Voltaire X

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8/20/2019 Voltaire X http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/voltaire-x 1/473 EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION THE WORKS OF  VOLTAIRE  A CONTEMPORARY VERSION  W ITH NOTES BY  TOBIAS SMOLLETT, EVISED  AND MODERNIZED NEW TRANSLATIONS BY  W ILLIAM F. FLEMING, AND AN I NTRODUCTION BY O LIVER H . G . L EIGH  A CRITIQUE AND BIOGRAPHY BY THE RT. HON. JOHN MORLEY FORTY-THREE VOLUMES ONE HUNDRED ANS SIXTY-EIGHT DESIGNS, COMPRISINGS REPRODUCTIONS OF RARE OLD ENGRAVINGS, STEEL PLATES, PHOTOGRAVURES,  AND CURIOUS FAC-SIMILES  VOLUME X  AKRON, OHIO THE WERNER COMPANY 1!"
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    E D I T I O N D E L A P A C I F I C A T I O N

    T H E W O R K S O F

     VOLTAIRE A CONTEMPORARY VERSION

     W ITH NOTES BY  TOBIAS SMOLLETT, R EVISED  AND MODERNIZED

    NEW TRANSLATIONS BY W ILLIAM F. FLEMING, AND AN

    INTRODUCTION BY OLIVER H. G. LEIGH

     A CRITIQUE AND BIOGRAPHY 

    BY 

    T H E R T . H O N . J O H N M O R L E Y  

    F O R T Y - T H R E E V O L U M E S

    ONE HUNDRED ANS SIXTY-EIGHT DESIGNS, COMPRISINGS REPRODUCTIONS

    OF RARE OLD ENGRAVINGS, STEEL PLATES, PHOTOGRAVURES,

     AND CURIOUS FAC-SIMILES

     VOLUME X

     AKRON, OHIO

    THE WERNER COMPANY

    1!"

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     The WORKS of VOLTAIRE

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    EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION

    Limited to one thousand sett

    for America and reat !ritain"

    #!et$een t$o ser%ants of &umanit'( $ho a))eared

    ei*hteen hundred 'ears a)art( there is a m'sterious re+ation"

    , , , , Let us sa' it $ith a sentiment of

    )rofound res)ect- .ES/S WEPT- VOLTAIRE S0ILED"

    Of that di%ine tear and of that human smi+e is com)osed the

    s$eetness of the )resent ci%i+i1ation"#

    VICTOR &/O"

    ENEVA VOLTAIRE2S &O0E II0T&E

    S/ !/ R!S

    EDITION DE LA PACIFICATION

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     T&E WORKS OF

    VO LTAI RE

    A CONTE0PORAR3 VERSION

    WIT& NOTES !3 TO!IAS S0OLLETT( REVISED AND 0ODERNI4ED

    NEW TRANSLATIONS !3 WILLIA0 F" FLE0IN( AND AN

    INTROD/CTION !3 OLIVER &" " LEI&

    A CRITI5/E AND !IORAP&3

    !3

     T&E RT" &ON" .O&N 0ORLE3

    FORT36T&REE VOL/0ES

    ON! &/NDRED AND SI7T36!I&T DESINS( CO0PRISIN REPROD/CTIONS

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    OF RARE OLD ENRAVINS( ST!EL PLATES( P&OTORAV/RES(

    A0D C/RIO/S FAC6SI0IL!S

    VOL/0E 7

    AKRON( O&IO

     T&E WERNER CO0PAN3

    89:;

    COP3RI&T 89:8

    !3 E" R" D/0ONT

    OWNED !3

     T&E WERNER CO0PAN3

    AKRON( O&IO

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    WERNER CO0PAN3

    AKRON( O&IO

    Stac<

    Anne=

    P5

    >[email protected]

    [email protected];

    89:;

    %.O

    VOLTAIRE

    A P&ILOSOP&ICAL DICTIONAR3

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    IN TEN VOL/0ES

    VOL" VI"

    &APP3 .O!

    LIST OF PLATES

    VOL" 7

    PAE

    VOLTAIRE2S &O0E IN ENEVA " Frontis)iece

     T&E ACROPOLIS AT AT&ENS """" ;

     T&E D/KE OF S/LL3 8?

     T&E ESTA!LIS&0ENT OF T&E IN5/ISITION IN

    PORT/AL >B

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    A P&ILOSOP&ICAL DICTIONAR3"

    &APP3 &APPIL3"

    W&AT is ca++ed ha))iness is an astract idea( com6

    )osed of %arious ideas of )+easure for he $ho has

    ut a moment of )+easure is not a ha))' man( in +i

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    so constant+' from his irth to his +ast hour" This

    continuit' of a*reea+e moments is rendered im)os6

    si+e ' the constitution of our or*ans( ' that of

    the e+ements on $hich $e de)end( and ' that of

    man

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    fa+se in e%er' sense and if it si*niGes that a ha))'

    man ma' die an unha))' death( it si*niGes nothin*

    of conseuence"

     The )ro%er of ein* #&a))' as a

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    $ife and chi+dren( and $ho is condemned to e

    han*ed immediate+' after ha%in* een man*+ed( is

    +ess ha))' in this $or+d in e%er'thin* than a 'oun*(

    %i*orous su+tan( or La Fontaine2s co+er"

    !ut $e $ish to

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    $hich die of hun*er others $hich $e chase and

    eat( and $hich a 'oun* sur*eon s+o$+' dissects(

    after ha%in* dri%en four *reat nai+s into their )a$s"

    &as it de)ended u)on these )oor do*s to e ha))'

    or unha))'J

    We sa' a ha))' thou*ht( a ha))' feature( a ha))'

    re)artee( a ha))' )h'sio*nom'( ha))' c+imate( etc"

    Phi+oso)hica+

     These thou*hts( these ha))' traits( $hich stri

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    When $e s)ea< of a ha))' rasca+( ' this $ord

    $e on+' com)rehend his success" #Fe+i= Su++a#

    the fortunate Su++a( and A+e=ander VI"( a du

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    e=ist" Some )eo)+e $ou+d ha%e de)ri%ed the )u+ic

    of this usefu+ Dictionar' ha))i+'( the' ha%e not

    succeeded"

    /n*enerous minds( and asurd fanatics( e%er'

    da' endea%or to )reudice the )o$erfu+ and the i*6

    norant a*ainst )hi+oso)hers" If the' $ere unha)6

    )i+' +istened to( $e shou+d fa++ ac< into the arar6

    it' from $hich )hi+oso)hers a+one ha%e $ithdra$n

    us"

    &EAVEN CIEL 0ATERIEL"

     T&E +a$s of o)tics( $hich are founded u)on the

    nature of thin*s( ha%e ordained that( from this sma++

    *+oe of earth on $hich $e +i%e( $e sha++ a+$a's see

    the materia+ hea%en as if $e $ere the centre of it(

    a+thou*h $e are far from ein* that centre that $e

    sha++ a+$a's see it as a %au+ted roof( han*in* o%er a

    )+ane( a+thou*h there is no other %au+ted roof than

    that of our atmos)here( $hich has no such )+ane

    that our sun and moon $i++ a+$a's a))ear one6third

    +ar*er at the hori1on than at their 1enith( a+thou*h

    the' are nearer the s)ectator at the 1enith than at the

    hori1on"

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    At thirt' de*rees @:

    At fort'6G%e de*rees M:

    Its a))arent ma*nitudes in the %au+ted roof are as

    its a))arent e+e%ations and it is the same $ith the

    moon( and $ith a comet"

    It is not hait( it is not the inter%ention of tracts

    of +and( it is not the refraction of the atmos)here

    $hich )roduces this eect" 0a+eranche and Re*is

    ha%e dis)uted $ith each other on this suect ut

    Roert Smith has ca+cu+ated"

    Oser%e the t$o stars( $hich( ein* at a )rodi6

    *ious distance from each other( and at %er' dierent

    de)ths( in the immensit' of s)ace( are here consid6

    ered as )+aced in the circ+e $hich the sun a))ears to

    tra%erse" 3ou )ercei%e them distant from each other

    in the *reat circ+e( ut a))ro=imatin* to each other

    in e%er' circ+e sma++er( or $ithin that descried '

    the )ath of the sun"

    It is in this manner that 'ou see the materia+

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    Dictionar'" II

    hea%en" It is ' these in%aria+e +a$s of o)tics that

    'ou )ercei%e the )+anets sometimes retro*rade and

    sometimes stationar' there is in fact nothin* of the

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    If the Cha+dsean ma*i $ere the Grst $ho em6

    )+o'ed the understandin* $hich od esto$ed u)on

    them( to measure and arran*e in their res)ecti%e sta6

    tions the hea%en+' odies( other nations more *ross

    and uninte++i*ent made no ad%ance to$ards imitat6

    in* them"

     These chi+dish and sa%a*e )o)u+ations ima*ined

    the earth to e Hat( su))orted( I

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    and stars cou+d turn under the earth( and *o to rise

    in the east after ha%in* set in the $est" It is true

    that these chi+dren of i*norance $ere ri*ht ' chance

    in not entertainin* the idea that the sun and G=ed

    stars mo%ed round the earth" !ut the' $ere far

    from concei%in* that the sun $as immo%a+e( and

    the earth $ith its sate++ite re%o+%in* round him in

    s)ace to*ether $ith the other )+anets" Their fa+es

    $ere more distant from the true s'stem of the $or+d

    than dar

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    re)airs durin* the ni*ht the fati*ue and e=haustion

    of the da'( after $hich( he *oes to the )+ace of his

    re*u+ar risin* ' $a's un

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    ta

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    u)on a++ the )hi+oso)hers( $ho( from aout four hun6

    dred 'ears efore his time( had e*un to e ac6

    uainted $ith the a))arent re%o+utions of the sun

    and )+anets( $ith the roundness of the earth( and

    the +iuid and 'ie+din* nature of the hea%en throu*h

    $hich the )+anets re%o+%ed in their orits( etc" &e

    inuires( #' $hat de*rees )hi+oso)hers attained

    such e=cess of fo++' as to concei%e the earth to e a

    *+oe( and to surround that *+oe $ith hea%en"#

     These reasonin*s are u)on a )ar $ith those he has

    adduced on the suect of the si'+s"

    Our 'oun* scho+ar $ou+d address some such +an6

    *ua*e as this to a++ these conseuentia+ doctors -

    #3ou are to +earn that there are no such thin*s as

    so+id hea%ens )+aced one o%er another( as 'ou ha%e

    een to+d that there are no rea+ circ+es in $hich the

    stars mo%e on a )retended Grmament that the sun

    is the centre of our )+anetar' $or+d and that the

    earth and the )+anets mo%e round it in s)ace( in or6

    Dictionar'" 8 @

    its not circu+ar ut e++i)tica+" 3ou must +earn that

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    there is( in fact( neither ao%e nor e+o$( ut that the

    )+anets and the comets tend a++ to$ards the sun(

    their common centre( and that the sun tends to6

    $ards them( accordin* to an eterna+ +a$ of *ra%ita6

    tion"#

    Lactantius and his *a+in* associates $ou+d e

    )erfect+' astonished( $ere the true s'stem of the

    $or+d thus unfo+ded to them"

    &EAVEN OF T&E ANCIENTS"

    WERE a si+

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    )+ace the master of the *ods more at ease than the

    rest he had an ea*+e to carr' him( ecause the ea*+e

    soars hi*her than the other irds"

     The ancient ree

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    When the Titans( a s)ecies of anima+ et$een

    *ods and men( dec+ared their ust and necessar' $ar

    a*ainst these same *ods in order to reco%er a )art

    of their )atrimon'( ' the father2s side( as the' $ere

    the sons of hea%en and earth the' contented them6

    se+%es $ith )i+in* t$o or three mountains u)on one

    another( thin

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    Dictionar'" 8?

