense, these items compound the

    28% of the errors found, as seen on Graphic 1.

    Graphic 1.

    4.1.1 Errors regarding the use of auxiliaries found on the sample





    Errors made in regard to the use of Auxiliariesand Third Person Singular


    Third person

    Other erros

    No error

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    Total number of sentences


    Total number of Auxiliary

    errors detected

    39 8

    Table B

    Table B describes the total number of errors detected regarding the use of

    auxiliaries, considering a universe of 39 sentences. These represent the 20% of

    the sample.

    4.1.2 Errors regarding the use of Third Person

    Total number of sentences


    Total number of Third Person

    errors detected

    39 3Table C

    Table C describes the quantity of errors regarding the use of third person singular

    on the sample. As it is shown, there were only 3 errors detected, representing the

    8% of the total number of sentences.

    4.2. Analysis of the quantitative information

    Since the porpoise of this research is to analyse the occurrence and frequency of

    errors committed for the learner in regard to the use of auxiliaries and third person

    singular in present simple tense, some conclusions can be done in order to answer

    the research question exposed previously on the Chapter II.

    4.2.1 Answers to the research questions

    1) The learner is it has been shown above, used a total of 38 verb forms, from

    which 20 are errors. These errors sentences represent a 51% of the

    complete oral performance.2) From this total number of errors, 28% (11 sentences) are regarded to the

    use of auxiliaries and third person singular. There is a clear tendency of the

    learner to use wrongly the auxiliary does andthe use of S at the end of the

    verbs when he is using third person. There are also some errors made in

    regard to auxiliaries, which were confused with others auxiliaries from others

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    tenses: She did the reason (instead of was), as well as the confusion of

    some vocabulary: She forgotmy mistakes (instead of forgave).

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    3) Conclusions

    Making errors is part of the natural method humans have to learn language: if

    they do it to acquire their mother tongue, they will use the same strategies to learn

    a foreign language, and in this hand, teacher must consider it as an intrinsic part of

    the process.

    Even when the errors are constant and seems to be fossilized, if the main purpose

    of the learners is to achieve a successful communicative performance, these

    errors did not affect the comprehension of the message. On the other hand,

    considering that the sample is a student from the English Teaching Program, these

    errors has to be consider as an importance matter of interest, in order to achieve a

    higher level of accuracy, and avoid any interferences on the futures process of

    learning, since an incorrect internalization of a verbal tenses can impair thelearning of other and/or more complex tenses. This data can helps the teacher to

    get a clear picture of the status of the learner, and the class in general.

    On this case in particular, as this research has identify some possible

    fossilizations, the teacher can encourage the learner to practice on this matter in

    particular, improving an correcting the patterns that has been learnt wrongly and

    warranting the correct comprehension of others and more complex verbal tenses.

    In general, error analysis can contribute to the teacher task in order to look for

    effective methodologies and activities that can help to fix and reinforce the errors


    Error analysis, from the point of view of English teaching, plays an important role in

    order to supervise and have a correct control of the learning process. Through the

    analysis of the students errors, teacher can apply better and more effective

    methodologies, achieving a students higher level of competence and making

    easier the learning of future subjects.

    Since this data helps the teacher to get a picture of the students difficulties during

    the process of learning, it has to be said that errors not always plays a harmful roll

    in language learning. Through the process of trial and error, the student can also

    get a picture of his process, contributing to his own process and also making the

    whole process more effective.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    In summary, it can be said that the consideration of errors must be an important

    part of the learning process, and even more, errors are part of the process. The

    teacher can take advantage of this data in order to collaborate and assist the

    learner regarding his particular necessity, as well as the student can achieve a

    higher level of linguistic and communicative competence trough the process of trial

    and error. Considering that, there is no reason to see errors/mistakes as a negative

    factor, but as an important source of information about the process and the

    different techniques students create as they are learning a foreign language.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final



    ALEXOPOULOU ANGLICA (2010), La funcin de la interlengua en el

    aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras ,Universidad Nacional y Kapodistraca de


    AZEVEDO, M. (1980). The Interlanguage of Advanced Learners: an Error

    Analysis of Graduate Students` Spanish en IRAL, 18, pp. 217-227.

    CASTILLEJOS LPEZ WILLELMIRA, Error analysis in a learner corpus. What are

    the learners strategies?, Universidad Autnoma Chapingo, Mexico

    CORDER, PIT. The Significance of Learners Errors. November 1967.Ellis, Rod (2003). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. UK. Oxford

    University Press.

