Voltaire XII

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Transcript of Voltaire XII

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    E D I T I O N D E L A P A C I F I C A T I O N

    T H E W O R K S O F

     VOLTAIRE  A CONTEMPORARY VERSION

     W ITH NOTES BY  TOBIAS SMOLLETT, R EVISED  AND MODERNIZED

    NEW TRANSLATIONS BY W ILLIAM F. FLEMING, AND AN

    INTRODUCTION BY OLIVER H. G. LEIGH

     A CRITIQUE AND BIOGRAPHY 

    BY 

    T H E R T . H O N . J O H N M O R L E Y  

    F O R T Y - T H R E E V O L U M E S

    ONE HUNDRED ANS SIXTY-EIGHT DESIGNS, COMPRISINGS REPRODUCTIONS

    OF RARE OLD ENGRAVINGS, STEEL PLATES, PHOTOGRAVURES,

     AND CURIOUS FAC-SIMILES

     VOLUME XII

     AKRON, OHIO

    THE WERNER COMPANY

    1!"

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    I am a heritage because I

    brln you years cj thought

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    and tbe lore of time *-^

    I Impart yet I can r>ot speak-

    I have traveled amorxi tbe

    peoples o^ tbe eartb

    am a rover-^ Oft-tl

    I strc^y jron? tbe tresufe-

    of tbe or^ u!bo loves ar^"

    cberlsbeo n#e-abo

    rmooeo n?e uhep I an?

    ^oi?e ^-$hould you %nd

    me varar?t please send

    brothers -on tbe book-

    sbelves of

    &'O&(') O+

    , . /0'1'(02($

     )he ,O'3$ of 2O.)0I'(

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    (4I)IO5 4( .0 &06I+I60)IO5

    .imited to one thousand sets

    for 0merica and 1reat 7ritain

    87et9een t9o servants of /umanity: 9ho appeared

    eighteen hundred years apart: the rf *; a mysterious relation

    * * * * .et us say it 9ith a sentiment of

    profound respect< =($$ ,(&)< 2O.)0I'( $I.(4

    Of that divine tear and of that human smile is composed the

    s9eetness of the present [email protected]8

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    0IAlA(BO'IO0lA 7$) OC 2O.)0I'(

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    2O. 2III

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    O5(

    0 ,O'4 made use of to express gold 8$ir: 9ill

    you lend me a hundred louis d;or?8 8$ir: I 9ould

    9ith all my heart: but I have no money ! I am out

    of ready money8 )he Italian 9ill say to you<

    8$ignore: non ha di danari8 8I have no deniers8

    /arpagon asks aitre =acKues< 8,ilt thou

    make a good entertainment?8 8es: if you 9ill

    give me plenty of money8

    ,e continually inKuire 9hich of the countries of

    (urope is the richest in money ? 7y that 9e mean:

    9hich is the people 9ho circulate the most metals

    representative of objects of commerce? In the

    same manner 9e ask: 9hich is the poorest? and

    thirty contending nations present themselves the

    ,estphalian: .imousin: 7asKue: )yrolese: 2alois:

    1rison: Istrian: $cotch: and Irish: the $9iss of a

    small canton: and above all the subjects of the pope

    In deciding 9hich has most: 9e hesitate at pres-

    ent bet9een +rance: $pain: and /olland: 9hich had

    none in FHGG

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    +ormerly: in the thirteenth: fourteenth: and %f-

    teenth centuries: the province of the papal treasury

    had no doubt the most ready money: and therefore

    L

    H &hilosophical

    the greatest trade /o9 do you sell that ? 9ould be

    asked of a theological merchant: 9ho replied: +or

    as much as the people are fools enough to give me

    0ll (urope then sent its money to the 'oman

    court: 9ho gave in change consecrated beads:

    agnuses: indulgences plenary and limited: dispensa-

    tions: con%rmations: exemptions: benedictions: and

    even excommunications against those 9hom the

    subscriber chose! and 9ho had not suMcient faith

    in the court of 'ome

     )he 2enetians sold nothing of all this: but they

    traded 9ith all the ,est by 0lexandria: and it 9as

    through them only that 9e had pepper and cinna-

    mon )he money 9hich 9ent not to the papal

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    treasury came to them: excepting a little to the