    Vir*i+ Ec+o*ue %( @? does not hesitate to sa'-

    #Su )ediusue %idet nues et sidera Da)hnis"#

    Da)hnis( the *uest of hea%en( $ith $onderin* e'es(

    Vie$s in the 0i+

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     This )hi+oso)h' of chi+dren and o+d $omen $as

    of )rodi*ious antiuit' it is e+ie%ed( ho$e%er( that

    the Cha+daeans entertained near+' as correct ideas as

    ourse+%es on the suect of $hat is ca++ed hea%en"

     The' )+aced the sun in the midst of our )+anetar'

    s'stem( near+' at the same distance from our *+oe

    as our ca+cu+ation com)utes it and the' su))osed

    the earth and some )+anets to re%o+%e round that

    star this $e +earn from Aristarchus of Samos" It

    is near+' the s'stem of the $or+d since esta+ished '

    Co)ernicus - ut the )hi+oso)hers

    8 Phi+oso)hica+

    that $e sti++ a))+' the name of hea%en to our %a)ors(

    and the s)ace et$een the earth and moon" We

    use the e=)ression of ascendin* to hea%en( ust as %e

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    sa' the sun turns round( a+thou*h $e $e++

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     The ancients thou*ht that to *o to hea%en $as

    to ascend ut there is no ascent from one *+oe to

    another" The hea%en+' odies are sometimes ao%e

    Dictionar'" 89

    our hori1on( and sometimes e+o$ it" Thus( +et us

    su))ose that Venus( after %isitin* Pa)hos( shou+d

    return to her o$n )+anet( $hen that )+anet had set

    the *oddess $ou+d not in that case ascend( in refer6

    ence to our hori1on she $ou+d descend( and the

    )ro)er e=)ression $ou+d e then( descended to

    hea%en" !ut the ancients did not discriminate $ith

    such nicet' on e%er' suect of natura+ )hi+oso)h'(

    their notions $ere %a*ue( uncertain and contradic6

    tor'" Vo+umes ha%e een com)osed in order to as6

    certain and )oint out $hat the' thou*ht u)on man'

    uestions of this descri)tion" Si= $ords $ou+d ha%e

    een sucient #the' did not thin< at a++"# We must

    a+$a's e=ce)t a sma++ numer of sa*es ut the'

    a))eared at too +ate a )eriod( and ut rare+' dis6

    c+osed their thou*hts and $hen the' did so( the

    char+atans in )o$er too< care to send them to hea%en

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    ' the shortest $a'"

    A $riter( if I am not mista

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    We Gnd in their oo

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    Lactantius( once more( sa's( in the third oo< of

    Dictionar'" > 8

    his #Institutions(# #I cou+d )ro%e to 'ou ' man'

    ar*uments that it is im)ossi+e hea%en shou+d sur6

    round the earth"#

     The author of the #S)ectac+e of Nature# ma' re6

    )eat to 0" +e Che%a+ier as often as he )+eases( that

    Lactantius and St" Chr'sostom are *reat )hi+oso6

    )hers" &e $i++ e to+d in re)+' that the' $ere *reat

    saints and that to e a *reat saint( it is not at a++

    necessar' to e a *reat astronomer" It $i++ e e6

    +ie%ed that the' are in hea%en( a+thou*h it $i++ e ad6

    mitted to e im)ossi+e to sa' )recise+' in $hat )art

    of it"

    &ELL"

    INFERN/0( suterranean the re*ions e+o$( or

    the inferna+ re*ions" Nations $hich uried the dead

    )+aced them in the inferior or inferna+ re*ions"

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     Their sou+( then( $as $ith them in those re*ions"

    Such $ere the Grst )h'sics and the Grst meta)h'sics

    of the E*')tians and ree

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    his *ate( so $as P+uto attended and *uarded ' an

    immense do* $ith three heads for e%er'thin*( it

    seems( $as to e done ' threes" Of the three )ri%'

    counse++ors( 0inos( acus( and Rhadamanthus( one

     ud*ed reece( another Asia 0inor for the ree

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    ein*"#

     To this reasonin*( )rofane )hi+oso)h' had noth6

    in* to re)+'" 3et( a*reea+' to that contradiction or

    )er%erseness $hich distin*uishes the human s)ecies(

    and seems to constitute the %er' foundation of our

    nature( at the %er' time $hen Cicero )u+ic+' de6

    c+ared that #not e%en an o+d $oman $as to e found

    $ho e+ie%ed in such asurdities(# Lucretius ad6

    mitted that these ideas $ere )o$erfu++' im)ressi%e

    u)on men2s minds his oect( he sa's( is to destro'

    them-

    " """ Si cerium Gnem esse 6%iderent

    sErumnarum homines( a+iua ratione %a+erent

    Re+i*ionius atue minis osistere 6%atum"

    Nunc ratio nu++a est restandi( nu++a facu+tas

     .Lternas uoniam )oenas in morte timendum"

    L/CRETI/S( i" 8:"

    >M Phi+oso)hica+

    """" If it once a))ear

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     That after death there2s neither ho)e nor fear

     Then mi*ht men free+' trium)h( then disdain

     The )oet2s ta+es( and scorn their fancied )ain

    !ut no$ $e must sumit( since )ains $e fear

    Eterna+ after death( $e

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    When cares and dan*ers )ress( *ro$ most de%out"

    CREEC&"

    0an' )hi+oso)hers $ho had no e+ief in the

    fa+es aout he++( $ere 'et desirous that the )eo)+e

    shou+d retain that e+ief" Such $as 4imens of

    Locris" Such $as the )o+itica+ historian Po+'ius"

    #&e++(# sa's he( #is use+ess to sa*es( ut necessar'

    to the +ind and ruta+ )o)u+ace"#

    It is $e++

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    &e said( in e=)ress $ords( at Ca)ernaum in a+i6

    +ee( #Whosoe%er sha++ ca++ his rother 2Raca2 sha++

    e condemned ' the sanhedrim ut $hosoe%er

    sha++ ca++ him 2foo+(2 sha++ e condemned to ehenna

    &innom( ehenna of Gre"#

     This )ro%es t$o thin*s( Grst( that .esus Christ

    $as ad%erse to ause and re%i+in* for it e+on*ed

    on+' to &im( as master( to ca++ the Pharisees h')o6

    crites( and a #*eneration of %i)ers"#

    Second+'( that those $ho re%i+e their nei*hor

    deser%e he++ for the ehenna of Gre $as in the %a+6

    +e' of &innom( $here %ictims had former+' een

    urned in sacriGce to 0o+och( and this ehenna $as

    t')ica+ of the Gre of he++"

    &e sa's( in another )+ace( #If an' one sha++ of6

    fend one of the $ea< $ho e+ie%e in 0e( it $ere et6

    ter for him that a mi++stone $ere han*ed aout his

    nec< and he $ere cast into the sea"

    #And if th' hand oend thee( cut it o it is et6

    ter for thee to enter into +ife maimed( than to *o into

    the ehenna of ine=tin*uisha+e Gre( $here the

    $orm dies not( and $here the Gre is not uenched"

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    #And if th' foot oend thee( cut it o it is et6

    ter for thee to enter +ame into eterna+ +ife( than to e

    cast $ith t$o feet into the ine=tin*uisha+e ehenna(

    $here the $orm dies not 1 and $here the Gre is not

    uenched"

    >; Phi+oso)hica+

    #And if thine e'e oend thee( )+uc< it out it is

    etter to enter into the

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    &e said on another occasion( on &is ourne' to

     .erusa+em( #When the master of the house sha++ ha%e

    entered and shut the door( 'ou $i++ remain $ithout(

    and

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    $ith that doctrine so eminent+' re)ressi%e of human

    %ice( so necessar' to the %irtue and ha))iness of

    man Phi+oso)hica+

    to +ea%e it for some commentators( after four thou6

    sand 'ears ha%e )assed a$a'( to sus)ect that this

    doctrine mi*ht )ossi+' ha%e een entertained '

    'ou( and to t$ist and torture 'our e=)ressions( m

    order to Gnd that in them $hich 'ou ha%e ne%er said"

    Either 'ou are *ross+' i*norant not to

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    admit( for near+' ha+f a centur' in im)ractica+e

    deserts( and at +en*th otained )ossession of a )ett'

    territor' ' the most odious ra)ine and detesta+e

    crue+t' e%er mentioned in the records of histor'" We

    had no commerce $ith ci%i+i1ed nations( and ho$

    cou+d 'ou su))ose that( so *ross+' mean and *ro%e+6

    +in* as $e are in a++ our ideas and usa*es( $e shou+d

    ha%e in%ented a s'stem so reGned and s)iritua+ as

    that in uestionJ#

    We em)+o'ed the $ord $hich most near+' corre6

    s)onds $ith sou+( mere+' to si*nif' +ife $e

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    *eneration( either ' +e)ros'( ' sudden death( or '

    the +oss of the +itt+e )ro)ert' of $hich the crimina+

    mi*ht e )ossessed"