    CORDER, S. P. (1971): idiosyncratic dialects and error analysis, en richards, j. c.

    (1974). 158-171. corder, s. p. (1973): introduccin a la lingstica aplicada.

    (versin espaola de 1992). mxico, limusa.

    GALINDO MERINO MMAR (2004), Principales modelos de anlisis de datos en

    la investigacin sobre adquisicin de segundas lenguas, Dpto. de Filologa

    Espaola, Lingstica General y Teora de la Literatura Universidad de Alicante.

    KARRA MARIA (2008), Second Language Acquisition: Learners' Errors and Error

    Correction in Language Teaching

    KEES, D; WANDER, L AND MARJOLIJN, V (2005). Second Language Acquisition.

    London and New York: Routledge.

    MALDONADO MARTNEZ ROBERTO (2013), anlisis de errores en la

    adquisicin/aprendizaje del espaol en estudiantes letones , Mster Universitario

    en Formacin de Profesores de Espaol.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    NIAN LIU (2012), Anlisis de errores y evolucin de la interlengua de los

    estudiantes sino hablantes: esbozo de un estudio longitudinal longitudinal,

    Departamento de Filologa Espaola Facultad de Filosofa y Letras Universidad

    Autnoma de Barcelona.

    QUIONES ALBA (2008). Anlisis de errores y de actuacin en producciones

    escritas de aprendices alemanes de espaol. Estudio lxico-semntico, Tesis

    doctoral indita

    SELINKER, Interlanguage International Review of Applied Linguistics in

    Language Teaching

    S. GRAMLEY AND V. GRAMLEY (2008) Bielefeld Introduction to Applied

    Linguistics. Bielefeld: Aisthesis.

    TAYLOR G., Errors and explanations, Applied Linguistics 7: 144-166, 1986.

    ZHANG MENG (1955), Error Analysis and Interlanguage, Associate Professor of

    English Education and Head of the Foreign Language Department at Zhengzhou

    Teachers College in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final



    ! Interview applied.

    ! Interview answered by the learner.

    ! Interview analysis.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    Interview applied

    1) What do you do in a regular day?

    2) Tell me about your daily routine.

    3) What does your mother do?

    4) Who is your favourite person in the world?

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    Interview applied

    1) What do you do in a regular day?

    I work everyday and I come to the university, but I work a lot everyday. The

    only day I rest is Wednesday, because I no have classes. On the weekend I

    play football and I rest. I study also, but not always I can.

    2) Tell me about your daily routine.

    I start at 6 oclock, I take a shower and I eat breakfast and I go to work. I

    work to five thirty and after, I go to the university. After the university. I eat

    something when Im there, but no always I can. I go to my house when I

    finish, I eat and finally I sleep. The next day I do everything again.

    3) What does your mother do?

    She dont have job, she spend the time in the house. She do all the things inthe house, cook, clean, and care my dog.

    4) Who is your favourite person in the world?

    Not favourite, but I admire my mother, she have patience with me, I am not

    best person, but she is very nice with my, she forgot all my mistakes. She all

    the time with me, whatever I do, she is with me, she doesnt fail me. Also,

    my first teacher, she was the reason why I am studying English, her

    advices, her values, were very goods.

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    Interview Analysis

    !"#$"#%" '(()(

    I work everyday no error

    and I come to the university no errorbut I work a lot everyday no errorThe only day I rest is Wednesday otherbecause I no have classes auxiliaryOn the weekend I play football otherand I rest no errorI study also no errorbut not always I can otherI start at 6 oclock no errorI take a shower no error

    and I eat breakfast otherand I go to work no errorI work to five thirty otherand after I go to the university no error

    After the university. I eat something when Im there no errorbut no always I can no errorI go to my house when I finish no errorI eat no errorand finally I sleep no error

    The next day I do everything again otherShe dont have job auxiliaryshe spend the time in the house third personShe do all the things in the house auxiliarycook, clean, and care my dog third personNot favourite no errorbut I admire my mother no errorshe have patience with me auxiliaryI am not best person otherbut she very nice with my auxiliary

    she forgot all my mistakes otherShe all the time with me auxiliarywhatever I do no errorshe with me auxiliaryshe don't fail me third person

    Also, my first teacher no errorshe did the reason auxiliary

  • 7/24/2019 Paper Linguistica Corregido Final Final


    why I am studying English no errorher advices, her values, were very goods other