     )uscans and 1enoese 0ll the other kingdoms of

    (urope 9ere so poor in ready money that 6harles

    2III 9as obliged to borro9 the je9els of the

    duchess of $avoy and put them in pa9n: to raise

    funds to conKuer 5aples: 9hich he soon lost again

     )he 2enetians supported stronger armies than his

    0 noble 2enetian had more gold in his coCers: and

    more vessels of silver on his table: than the emperor

    aximilian surnamed 8&ochi danari8

     )hings changed 9hen the &ortuguese tradeN

    9ith India as conKuerors: and the $paniards sub-

     jugated exico and &eru 9ith six or seven hundreH

    men ,e kno9 that then the commerce of 2enice::

    and the other to9ns of Italy all fell to the ground

    &hilip II: the master of $pain: &ortugal: the .o9

    4ictionary P

    6ountries: the )9o $icilies: and the ilanese: of

    %fteen hundred leagues of coast in 0sia: and mines

    of gold and silver in 0merica: 9as the only rich:

    and conseKuently the only po9erful prince in (u-

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    rope )he spies 9hom he gained in +rance kissed

    on their knees the 6atholic doubloons: and the small

    number of angels and caroluses 9hich circulated in

    that country had not much credit It is pretended

    that 0merica and 0sia brought him in nearly ten

    million ducats of revenue /e 9ould have really

    bought (urope 9ith his money: but for the iron of

    /enry I2 and the Qeets of Bueen ([email protected]

     )he 84ictionnaire (ncyclopediKue8 in the article

    on 80rgent:8 Kuotes the 8$pirits of .a9s:8 in 9hich

    it is said < 8I have heard deplored a thousand times:

    the blindness of the council of +rancis I: 9ho re-

     jected the proposal of 6hristopher 6olumbus for the

    discovery of the Indies perhaps this imprudence

    has turned out a very 9ise thing8

    ,e see by the enormous po9er of &hilip that the

    pretended council of +rancis I could not have done

    such a 9ise thing 7ut let us content ourselves

    9ith remarking that +rancis I 9as not born 9hen

    it is pretended that he refused the oCers of 6hris-

    topher 6olumbus )he 1enoese captain landed in

    0merica in F#J: and +rancis I 9as born in F#P:

    and did not ascend the throne until FLFL .et us

    here compare the revenues of /enry III: /enry

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    I2: and Bueen ([email protected]: 9ith those of &hilip II

     )he ordinary income of ([email protected] 9as only one

    R &hilosophical

    hundred thousand pound sterling: and 9ith extras

    it 9as: one year 9ith another: four hundred thou-

    sand! but she reKuired this surplus to defend her-

    self from &hilip II ,ithout extreme economy she

    9ould have been lost: and (ngland 9ith her

     )he revenue of /enry III indeed increased to

    thirty millions of livres of his time ! this: to the sum

    that &hilip dre9 from the Indies: 9as as three to

    ten! but not more than a third of this money en-

    tered into the coCers of /enry III: 9ho 9as very

    prodigal: greatly robbed: and conseKuently very

    poor ,e %ndthat &hilip II in one article 9as ten

    times richer than /enry

    0s to /enry I2: it is not 9orth 9hile to com-

    pare his treasures 9ith those of &hilip II ntil

    the &eace of 2ervins: he had only 9hat he could

    borro9 or 9in at the point of his s9ord! and he

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    lived as a knight-errant: until the time in 9hich he

    became the %rst king in (urope (ngland had al-

    9ays been so poor that 3ing (d9ard III 9as the

    %rst king 9ho coined money of gold

    ,ould 9e kno9 9hat became of the money

    9hich Qo9ed continually from exico and &eru

    into $pain? It entered the pockets of the +rench:

    (nglish and 4utch: 9ho traded 9ith 6adi