     To this a)o+o*' it mi*ht e re)+ied - #3ou ha%e

    in%ented a s'stem( the ridicu+e and asurdit' of

    $hich are as c+ear as the sun at noon6da' for the

    oender $ho eno'ed *ood hea+th( and $hose fami+'

    $ere in )ros)erous circumstances( must aso+ute+'

    ha%e +au*hed 'ou to scorn"#

     The a)o+o*ist for the .e$ish +a$ $ou+d here re6

     oin - #3ou are much mista

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    It $ r ou+d e eas' to re)+' to this ans$er ' sa'6

    in*- #3our a)o+o*' is $orth nothin* for it ha)6

    BD Phi+oso)hica+

    )ens e%er' da' that %er' $orth' and e=ce++ent )er6

    sons +ose their hea+th and their )ro)ert' and( if

    there $ere no fami+' that did not e=)erience ca+am6

    it'( and that ca+amit' at the same time $as a chas6

    tisement from od( a++ the fami+ies of 'our com6

    munit' must ha%e een made u) of scoundre+s"#

     The .e$ish )riest mi*ht a*ain ans$er and sa'

    that there are some ca+amities inse)ara+e from

    human nature( and others e=)ress+' inHicted ' the

    hand of od" !ut( in return( $e shou+d )oint out

    to such a reasoner the asurdit' of considerin*

    fe%er and hai+6stones in some cases as di%ine )un6

    ishments in others as mere natura+ eects"

    In short( the Pharisees and the Essenians amon*

    the .e$s did admit( accordin* to certain notions of

    their o$n( the e+ief of a he++" This do*ma had

    )assed from the ree

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    ado)ted ' the Christians"

    0an' of the fathers of the church reected the

    doctrine of eterna+ )unishments" It a))eared to

    them asurd to urn to a++ eternit' an unfortunate

    man for stea+in* a *oat" Vir*i+ has Gne+' said -

    """" Sedit eternumue sedeit

    Infe+i= Theseus"

    /nha))' Theseus( doomed fore%er there(

    Is G=ed ' fate on his eterna+ chair"

    DR3DEN"

    !ut it is %ain for him to maintain or im)+' that

     Theseus is fore%er G=ed to his chair( and that this

    )osition constitutes his )unishment" Others ha%e

    ima*ined Theseus to e a hero $ho cou+d ne%er e

    Dictionar'" B8

    seen on an' seat in he++( and $ho $as to e found in

    the E+'sian Fie+ds"

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    A Ca+%inistica+ di%ine( of the name of Petit

    Pierre( not +on* since )reached and )u+ished the

    doctrine that the damned $ou+d at some future

    )eriod e )ardoned" The rest of the ministers of his

    association to+d him that the' $ished for no such

    thin*" The dis)ute *re$ $arm" It $as said that

    the

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    $ith the res)ecta+e !a'+e( $ho $as so su)erior to

    the )o$er and fro$n of fortune( nor $ith the too

    scru)u+ous+' %irtuous inGde+ S)ino1a( $ho( a+thou*h

    +aorin* under )o%ert' and destitution( *a%e ac<

    B > Phi+oso)hica+

    to the chi+dren of the *rand )ensionar' De Witt an

    a++o$ance of three hundred Horins( $hich had een

    *ranted him ' that *reat statesman( $hose heart(

    it ma' e rememered( the &o++anders actua++' de6

    %oured( a+thou*h there $as nothin* to e *ained '

    it" E%er' man $ith $hom $e intermin*+e in +ife is

    not a des !arreau=( $ho )aid the )+eaders their fees

    for a cause $hich he had for*otten to rin* into

    court" E%er' $oman is not a Ninon de L2Enc+os(

    $ho *uarded de)osits in trust $ith re+i*ious Gde+it'(

    $hi+e the *ra%est )ersona*es in the state $ere %io6

    +atin* them" In a $ord( *ent+emen( a++ the $or+d

    are not )hi+oso)hers"

    #We are o+i*ed to ho+d intercourse and transact

    usiness( and mi= u) in +ife $ith

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    addicted to ruta+it'( into=ication( and ra)ine" 3ou

    ma'( if 'ou )+ease( )reach to them that there is no

    he++( and that the sou+ of man is morta+" As for m'6

    se+f( I $i++ e sure to thunder in their ears that if

    the' ro me the' $i++ ine%ita+' e damned" I $i++

    imitate the countr' c+er*'man( $ho( ha%in* had a

    *reat numer of shee) sto+en from him( at +en*th

    said to his hearers( in the course of one of his ser6

    mons- 2I cannot concei%e $hat .esus Christ $as

    thin

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    Gft'6se%enth )a*e of the second edition in uarto

    that one of 5ueen E+i1aeth2s ministers( !aron

    &unsdon( )redicted to Ceci+( secretar' of state( and

    to si= other memers of the cainet counci+( that

    the' as $e++ as he $ou+d e damned $hich( he

    sa's( $as actua++' the case( and is the case $ith a++

    heretics" It is most +i

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    of $hich $e ha%e a+read' s)o

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    in the form of man( and &e +i*hted u) the eterna+

    dar

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    Hesh( ut resuscitated in s)irit( ' $hich &e $ent

    to )reach to the s)irits that $ere in )rison"#

    0an' of the fathers inter)reted this )assa*e %er'

    dierent+'( ut a++ $ere a*reed as to the fact of the

    descent of .esus into he++ after &is death" A fri%6

    o+ous dicu+t' $as started u)on the suect" &e

    had( $hi+e u)on the cross( said to the *ood thief-

    #This da' sha+t thou e $ith 0e in )aradise"#

    !' *oin* to he++( therefore( &e fai+ed to )erform

    &is )romise" This oection is easi+' ans$ered '

    sa'in* that &e too< him Grst to he++ and after$ards

    to )aradise ut( then( $hat ecomes of the sta' of

    three da'sJ

    Euseius of Caesarea sa's that .esus +eft &is

    od'( $ithout $aitin* for Death to come and sei1e

    it and that( on the contrar'( &e sei1ed Death( $ho(

    in terror and a*on'( emraced &is feet( and after6

    $ards attem)ted to esca)e ' Hi*ht( ut $as )re6

    %ented ' .esus( $ho ro

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    actua++' seen ' the astonished e'es of St" .ustin"

    B; Phi+oso)hica+

    It $as a uestion much dis)uted $hether a++ those

    $ho $ere resuscitated died a*ain efore the' as6

    cended into hea%en" St" Thomas( in his #Summar'(#

    asserts that the' died a*ain" This a+so is the o)inion

    of the discriminatin* and udicious Ca+met" #We

    maintain(# sa's he( in his dissertation on this *reat

    uestion( #that the saints $ho $ere resuscitated(

    after the death of the Sa%iour died a*ain( in order

    to re%i%e hereafter"#

    od had )ermitted( a*es efore( that the )rofane

    enti+es shou+d imitate in antici)ation these sacred

    truths" The ancients ima*ined that the *ods resusci6

    tated Pe+o)s that Or)heus e=tricated Eur'dice

    from he++( at +east for a moment that &ercu+es de6

    +i%ered A+cestis from it that scu+a)ius resusci6

    tated &i))o+'tus( etc" Let us e%er discriminate e6

    t$een fa+e and truth( and

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    )ears )erfect+' conforma+e to their circumscried

    and narro$ %ie$s"

    &ERES3"

    SECTION I"

    A REEK $ord( si*nif'in* #e+ief( or e+ected

    o)inion"# It is not *reat+' to the honor of human

    reason that men shou+d e hated( )ersecuted( mas6

    sacred( or urned at the sta

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    dierent o)inion from her o$n"

    On the other side( the ree< church had the same

    ri*ht accordin*+'( it re)ro%ed the Romans $hen

    the' chose a dierent o)inion from the ree

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    B Phi+oso)hica+

    u)on urnin* coa+s $hoe%er had a se+f6formed o)in6

    ion that to urn those $hom od &imse+f $ou+d

    urn( $as in fact a ho+' conformit' to od and

    Gna++'( that since( ' admission( the urnin* for an

    hour or t$o $as a mere ci)her in com)arison $ith

    eternit'( the urnin* of G%e or si= )ro%inces for

    chosen o)inions for heresies $as a matter in

    rea+it' of %er' +itt+e conseuence"

    In the )resent da' it is as

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    com)etitor of Theodosius I"( a decided t'rant( in the

    strictest meanin* of the term( o%er the $ho+e em)ire"

    &e destro'ed at Trier( ' the hands of the e=e6

    cutioner( the S)aniard Prisci++ian and his adherents(

    $hose o)inions $ere )ronounced erroneous ' some

    isho)s of S)ain" These )re+ates so+icited the ca)6

    ita+ )unishment of the Prisci++ianists $ith a charit'

    so ardent that 0a=imus cou+d refuse them nothin*"

    It $as ' no means o$in* to them that St" 0artin

    $as not eheaded as a heretic" &e $as fortunate

    enou*h to uit Trier and esca)e ac< to Tours"

    Dictionar'" B9

    A sin*+e e=am)+e is sucient to esta+ish a usa*e"

     The Grst Sc'thian $ho scoo)ed out the rains of his

    enem' and made a drin

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    to mora+ conduct and )u+ic $orshi)" When meta6

    )h'sics ecame connected $ith Christianit'( con6

    tro%ers' )re%ai+ed and from contro%ers' arose dif6

    ferent )arties( as in the schoo+s of )hi+oso)h'" It

    $as im)ossi+e that meta)h'sics shou+d not min*+e

    the uncertainties essentia+ to their nature $ith the

    faith due to .esus Christ" &e had &imse+f $ritten

    nothin* and &is incarnation $as a )ro+em $hich

    the ne$ Christians( $hom &e had not &imse+f in6

    s)ired( so+%ed in man' dierent $a's" #Each(# as

    St" Pau+ e=)ress+' oser%es( #had his )ecu+iar

    )art' some $ere for A)o++os( others for Ce)has"#

    Christians in *enera+( for a +on* time( assumed

    the name of Na1arenes( and e%en the enti+es *a%e

    them no other a))e++ations durin* the t$o Grst cen6

    turies" !ut there soon arose a )articu+ar schoo+ of

    Na1arenes( $ho e+ie%ed a *os)e+ dierent from the

    four canonica+ ones" It has e%en een )retended

    that this *os)e+ diered on+' %er' s+i*ht+' from that

    of St" 0atthe$( and $as in fact anterior to it" St"

