Voltaire XIII

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Transcript of Voltaire XIII

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    E D I T I O N D E L A P A C I F I C A T I O N

    T H E W O R K S O F

     VOLTAIRE  A CONTEMPORARY VERSION

     W ITH NOTES BY  TOBIAS SMOLLETT, R EVISED  AND MODERNIZED

    NEW TRANSLATIONS BY W ILLIAM F. FLEMING, AND AN

    INTRODUCTION BY OLIVER H. G. LEIGH

     A CRITIQUE AND BIOGRAPHY 

    BY 

    T H E R T . H O N . J O H N M O R L E Y  

    F O R T Y - T H R E E V O L U M E S

    ONE HUNDRED ANS SIXTY-EIGHT DESIGNS, COMPRISINGS REPRODUCTIONS

    OF RARE OLD ENGRAVINGS, STEEL PLATES, PHOTOGRAVURES,

     AND CURIOUS FAC-SIMILES

     VOLUME XIII

     AKRON, OHIO

    THE WERNER COMPANY

    1!"

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    I am a heritage because I

    brin you years of tboupbt

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    and tbe lore of time *-^

    I impart yet I can pot s|

    I have traveled amoio^ tbe

    peoples o^ tbe eartb -^ j

    am a rover^- Oft-tlrpeo

    I stre^ jron? tbe /IresLde

    of tbe orae u!bo toves

    n?e

    n?e u!ei" arr?

    #bculd you/Lnd

    please send

    brotbers^on tbe boo$-

    shelves of 

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    --%'

     (he )O+# of %OL(,I&

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    Limited to one thousand sets

    for ,merica and 2reat 3ritain*

    43et5een t5o servants of 6umanity' 5ho appeared

    eighteen hundred years apart' there is a mysterious relation'

    * * * * Let us say it 5ith a sentiment of

    profound respect7 8 # )&(7 %OL(,I& #:IL&

    Of that divine tear and of that human smile is composed the

    s5eetness of the present civili;ation4

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    I. (&. %OL9:

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    the most numerous and po5erful army

    )e must inuire' therefore' 5hether this prin-

    ciple or plan tends clearly to increase commerce and

    population It is certain that the possessor of an es-

    tate 5ill cultivate his o5n inheritance better than

    that of another (he spirit of property doubles a

    manKs strength 6e labors for himself and his fam-

    ily both 5ith more vigor and pleasure than he 5ould

    E

    B hilosophical

    for a master (he slave' 5ho is in the po5er of an-

    other' has but little inclination for marriage! he

    often shudders even at the thought of producing

    slaves li$e himself 6is industry is damped! his

    soul is brutali;ed! and his strength is never eer-

    cised in its full energy and elasticity (he possessor

    of property' on the contrary' desires a 5ife to share

    his happiness' and children to assist in his labors

    6is 5ife and children constitute his 5ealth (he

    estate of such a cultivator' under the hands of an

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    active and 5illing family' may become ten times

    more productive than it 5as before (he general

    commerce 5ill be increased (he treasure of the

    prince 5ill accumulate (he country 5ill supply

    more soldiers It is clear' therefore' that the system

    is beneJcial to the prince oland 5ould be thrice

    as populous and 5ealthy as it is at present if the

    peasants 5ere not slaves

    .or is the system less beneJcial to the great land- 

    lords If 5e suppose one of these to possess ten

    thousand acres of land cultivated by serfs' these ten

    thousand acres 5ill produce him but a very scanty

    revenue' 5hich 5ill be freuently absorbed in re-

    pairs' and reduced to nothing by the irregularity

    and severity of the seasons )hat 5ill he in fact

    be' although his estates may be vastly more eten-

    sive than 5e have mentioned' if at the same time

    they are unproductive? 6e 5ill be merely the pos-

    sessor of an immense solitude 6e 5ill never be

    really rich but in proportion as his vassals are so!

    ictionary D

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    his prosperity depends on theirs If this prosperity

    advances so far as to render the land too populous !

    if land is 5anting to employ the labor of so many

    industrious hands as hands in the Jrst instance

    5ere 5anting to cultivate the land then the super-

    Muity of necessary laborers 5ill Mo5 oN into cities

    and seaports' into manufactories and armies op-

    ulation 5ill have produced this decided beneJt' and

    the possession of the lands by the real cultivators'

    under payment of a rent 5hich enriches the land-

    lords' 5ill have been the cause of this increase of

    population

     (here is another species of property not less

    beneJcial! it is that 5hich is freed from payment

    of rent altogether' and 5hich is liable only to those

    general imposts 5hich are levied by the sovereign

    for the support and beneJt of the state It is this

    property 5hich has contributed in a particular man-

    ner to the 5ealth of &ngland' of 1rance' and the free

    cities of 2ermany (he sovereigns 5ho thus en-

    franchised the lands 5hich constituted their do-

    mains' derived' in the Jrst instance' vast advantage

    from so doing by the franchises 5hich they disposed

    of being eagerly purchased at high prices ! and they

    derive from it' even at the present day' a greater

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    advantage still' especially in 1rance and &ngland'

    by the progress of industry and commerce

    &ngland furnished a grand eample to the si-

    teenth century by enfranchising the lands possessed

    by the church and the mon$s .othing could be

    H hilosophical

    more odious and nothing more pernicious than the

    before prevailing practice of men' 5ho had volun-

    tarily bound themselves' by the rules of their order'

    to a life of humility and poverty' becoming com-

    plete masters of the very Jnest estates in the $ing-

    dom' and treating their brethren of man$ind as

    mere useful animals' as no better than beasts to

    bear their burdens (he state and opulence of this

    small number of priests degraded human nature!

    their appropriated and accumulated 5ealth impov-

    erished the rest of the $ingdom (he abuse 5as de-

    stroyed' and &ngland became rich

    In all the rest of &urope commerce has never

    Mourished! the arts have never attained estimation

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    and honor' and cities have never advanced both in

    etent and embellishment' ecept 5hen the serfs of

    the 0ro5n and the 0hurch held their lands in prop-

    erty ,nd it is deserving of attentive remar$ that

    if the 0hurch thus lost rights' 5hich in fact never

    truly belonged to it' the 0ro5n gained an etension

    of its legitimate rights ! for the 0hurch' 5hose Jrst

    obligation and professed principle it is to imitate

    its great legislator in humility and poverty' 5as not

    originally instituted to fatten and aggrandi;e itself

    upon the fruit of the labors of man$ind! and the

    sovereign' 5ho is the representative of the #tate' is

    bound to manage 5ith economy' the produce of that

    same labor for the good of the #tate itself' and for

    the splendor of the throne In every country 5here

    the people labor for the 0hurch' the #tate is poor!

    ictionary "

    but 5herever they labor for themselves and the sov-

    ereign' the #tate is rich

    It is in these circumstances that commerce every-

    5here etends its branches (he mercantile navy

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    becomes a school for the 5arli$e navy