    E)i)hanius and St" .erome )+ace the Na1arenes

    in the crad+e of Christianit'"

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    MD Phi+oso)hica+

     Those $ho considered themse+%es as

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    dec+aration( a com)+ete and una+tera+e )rofession

    of faith( $hich mi*ht terminate a++ )ast( and )re6

    c+ude an' future uarre+s ut od )ermitted it not

    so to e" The creed ca++ed the #A)ost+es2 Creed(#

    $hich is short( and in $hich are not tc e found the

    consustantia+it'( the $ord trinit'( or the se%en

    sacraments( did not ma

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    a+so ut ein* the $ea

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    he+d in the 0i+anese and the march of Ancona" The

    )eo)+e of the South and of the North of Euro)e had

    therefore chosen o)inions dierent from each other"

     This seems to me to e the reason $h' C+aude( isho)

    of Turin( )reser%ed in the ninth centur' a++ the

    usa*es and do*mas recei%ed in the se%enth and

    ei*hth( from the countr' of the A++oro*es( as far

    as the E+e and the Danue"

     These do*mas and usa*es ecame G=ed and )er6

    manent amon* the inhaitants of %a++e's and moun6

    tainous recesses( and near the an

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    tionersJ Wou+d it not e etter that e%er' man

    shou+d eat his read in )eace under the shade of his

    o$n G*6tree J I su**est so o+d a )ro)osition $ith

    fear and trem+in*"

    Dictionar'" MB

    SECTION II"

    Of the E=tir)ation of &eresies"

    It a))ears to me that( in re+ation to heresies( $e

    ou*ht to distin*uish et$een o)inion and faction"

    From the ear+iest times of Christianit' o)inions $ere

    di%ided( as $e ha%e a+read' seen" The Christians of

    A+e=andria did not thin

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    ' )ermittin* the e=istence of dierent s'stems of

    faith( $hi+e a++ shou+d e united in ac

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    us( therefore( $ho adore .esus Christ( and dier

    from 'ourse+%es on+' u)on sut+e )oints of theo+o*'

    do not de)ri%e 'ourse+%es of the ser%ices of usefu+

    suects" It is of conseuence to 'ou to otain their

    +aor and s

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    Dictionar'" [email protected]

    We ma' com)are sma++ thin*s to *reat( $hen

    oth are under the direction of the same )rinci)+e or

    s)irit" A simi+ar re%o+ution ha))ened in &o++and(

    in Scot+and( and in S$it1er+and" When Ferdinand

    and Isae++a e=)e++ed from S)ain the .e$s( $ho

    $ere sett+ed there not mere+' efore the rei*nin*

    d'nast'( ut efore the 0oors and oths( and e%en

    the Cartha*inians the .e$s $ou+d ha%e eected a

    re%o+ution in that countr' if the' had een as $ar+i

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    da' ' erman'( En*+and( &o++and( Denmar

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    son $ho cou+d *i%e correct ideas on the suect( im6

    )osed the oce of dra$in* u) a re)ort or narrati%e

    u)on it on that ocer( $ho acuitted himse+f so $e++(

    that Constantine $as desirous of his ein* honored

    in conseuence $ith the name of 0usonianus" 0"

    de Va+ois( in his notes u)on Ammianus( oser%es

    that Strate*ius( $ho $as a))ointed )refect of the

    East( )ossessed as much

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    Dictionar'" M?

    for this dierence is( that $hat a))ears heres' to

    the one( does not a))ear so to the other" Accord6

    in*+' this father te++s the 0anichaeans- #We ta

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    forms us that in some )+aces the statues of Constan6

    tine $ere thro$n do$n ecause he $ished the

    Arians to e to+erated and So1omen sa's that on

    the death of Euseius of Nicomedia( $hen 0ace6

    donius( an Arian( contested the see of Constantino)+e

    $ith Pau+( a Catho+ic( the disturance and confusion

    ecame so dreadfu+ in the church( from $hich each

    M Phi+oso)hica+

    endea%ored to e=)e+ the other( that the so+diers(

    thin

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     The same historian adds that on the death of

    Athanasius( the Arians( su))orted ' Va+ens( a))re6

    hended( ound in chains( and )ut to death those $ho

    remained attached to Peter( $hom Athanasius had

    )ointed out as his successor" A+e=andria resem+ed

    a cit' ta

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    after$ards e=)e++ed the Arians from the ca)ita+(

    armed the )eo)+e a*ainst them( )u++ed do$n their

    churches( and otained from the em)eror ri*orous

    and )ersecutin* edicts to eect their e=tir)ation"

    &e em)+o'ed his )o$erfu+ inHuence suseuent+'

    in )rocurin* the arrest( im)risonment( and e%en

    $hi))in* of the )rinci)a+ )ersons amon* the )eo)+e

    $ho had interru)ted him in the midd+e of a dis6

    course( in $hich he $as de+i%erin* his distin*uishin*

    s'stem of doctrine( $hich $as soon condemned at

    the Counci+ of E)hesus"

    Photius re+ates that $hen the )riest reached the

    a+tar( it $as customar' in the church of Constantino6

    )+e for the )eo)+e to chant- #&o+' od( )o$erfu+

    od( immorta+ od# and the name *i%en to this

    )art of the ser%ice $as #the trisa*ion"# The )riest(

    Peter had added - #Who hast een cruciGed for us(

    ha%e merc' u)on us"# The Catho+ics considered this

    addition as containin* the error of the Eut'chian

     Theo)athists( $ho maintained that the di%init' had

    suered the'( ho$e%er( chanted the trisa*ion $ith

    the addition( to a%oid irritatin* the em)eror Anas6

    tasius( $ r ho had ust de)osed another 0acedonius(

    and )+aced in his stead Timotheus( ' $hose order

    this addition $as ordered to e chanted" !ut on a

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    )articu+ar da' the mon

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    a*ainst the em)erors" A )art of those $ho $ere

    hosti+e to the counci+ $ithdre$ to /))er E*')t(

    others uitted a+to*ether the dominions of the em6

    )ire and )assed o%er to Africa and amon* the Aras(

    $here a++ re+i*ions $ere to+erated"

    We ha%e a+read' oser%ed that under the rei*n

    of the em)ress Irene the $orshi) of ima*es $as re6

    esta+ished and conGrmed ' the second Counci+ of

    Nice" Leo the Armenian( 0ichae+ the Stammerer(

    and Theo)hi+us( ne*+ected nothin* to eect its ao+i6

    tion and this o))osition caused further distur6

    ance in the em)ire of Constantino)+e( ti++ the rei*n

    of the em)ress Theodora( $ho *a%e the force of +a$

    to the second Counci+ of Nice( e=tin*uished the )art'

    Dictionar'" @ 8

    of Iconoc+asts( or ima*e6rea

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    tion" Four thousand( $ho esca)ed from this se%ere

    scrutin' and e=tensi%e )unishment( too< refu*e

    amon* the Saracens( united their o$n stren*th $ith

    theirs( ra%a*ed the territories of the em)ire( and

    erected fortresses in $hich the 0anichaeans( $ho

    had remained concea+ed throu*h terror of ca)ita+

    )unishment( found an as'+um( and constituted a hos6

    ti+e force( formida+e from their numers( and from

    their urnin* hatred oth of the em)erors and Cath6

    o+ics" The' freuent+' inHicted on the territories

    of the em)ire dread and de%astation( and cut to

    )ieces its disci)+ined armies"

    We arid*e the detai+s of these dreadfu+ mas6

    sacres those of Ire+and( those of the %a++e's of Pied6

    mont( those $hich $e sha++ s)ea< of in the artic+e on

    #Inuisition(# and +ast+'( the massacre of St" !ar6

    tho+ome$( dis)+a'ed in the West the same s)irit of

    into+erance( a*ainst $hich nothin* more )ertinent

    and sensi+e has een $ritten than $hat $e Gnd in

    the $or

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    @> Phi+oso)hica+

    terness the %io+ence and %ices of his a*e( and $ho

    $as ca++ed the .eremiah of the Gfth centur'" #The

    Arians(# sa's he( #are heretics ut the' do not

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    ta

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    Ne%erthe+ess( in this theo+o*ica+ chaos( ho$ man'

    thin*s there are to astonish and sudue the human

    mind Q od( $hose tri)+e essence is $isdom( )o$er

    and ount' od( formin* the $or+d ' &is thou*ht(

    &is $ord od creatin* sua+tern *ods od com6

    mandin* these *ods to direct the ce+estia+ ors( and

    to )reside o%er the $or+d the sun the Son of od

    man &is ima*e in thou*ht +i*ht( &is )rinci)a+

    $or< a di%ine essence a++ these *rand and +i%e+'

    ima*es da11+e a sudued ima*ination"

    It remains to e

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    A+e=ander( and one of the )riests $hom P+ato con6

    su+ted"

    It has a+$a's a))eared to me that the theo+o*'

    of P+ato in nothin* resem+ed that of other ree

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    ho$ 'ou suer the ree

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    stars"#

    Such is the )ure doctrine of &ermes" &e adds

    that the $ord( or in%isi+e and inte++ectua+ thou*ht(

    is the ima*e of od" &ere is the creation of the

    $or+d ' the $ord( ' thou*ht( ' the +o*os( %er'

    stron*+' e=)ressed"

    After$ards fo++o$s the doctrine of Numers(

    $hich descended from the E*')tians to the .e$s"

    &e ca++s reason the re+ation of od" The numer of

    se%en is the accom)+ishment of a++ thin*s( #$hich

    is the reason(# sa's he( #that the +'re has on+' se%en

    strin*s"#

    In a $ord Phi+o )ossessed a++ the )hi+oso)h' of

    his time"

    We are therefore decei%ed( $hen $e e+ie%e that

    the .e$s( under the rei*n of &erod( $ere )+un*ed

    in the same state of i*norance in $hich the' $ere

    )re%ious+' immersed" It is e%ident that St" Pau+

    $as $e++ informed" It is on+' necessar' to read the

    Grst cha)ter of St" .ohn( $hich is so dierent from

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    @; Phi+oso)hica+

    those of the others( to )ercei%e that the author $rote

    )recise+' +i

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    E%an*e+ist" &is errors $ere of a )rofound( reGned(

    and meta)h'sica+ cast" The fau+ts $hich he re6

    mar

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    $ith the )ro%isions of their char*e" The' $ere com6

    mensa+ ocers of the

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    Vittorio Siri $as one Pe+isson $as Grst chosen '

    Louis 7IV" to $rite the e%ents of his rei*n( and

    acuitted himse+f of his tas< $ith e+ouence in the

    histor' of Franche6Comte" Racine( the most e+e6

    *ant of )oets( and !oi+eau( the most correct( $ere

    Dictionar'" @9

    after$ards sustituted for Pe+isson" Some curious

    )ersons ha%e co++ected #0emoirs of the Passa*e of

    the Rhine(# $ritten ' Racine" We cannot ud*e

    ' these memoirs $hether Louis 7IV" )assed the

    Rhine or not $ith his troo)s( $ho s$am across the

    ri%er" This e=am)+e sucient+' demonstrates ho$

    rare+' it ha))ens that an historio*ra)her dare te++

    the truth" Se%era+ a+so( $ho ha%e )ossessed this

    tit+e( ha%e ta

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    It is %er' dicu+t to assi*n true ounds to the

    arts( sciences( and +iterar' +aor" Perha)s it is the

    )ro)er dut' of an historio*ra)her to co++ect ma6

    teria+s( and that of an historian to )ut them in order"

     The Grst can amass e%er'thin*( the second arran*e

    and se+ect" The historio*ra)her is more of the sim6

    )+e anna+ist( $hi+e the historian seems to ha%e a more

    o)en Ge+d for reHection and e+ouence"

    We need scarce+' sa' here that oth shou+d

    eua++' te++ the truth( ut $e can e=amine this *reat

    +a$ of Cicero - #Ne uid %eri tacere non audeat"#

    #That $e ou*ht not to dare to concea+ an' truth"#

     This ru+e is of the numer of those that $ant i++us6

    tration" Su))ose a )rince conGdes to his his6

    torio*ra)her an im)ortant secret to $hich his honor

    ;: Phi+oso)hica+

    is attached( or that the *ood of the state reuires

    shou+d not e re%ea+ed shou+d the historio*ra)her

    or historian rea< his $ord $ith the )rince( or etra'

    his countr' to oe' CiceroJ The curiosit' of the

    )u+ic seems to e=act it honor and dut' forid it"

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    Perha)s in this case he shou+d renounce $ritin*

    histor'"

    If a truth dishonors a fami+'( ou*ht the his6

    torio*ra)her or historian to inform the )u+ic of it J

    No dout+ess he is not ound to re%ea+ the shame

    of indi%idua+s histor' is no satire"

    !ut if this scanda+ous truth e+on*s to )u+ic

    e%ents( if it enters into the interests of the state

    if it has )roduced e%i+s of $hich it im)orts to

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    themse+%es( it shou+d e the dut' of an historian to

    ins)ire a++ a*es $ith horror for these uridica+ as6

    Dictionar'" ; 8

    sassins" We shou+d a+$a's ma

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    re)resented as Gction"" There is the histor' of

    human o)inions( $hich is scarce+' an'thin* more

    than the histor' of human errors"

     The histor' of the arts ma' e made the most

    usefu+ of a++( $hen to a Phi+oso)hica+

    re$( the sciences( and histor'(# sa's La Fontaine(

    #is to drin< u) the sea"#

    Sifa))renois r&treu( +es sciences( rhistoire(

     Tout ce+a( c2est +a mer a oire"

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    LA FONTAINE( oo< %iii( fa+e >@"

     The Foundations of &istor'"

     The foundations of a++ histor' are the recita+s of

    e%ents( made ' fathers to their chi+dren( and after6

    $ards transmitted from one *eneration to another"

     The' are( at most( on+' )roa+e in their ori*in

    $hen the' do not shoc< common sense( and the' +ose

    a de*ree of )roai+it' at e%er' successi%e transmis6

    sion" With time the fau+ous increases and the

    true disa))ears hence it arises that the ori*ina+

    traditions and records of a++ nations are asurd"

     Thus the E*')tians had een *o%erned for man'

    a*es ' the *ods" The' had" ne=t een under the

    *o%ernment of demi6*ods and( Gna++'( the' had

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    consistent $ith )h'sica+ )ossii+it' that Phoenicia

    ma' ha%e e=isted( not mere+' for thirt' thousand

    'ears( ut thirt' thousand mi++ions of a*es( and that

    it ma' ha%e endured( as $e++ as the other )ortions

    Dictionar'" ;B

    of the *+oe( thirt' mi++ions of re%o+utions" !ut of

    a++ this $e )ossess no

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    throu*h a stone $ith a ra1or( and that a %esta+ dre$

    a shi) to +and $ith her *ird+e( etc"

     The Grst anna+s of modern nations are no +ess

    fau+ous thin*s )rodi*ious and im)roa+e ou*ht

    sometimes( undouted+'( to e re+ated( ut on+' as

    )roofs of human credu+it'" The' constitute )art of

    the histor' of human o)inion and asurdities ut

    the Ge+d is too immense"

    Of 0onuments or 0emoria+s"

     The on+' )ro)er method of endea%orin* to ac6

    uire some

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    dred and thirt'6four 'ears e'ond our %u+*ar era(

    decided+' )ro%es that the !a'+onians e=isted as an

    associated and incor)orated )eo)+e man' a*es e6

    fore for the arts are struc< out and e+aorated on+'

    in the s+o$ course of time( and the indo+ence natura+

    to man

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    em)ire and socia+ )o+it'" !ut $hat )+aces the Chi6

    Dictionar'" ;@

    nese ao%e a++ the other nations of the $or+d is that

    neither their +a$s( nor manners( nor the +an*ua*e

    e=c+usi%e+' s)o

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    others( is the Arunde+ 0ar+es" The chronic+e of

    Athens $as inscried on these mar+es t$o hundred

    and si=t'6three 'ears efore our era( ut it *oes no

    further ac< than the time of Cecro)s( thirteen hun6

    dred and nineteen 'ears e'ond the time of its in6

    scri)tion" In the histor' of a++ antiuit' these are

    the on+' incontesta+e e)ochs that $e )ossess"

    Let us attend a +itt+e )articu+ar+' to these mar6

    +es( $hich $ere rou*ht from reece ' Lord

    Arunde+" The chronic+e contained in them com6

    mences Gfteen hundred and se%ent'6se%en 'ears e6

    Vo+" 8: @

    ;; Phi+oso)hica+

    fore our era" This( at the )resent time( ma

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    the ta+es of &erodotus ust as in re+ation to im6

    )ortant )u+ic aairs( their orators orro$ed

    nothin* from the discourses of the so)hists or the

    ima*er' of the )oets"

     The date of the ta

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    Dictionar'" ;?

    Rheims t$o armies of ser)ents en*a*e in )itched

    att+e in erman' an archisho) of 0ent1 is e6

    sie*ed and de%oured ' rats and to com)+ete and

    cro$n the $ho+e( the 'ear in $hich these ad%en6

    tures occurred( is *i%en $ith the most )articu+ar

    )recision" The ae Lan*+et( a+so condescendin* to

    com)i+e( com)i+es these contem)ti+e foo+eries( $hi+e

    the a+manacs( for the hundredth time( re)eat them"

    In this manner are our 'outh instructed and en6

    +i*htened and a++ these trum)er' fa+es are )ut in

    reuisition e%en for the education of )rinces Q

    A++ histor' is com)arati%e+' recent" It is ' no

    means astonishin* to Gnd that $e ha%e( in fact( no

    )rofane histor' that *oes ac< e'ond aout four

    thousand 'ears" The cause of this is to e found in

    the re%o+utions of the *+oe( and the +on* and uni6

    %ersa+ i*norance of the art $hich transmits e%ents

    ' $ritin*" There are sti++ man' nations tota++' un6

    acuainted $ith the )ractice of this art" It e=isted

    on+' in a sma++ numer of ci%i+i1ed states( and e%en

    in them $as conGned to com)arati%e+' fe$ hands"

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    Nothin* $as more rare amon* the French and er6

    mans than

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    that $e ha%e deri%ed that

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    AOROFOII ? AT&ENS

    Dictionar'" ;9

    architecture( such as the )'ramids and )a+aces of

    E*')t( $hich ha%e resisted and $earied the )o$er

    of time" &erodotus( $ho +i%ed t$o thousand t$o

    hundred 'ears a*o( and $ho had seen them( $as

    una+e to +earn from the E*')tian )riests at $hat

    )eriods these structures $ere raised"

    It is dicu+t to ascrie to the o+dest of the )'ra6

    mids an antiuit' of +ess than four thousand 'ears(

    and( it is necessar' to consider( that those ostenta6

    tious )i+es( erected ' monarchs( cou+d not ha%e

    een commenced ti++ +on* after the esta+ishment of

    cities" !ut( in order to ui+d cities in a countr'

    e%er' 'ear inundated( it must a+$a's e reco++ected

    that it $ou+d ha%e een )re%ious+' necessar' in this

    +and of s+ime and mud( to +a' the foundation u)on

    )i+es( that the' mi*ht thus e inaccessi+e to the in6

    undation it $ou+d ha%e een necessar'( e%en e6

    fore ta

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    to en*a*e in such im)ortant and e%en dan*erous

    +aors( that the )eo)+e shou+d ha%e contri%ed re6

    treats( durin* the s$e++in* of the Ni+e( et$een the

    t$o chains of roc

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    ancient histor' of E*')t" The +an*ua*e of that

    )eo)+e is +ost and a++ $e

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    Dictionar'" ? 8

    of nations are e%ident+' fa+es" The reason is that

    men must ha%e +i%ed +on* in societ'( and ha%e

    +earned to ma

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    stars $ere +ater )roductions( and intended mere+' to

    adorn the hea%ens( and to reoice the si*ht of the

    anima+s u)on earth"

     The Knef of the E*')tians( their Oshiret and

    Ishet( $hich $e ca++ Osiris and Isis( are neither +ess

    in*enious nor ridicu+ous" The ree

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    Conscious of thou*ht( of more ca)acious reast(

    For em)ire formed( and Gt to ru+e the rest"

    DR3DEN"

    Pronaue cum s)ectent anima+ia ccetera terram

    Os homini su+ime dedit coe+umue tueri

     .ussit( et erectos ad sidera to++ere %u+tus"

    0ETA0"( i( %" M"

     Thus( $hi+e the mute creation do$n$ard end

     Their si*ht( and to their earth+' mother tend(

    0an +oo

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    +i

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    a $a++ ' the hand of the sacred )onti"

     The *reat Romu+us( the

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    We ha%e our oriHamme( our *reat standard( rou*ht

    from hea%en ' an an*e+( and the ho+' )hia+ ' a

    )i*eon and( $hen to these $e add the mant+e of

    St" 0artin( $e fee+ not a +itt+e formida+e"

    What $ou+d constitute usefu+ histor'J That

    $hich shou+d teach us our duties and our ri*hts(

    $ithout a))earin* to teach them"

    It is often as

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    tion( not$ithstandin* the hatred and contem)t in

    $hich $e ho+d that )eo)+e" We cannot( indeed( e6

    +ie%e them ' reason( ut $e rin* ourse+%es under

    suection to the .e$s ' faith" There are aout

    fourscore s'stems in e=istence on the suect of their

    chrono+o*'( and a far *reater numer of $a's of

    Dictionar'" [email protected]

    e=)+ainin* the e%ents recorded in their histories $e

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    and $e++6educated )eo)+e $i++ sti++ fee+ and e=)ress

    some de*ree of incredu+it'"

    What I most admire in our modern com)i+ers

    is the ud*ment and 1ea+ $ith $hich the' )ro%e to

    us that $hate%er ha))ened in former a*es( in the

    most e=tensi%e and )o$erfu+ em)ires of the $or+d(

    too< )+ace so+e+' for the instruction of the inhaitants

    of Pa+estine" If the

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    the correction of this amia+e )eo)+e" We must ac6

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     To a)o+o*i1e for the *ui+t' is a ha))' $a' of

     ustif'in* ca+umn' a*ainst the innocent" Com)en6

    Dictionar'" ??

    sation is thus eected and such com)ensation $as

    am)+' aorded ' St" re*or'" The em)eror Con6

    stantius( .u+ian2s unc+e and )redecessor( u)on his

    accession to the throne( had massacred .u+ius( his

    mother2s rother( and his t$o sons( a++ three of

    $hom had een dec+ared au*ust this $as a s'stem

    $hich he had ado)ted from his father" &e after6

    $ards )rocured the assassination of Ca++us( .u+ian2s

    rother" The crue+t' $hich he thus dis)+a'ed to his

    o$n fami+'( he e=tended to the em)ire at +ar*e ut

    he $as a man of )ra'er( and( e%en at the decisi%e

    att+e $ith 0a=entius( he $as )ra'in* to od in a

    nei*horin* church durin* the $ho+e time in $hich

    the armies $ere en*a*ed" Such $as the man $ho

    $as eu+o*i1ed ' re*or' and( if such is the $a'

    in $hich the saints ma

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    and irrita+eJ

    At the )resent da' the stud' of histor' is occa6

    siona++' a))+ied to a )ur)ose some$hat $himsica+

    and asurd" Certain charters of the time of Da*o6

    ert are disco%ered and rou*ht for$ard( the *reater

    )art of them of a some$hat sus)icious character in

    )oint of *enuineness( and i++6understood and from

    these it is inferred( that customs( ri*hts( and )re6

    ro*ati%es( $hich susisted then( shou+d e re%i%ed

    no$" I $ou+d recommend it to those $ho ado)t this

    method of stud' and reasonin*( to sa' to the ocean"(

    223ou former+' e=tended to Ai*ues60ortes( Freus(

    ? Phi+oso)hica+

    Ra%enna( and Ferrara" Return to them immedi6

    ate+'"#

    SECTION III"

    Of the Certaint' of &istor'"

    A++ certaint' $hich does not consist in math6

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    ematica+ demonstration is nothin* more than the

    hi*hest )roai+it' there is no other historica+ cer6

    taint'"

    When 0arco Po+o descried the *reatness and

    )o)u+ation of China( ein* the Grst( and for a time

    the on+' $riter $ho had descried them( he cou+d

    not otain credit" The Portu*uese( $ho for a*es

    after$ards had communication and commerce $ith

    that %ast em)ire( e*an to render the descri)tion

    )roa+e" It is no$ a matter of aso+ute certaint'

    of that certaint' $hich arises from the unanimous

    de)osition of a thousand $itnesses or dierent na6

    tions( uno))osed ' the testimon' of a sin*+e indi6

    %idua+"

    If mere+' t$o or three historians had descried

    the ad%enture of Kin* Char+es 7II" $hen he )er6

    sisted in remainin* in the territories of his ene6

    factor( the su+tan( in o))osition to the orders of that

    monarch( and aso+ute+' fou*ht( $ith the fe$ do6

    mestics that attended his )erson( a*ainst an arm'

    of anissaries and Tartars( I shou+d ha%e sus)ended

    m' ud*ment aout its truth ut( ha%in* s)o

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    do other$ise than e+ie%e it ecause( after a++( a+6

    Dictionar'" ?9

    thou*h such conduct is neither $ise nor common(

    there is nothin* in it contradictor' to the +a$s of

    nature( or the character of the hero"

     That $hich is in o))osition to the ordinar' course

    of nature ou*ht not to e e+ie%ed( un+ess it is at6

    tested ' )ersons e%ident+' ins)ired ' the di%ine

    mind( and $hose ins)iration( indeed( it is im)ossi+e

    to dout" &ence $e are ustiGed in considerin* as

    a )arado= the assertion made under the artic+e on

    #Certaint'(# in the *reat #Enc'c+o)aedia(# that $e

    are as much ound to e+ie%e in the resuscitation of

    a dead man( if a++ Paris $ere to arm it( as to e6

    +ie%e a++ Paris $hen it states that $e *ained the

    att+e of Fonteno'" It is c+ear that the e%idence of

    a++ Paris to a thin* im)roa+e can ne%er e eua+

    to that e%idence in fa%or of a )roa+e one" These

    are the Grst )rinci)+es of *enuine +o*ic" Such a

    dictionar' as the one in uestion shou+d e conse6

    crated on+' to truth"

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    /ncertaint' of &istor'"

    Periods of time are distin*uished as fau+ous

    and historica+" !ut e%en in the historica+ times

    themse+%es it is necessar' to distin*uish truths from

    fa+es" I am not here s)ea

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    e%ents $hich do not corres)ond $ith the usua+ order

    of human aairs"

    Can it e considered %er' +i

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    Dictionar'" 8

    sin*+e $ord u)on the suect" Is not this a stri

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    ticu+ar e%ent( $ou+d attest the certaint' of that

    e%ent if( ho$e%er( these monuments $ere not

    erected ' contem)oraries( or if the' ce+erate e%ents

    that carr' $ith them ut +itt+e )roai+it'( the' ma'

    often e re*arded as )ro%in* nothin* more than a

    $ish to consecrate a )o)u+ar o)inion"

     The rostra+ co+umn( erected in Rome ' the con6

    tem)oraries of Dui+ius( is undouted+' a )roof of the

    Vo+" io;

    > Phi+oso)hica+

    na%a+ %ictor' otained ' Dui+ius ut does the

    statue of the au*ur Nae%ius( $ho is said to ha%e di6

    %ided a +ar*e Hint $ith a ra1or( )ro%e that Nae%ius

    in rea+it' )erformed that )rodi*' J Were the statues

    of Ceres and Tri)to+emus( at Athens( decisi%e e%i6

    dences that Ceres came do$n from I

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    Ceremonies and annua+ festi%a+s oser%ed uni%er6

    sa++' throu*hout an' nation( are( in +i

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    of ha%in* a son( +amented his unfortunate fate( and

    e=)ressed his an=ious desire to the three di%inities"

    We dare not e=act+' detai+ $hat the' did to the hide

    of an o= $hich &'reus had

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    testin* the ca)ture of Cartha*ena ' Admira+ Ver6

    non( a+thou*h that admira+ $as o+i*ed to raise the

    sie*e J

    0eda+s are then une=ce)tiona+e testimonies on+'

    $hen the e%ent the' ce+erate is attested ' contem6

    )orar' authors these e%idences thus corrooratin*

    each other( %erif' the e%ent descried"

    M Phi+oso)hica+

    Shou+d an &istorian ascrie Fictitious S)eeches to

    his Characters( and s

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    from &omer ut that $hich is Gction in a )oem(

    in strict +an*ua*e( is a +ie in the historian" 0an'

    of the ancients ado)ted the method in uestion(

    $hich mere+' )ro%es that man' of the ancients $ere

    fond of )aradin* their e+ouence at the e=)ense of

    truth"

    Of &istorica+ Portraiture"

    Portraits( a+so( freuent+' manifest a stron*er

    desire for dis)+a'( than to communicate information"

    Contem)oraries are ustiGa+e in dra$in* the )or6

    traits of statesmen $ith $hom the' ha%e ne*otiated(

    or of *enera+s under $hom the' ha%e fou*ht" !ut

    ho$ much is it to e a))rehended that the )enci+

    $i++ in man' cases e *uided ' the fee+in*sJ The

    )ortraits *i%en ' Lord C+arendon a))ear to e

    dra$n $ith more im)artia+it'( *ra%it'( and ud*6

    Dictionar'" @

    ment( than those $hich $e )eruse $ith so much de6

    +i*ht in Cardina+ de Ret1"

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    !ut to attem)t to )aint the ancients to e+ao6

    rate in this $a' the de%e+o)ment of their minds

    to re*ard e%ents as characters in $hich $e ma' accu6

    rate+' read the most sacred fee+in*s and intents of

    their hearts this is an underta

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    such $ea

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    it re+ates( #that at the att+e of Fonteno' the French

    Gred at the En*+ish a++s and )ieces of *+ass $hich

    had een )re)ared $ith )oison and that the du

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    out the sma++est )roai+it' to *i%e a co+or to his

    ca+umnies" This is not $ritin* histor' it is $ritin*

    s+anders $hich deser%e the )i++or'"

    A %ast numer of $or

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    the du

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    carried an' $ei*ht" !ut $e must here oser%e( that

    these $or

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    common dan*er for a season unites them( the $ri6

    ters of one faction condemn e%er'thin* that the

    others a))ro%e" The same indi%idua+ is re)resented

    as a Cato and a Cati+ine" &o$ is truth to e e=tri6

    cated from this adu+ation and satire J Perha)s there

    is on+' one ru+e to e de)ended u)on( $hich is( to

    e+ie%e a++ the *ood $hich the historian of a )art'

    %entures to a++o$ to the +eaders of the o))osite fac6

    tion and a++ the i++s $hich he %entures to im)ute

    to the chiefs of his o$n a ru+e( of $hich neither

    )art' can se%ere+' com)+ain"

    With re*ard to memoirs actua++' $ritten '

    a*ents in the e%ents recorded( as those of C+arendon(

    Lud+o$( and !urnet( in En*+and( and de +a Roche6

    foucau+d and de Ret1 in France( if the' a*ree( the'

    are true if the' contradict each other( dout them"

    With res)ect to anas and anecdotes( there ma'

    )erha)s e one in a hundred of them that contain

    some shado$ of truth"

    9: Phi+oso)hica+

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    SECTION IV"

    Of the 0ethod or 0anner of Writin* &istor'( and

    of St'+e"

    We ha%e said so much u)on this suect( that $e

    must here sa' %er' +itt+e" It is sucient+'

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    Danie+ thou*ht himse+f a historian( ecause he

    transcried dates and narrati%es of att+es( of $hich

    I can understand nothin*" &e shou+d ha%e informed

    me of the ri*hts of the nation( the ri*hts of the

    chief cor)orate esta+ishments in it its +a$s( usa*es(

    manners( $ith the a+terations ' $hich the' ha%e

    Dictionar'" 98

    een aected in the )ro*ress of time" This nation

    mi*ht not im)ro)er+' address him in some such +an6

    *ua*e as the fo++o$in* - I $ant from 'ou m' o$n

    histor' rather than that of Louis +e ros and Louis

    &utin 'ou te++ me( co)'in* from some o+d( un6

    authenticated( and care+ess+'6$ritten chronic+e( that

    $hen Louis VIII" $as attac

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    nianda I2uomo sotto +a terra"# 3ou ou*ht to )ossess

    a +itt+e stron*er tincture of )o+itica+ and natura+ his6

    tor'"

     The histor' of a forei*n countr' shou+d e

    formed on a dierent mode+ to that of our o$n"

    If $e com)ose a histor' of France( $e are under

    no necessit' to descrie the course of the Seine and

    the Loire ut if $e )u+ish a histor' of the con6

    uests of the Portu*uese in Asia( a to)o*ra)hica+

    descri)tion of the recent+' e=)+ored countr' is re6

    uired" It is desira+e that $e shou+d( as it $ere(

    conduct the reader ' the hand round Africa( and

    a+on* the coasts of Persia and India and it is e=6

    )ected that $e shou+d treat $ith information and

     ud*ment( of manners( +a$s( and customs so ne$ to

    Euro)e"

    9> Phi+oso)hica+

    We ha%e a *reat %ariet' of histories of the es6

    ta+ishment of the Portu*uese in India( $ritten '

    our countr'men( ut not one of them has made us

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    acuainted $ith the dierent *o%ernments of that

    countr'( $ith its re+i*ious antiuities( !rahmins( dis6

    ci)+es of St" .ohn( ueers( and !anians" Some

    +etters of 7a%ier and his successors ha%e( it is true(

    een )reser%ed to us" We ha%e had histories of the

    Indies com)osed at Paris( from the accounts of those

    missionaries $ho $ere unacuainted $ith the +an6

    *ua*e of the !rahmins" We ha%e it re)eated( in

    a hundred $or

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    of a fe$ Ca)uchin friars to such I ha%e nothin*

    to sa'"

    Dictionar'" 9B

    It is sucient( if it e c+ear+' understood( that the

    method $hich $ou+d e )ro)er in $ritin* a histor'

    of our o$n countr' is not suita+e in descriin* the

    disco%eries of the ne$ $or+d that $e shou+d not

    $rite on a sma++ cit' as on a *reat em)ire and that

    the )ri%ate histor' of a )rince shou+d e com)osed

    in a %er' dierent manner from the histor' of

    France and En*+and"

    If 'ou ha%e nothin* to te++ us( ut that on the

    an

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    inte++ectua+ arts there are man' )rece)ts( ut fe$

    masters"

    SECTION %"

    &istor' of the .e$ish Kin*s( and of the #Para+i6

    )omena"#

    E%er' nation( as soon as it $as a+e to $rite( has

    $ritten its o$n histor'( and the .e$s ha%e accord6

    in*+' $ritten theirs" !efore the' had

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    We ma' therefore remar

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    s+o)6man( $ho is not inGnite+' su)erior to Caesar and

    A+e=ander" &o$ can $e a%oid endin* in )rostra6

    tion efore an o+d6c+othes man( $ho )ro%es to us

    Dictionar'" [email protected]

    that his histor' has een $ritten ' od &imse+f(

    $hi+e the histories of reece and Rome ha%e een

    transmitted to us mere+' ' the )rofane hand of

    manJ

    If the st'+e of the histor' of the

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    ders Pe

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    stran*+es his $ife( and murders a+most a++ his fam6

    i+'- he has een eu+o*i1ed in *enera+ counci+s( ut

    histor' shou+d e%er ho+d u) such ararities to de6

    testation" It is undouted+' fortunate for us that

    C+o%is $as a Catho+ic" It is fortunate for the An*+i6

    can church that &enr' VIII" ao+ished mon

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    ferent in simi+ar cases( the same thin* ha))ened to

    !a'+e in circumstances tota++' dierent" &e $as

    Dictionar'" 9?

    condemned for not )raisin* a++ the actions of Da%id(

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    to court that the c+er*'man )resents him to &enr'

    IV" as an e=ce++ent %io+in )+a'er $ho can com)+ete+'

    dri%e a$a' a++ care and me+ancho+' that the

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    man that $i++ not concei%e the she)herd of !rie

    to act rather harsh+' J

    Commentators are a*reed that the adu+ter' of

    Da%id( and his murder of /riah( are fau+ts $hich

    od )ardoned" We ma' therefore conc+ude that

    the massacres ao%e mentioned are fau+ts $hich od

    a+so )ardoned"

    &o$e%er( !a'+e had no uarter *i%en him ut

    at +en*th some )reachers at London ha%in* com6

    )ared eor*e II" to Da%id( one of that monarch2s

    ser%ants )rints and )u+ishes a sma++ oo

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    Dictionar'" 99

    !a'+e" We no$ )ercei%e c+ear+' and $ithout dif6

    Gcu+t'( that $e ou*ht not to ho+d u) as a mode+ of

    sanctit' $hat( in fact( deser%es the se%erest )unish6

    ment and $e see $ith eua+ c+earness that( as $e

    ou*ht not to consecrate *ui+t( so $e ou*ht not to e6

    +ie%e asurdit'"

    &ONOR"

     T&E A/T&OR of the #S)irit of La$s# has founded

    his s'stem on the idea that %irtue is the )rinci)+e of

    a re)u+ican *o%ernment( and honor that of mon6

    archism" Is there %irtue then $ithout honor( and

    ho$ is a re)u+ic esta+ished in %irtue J

    Let us )+ace efore the reader2s e'es that $hich

    has een said in an a+e +itt+e oo< u)on this suect"

    Pam)h+ets soon sin< into o+i%ion" Truth ou*ht not

    to e +ost it shou+d e consi*ned to $or

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    a theoretica+ )rinci)+e of %irtue" The )u+ic inter6

    est ein* o))osed to the domination of an indi%idua+(

    the s)irit of se+f6im)ortance( and the amition of

    e%er' )erson( ser%e to cur amition and the in6

    c+ination to ra)acit'( $here%er the' ma' a))ear"

     The )ride of each citi1en $atches o%er that of his

    nei*hor( and no )erson $ou+d $i++in*+' e the s+a%e

    of another2s ca)rice" Such are the fee+in*s $hich

    esta+ish re)u+ics( and $hich )reser%e them" It

    is ridicu+ous to ima*ine that there must e more

    %irtue in a rison than in a S)aniard"#

    ioo Phi+oso)hica+

     That honor can e the so+e )rinci)+e of mon6

    archies is a no +ess chimerica+ idea( and the author

    sho$s it to e so himse+f( $ithout ein* a$are of it"

    #The nature of honor(# sa's he( in cha)ter %ii" of

    oo< &i"( #is to demand )references and distinctions"

    It( therefore( natura++' suits a monarchica+ *o%ern6

    ment"#

    Was it not on this same )rinci)+e( that the Ro6

    mans demanded the )raetorshi)( consu+shi)( o%ation(

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    and trium)h in their re)u+icJ These $ere )refer6

    ences and distinctions $e++ $orth the tit+es and )ref6

    erences )urchased in monarchies( and for $hich

    there is often a re*u+ar G=ed )rice"

     This remar< )ro%es( in our o)inion( that the

    #S)irit of La$s(# a+thou*h s)ar

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     To ase+' cra$+( 'et $ear a face of )ride

     To ro the )u+ic( 'et o2er +a$ )reside

    Sa+ute a friend( 'et stin* in the emrace

    Such is the honor $hich in courts ta

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    mended in the fourth oo< of the #La$s of P+ato# -

    he reects the )roud and $ou+d mu+ti)+' the hum+e"

    E)ictetus( in G%e )+aces( )reaches humi+it'- #If

    thou )assest for a )erson of conseuence in the o)in6

    ion of some )eo)+e( distrust th'se+f" No +iftin* u)

    of th' e'e6ro$s" !e nothin* in thine o$n e'es

    if thou see

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    &e said that the %anit' of )om) is on+' a one

    thro$n in the midst of do*s that to do *ood( and

    to )atient+' hear himse+f ca+umniated( constitute the

    %irtue of a

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     The re%erend father Viret( corde+ier( theo+o*ian(

    and )reacher( a++ hum+e as he is( $i++ a+$a's Grm+'

    e+ie%e that he

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    archisho) of Paris too< the )art of the Carme+ites

    a*ainst the *o%ernor of the cit'( a )artisan of the

    eautifu+ 0adame Dacier( and that he e=cited the

    Carme+ites to massacre this Gne $oman in the church

    of Notre Dame( and to dra* her( na

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    on+' the conseuences of a++ the oects that I ha%e

    )ercei%ed" I utter the $ord #ein*# in *enera+(

    on+' ecause I ha%e

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    to 'ou on+' in the same manner as 'our hairs( $hich

    *ro$ and ecome $hite( and fa++ o( $ithout 'our

    ha%in* an'thin* at a++ to do $ith the matter J

    Nothin* can )ossi+' e c+earer a++ that I can

    do is to fri11+e( cut( and )o$der them ut I ha%e

    nothin* to do $ith )roducin* them"

     3ou must( then( I ima*ine( e of 0a+eranche2s

    o)inion( that $e see a++ in od J

    I am at +east certain of this( that if $e do not see

    thin*s in the reat !ein*( $e see them in conse6

    uence of &is )o$erfu+ and immediate action"

    And $hat $as the nature or )rocess of this

    action J

    I ha%e a+read' to+d 'ou re)eated+'( in the course

    of our con%ersation( that I do not

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    io; Phi+oso)hica+

    e=)ect ho$ I shou+d e=)+ain ho$ I fee+ and ho$ I

    thin

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    on the suect( I am not ad%anced a sin*+e ste) e6

    'ond $here I $as on the Grst da'"

     The suect( then( $as not $orth thin

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    and ine=)ressi+' more foo+ish( for a man to e+ie%e

    he

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    In od $e +i%e and mo%e and ha%e our ein*"

    ST" PA/L( Acts =%ii( >"

    Aratus( $ho is thus uoted and a))ro%ed ' St"

    io Phi+oso)hica+

    Pau+( made this confession of faith( $e )ercei%e

    amon* the ree

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    Word he $as made acuainted $ith $hat the Word

    had done in other )+anets he ecame( in truth( a6

    so+ute+' mad a circumstance $e++ ca+cu+ated to e=6

    cite a))rehension in our o$n minds( a)t as $e some

    of us are to attem)t soarin*( u)on our $ea< and

    )un' o)inions( %er' far e'ond our reach"

    In order to com)rehend the notion of 0a+e6

    ranche( such as he he+d it $hi+e he retained his

    facu+ties( $e must admit nothin* that $e do not

    c+ear+' concei%e( and reect $hat $e do not un6

    derstand" Attem)tin* to e=)+ain an oscurit' '

    oscurities( is to act +i

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    it )ossi+e for a +itt+e )artic+e of matter to )ossess

    the facu+t' of )roducin* a thou*ht J

    I am therefore irresisti+' +ed to conc+ude that

    the Eterna+ !ein*( $ho esto$s e%er'thin*( *i%es

    me m' ideas( in $hate%er manner this ma' e done"

    !ut $hat is an idea( $hat is a sensation( a %o+ition(

    etc"J It is m'se+f )ercei%in*( m'se+f fee+in*( m'6

    se+f $i++in*"

    We see( in short( that $hat is ca++ed an idea

    is no more a rea+ ein* than there is a rea+ ein*

    ca++ed motion( a+thou*h there are odies mo%ed" In

    the same manner there is not an' )articu+ar ein*

    ca++ed memor'( ima*ination( ud*ment ut $e our6

    se+%es rememer( ima*ine( and ud*e"

     The truth of a++ this( it must e a++o$ed( is su6

    cient+' )+ain and trite ut it is necessar' to re)eat

    and incu+cate such truth( as the o))osite errors are

    more trite sti++"

    La$s of Nature"

    &o$( +et us no$ as

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    ua+ities $hich $e )ercei%e in or*ani1ed odies J

    Did &e introduce t$o ein*s in a *rain of $heat(

    one of $hich shou+d )roduce *ermination in the

    otherJ Did &e introduce t$o ein*s in the com6

    )osition of a sta*( one of $hich shou+d )roduce

    no Phi+oso)hica+

    s$iftness in the otherJ Certain+' not" A++ that

    $e

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    Or*anisation of the Senses and Ideas"

    It is ' these *enera+ and com)rehensi%e +a$s

    that e%er' anima+ is im)e++ed to see< its a))ro)riate

    food" We are natura++'( therefore( +ed to conecture

    that there is a +a$ ' $hich it has the idea of this

    food( and $ithout $hich it $ou+d not *o in search

    of it"

     The eterna+ inte++i*ence has made a++ the actions

    of an anima+ de)end u)on a certain )rinci)+e the

    eterna+ inte++i*ence( therefore( has made the sensa6

    tions $hich cause those actions de)end on the same

    )rinci)+e"

    Wou+d the author of nature ha%e dis)osed and

    adusted those admira+e instruments( the senses(

    $ith so di%ine a s

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    other a*enc' to com)+ete his $or< J Nature a+$a's

    acts ' the shortest $a's" Protracted )rocesses in6

    dicate $ant of s

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    and that $e see a++ in od as St" Pau+ used the

    same +an*ua*e in a theo+o*ica+ sense( and Aratus

    and Cato in a mora+ one"

    What then are $e to understand ' the $ords

    88> Phi+oso)hica+

    seein* a++ in odJ The' are either $ords destitute

    of meanin*( or the' mean that od *i%es us a++ our

    ideas"

    What is the meanin* of recei%in* an ideaJ We

    do not create it $hen $e recei%e it it is not( there6

    fore( so un)hi+oso)hica+ as has een thou*ht( to sa'

    it is od $ho )roduces the ideas in m' head( as it

    is &e $ho )roduces motion in m' $ho+e od'"

    E%er'thin* is an o)eration of od u)on &is crea6

    tures"

    &o$ is E%er'thin* an Action of odJ

     There is in nature on+' one uni%ersa+( eterna+(

    and acti%e )rinci)+e" There cannot e t$o such

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    )rinci)+es for the' $ou+d either e a+i

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     The s'stem inc+udes that of #)h'sica+ )remo6

    tion(# ut in the same manner as an immense $hee+

    inc+udes a sma++ one that endea%ors to H' o from

    it" The )rinci)+e $hich $e ha%e ust een unfo+din*

    is too %ast to admit of an' )articu+ar and detai+ed

    %ie$"

    Ph'sica+ )remotion occu)ies the *reat su)reme

    $ith a++ the chan*in* %a*aries $hich ta

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    out addin* to his e=istence ust in the same man6

    ner as $hen $e dance( our s+idin* ste)s and cross6

    in*s and attitudes *i%e us no ne$ e=istence and

    to su))ose the' do so $ou+d a))ear com)+ete+' a6

    Vo+" io

    88M Phi+oso)hica+

    surd" We a*ree on+' so far in the s'stem of )h'si6

    ca+ )remotion( that $e are con%inced $e *i%e our6

    se+%es nothin*"

    !oth the s'stem of )remotion and our o$n

    are aused( as de)ri%in* men of their +iert'" od

    forid $e shou+d ad%ocate such de)ri%ation" To do

    a$a' $ith this im)utation( it is on+' necessar' to

    understand the meanin* of the $ord +iert'" We

    sha++ s)ea< of it in its )ro)er )+ace and in the

    meantime the $or+d $i++ *o on as it has *one on

    hitherto( $ithout the Thomists or their o))onents( or

    a++ the dis)utants in the $or+d( ha%in* an' )o$er

    to chan*e it" In the same manner $e sha++ a+$a's

    ha%e ideas( $ithout )recise+'

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    idea is"

    IDENTIT3"

     T&IS scientiGc term si*niGes no more than #the

    same thin*"# It mi*ht e correct+' trans+ated '

    #sameness"# This suect is of considera+' more

    interest than ma' e ima*ined" A++ a*ree that the

    *ui+t' )erson on+' ou*ht to e )unished the in6

    di%idua+ )er)etrator( and no other" !ut a man

    Gft' 'ears of a*e is not in rea+it' the same indi6

    %idua+ as the man of t$ent' he retains no +on*er

    an' of the )arts $hich then formed his od' and

    if he has +ost the memor' of )ast e%ents( it is cer6

    tain that there is nothin* +eft to unite his actua+

    e=istence to an e=istence $hich to him is +ost"

    I am the same )erson on+' ' the consciousness

    Dictionar'" [email protected]

    of $hat I ha%e een comined $ith that of $hat I

    am I ha%e no consciousness of m' )ast ein* ut

    throu*h memor' memor' a+one( therefore( esta6

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    +ishes the identit'( the sameness of m' )erson"

    We ma'( in truth( e natura++' and a)t+' re6

    sem+ed to a ri%er( a++ $hose $aters )ass a$a' in

    )er)etua+ chan*e and Ho$" It is the same ri%er as

    to its ed( its an

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    am a+$a's m'se+f after m' death( a mirac+e $i++

    e necessar' to restore it to me to ena+e me to re6

    enter u)on m' +ost e=istence"

    #Ans$er" That is ust as much as to sa' that

    if a )rince had )ut to death his $ho+e fami+'( in

    order to rei*n himse+f( and if he had t'ranni1ed

    o%er his suects $ith the most $anton crue+t'( he

    $ou+d e e=em)ted from )unishment on )+eadin*

    efore od( 2I am not the oender I ha%e +ost m'

    memor' 'ou are under a mista

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    too $ea< and uncertain to decide"

    It is necessar' in the ne=t )+ace to

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    )unish him on+' ecause he cherished and accom6

    )+ished e%i+ desires ut if( $hen after death he

    8 8 Phi+oso)hica+

    )resents himse+f efore the triuna+ of od( he no

    +on*er entertains an' such desire if for a )eriod

    of t$ent' 'ears he has tota++' for*otten that he did

    entertain such if he is no +on*er in an' res)ect

    the same )erson $hat is it that od $i++ )unish

    in him J

     These are uestions $hich a))ear e'ond the

    com)ass of the human understandin*( and there

    seems to e=ist a necessit'( in these intricacies and

    +a'rinths( of recurrin* to faith a+one( $hich is

    a+$a's our +ast as'+um"

    Lucretius had )art+' fe+t these dicu+ties( $hen

    in his third oo< %erses 9:698 he descries a

    man trem+in* at the idea of $hat $i++ ha))en to

    him $hen he $i++ no +on*er e the same man -

    Nee radicitus e %ita se to++it et e%it

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    Sedfacit esse sui uiddam su)er inscius i)se"

    !ut Lucretius is not the orac+e to e addressed(

    in order to otain an' disco%eries of the future"

     The ce+erated To+and( $ho $rote his o$n e)i6

    ta)h( conc+uded it $ith these $ords - #Idem futurus

     To+andus nunuam# #&e $i++ ne%er a*ain e the

    same To+and"#

    &o$e%er( it ma' e )resumed that od $ou+d

    ha%e $e++

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    and #+atreuein# to ser%e( re%ere( or adore"

    It does not a))ear that there $as e%er an' )eo)+e

    on earth $ho too< the name of ido+aters" This $ord

    is an oence( an insu+tin* term( +i

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    no Phi+oso)hica+

    nesses and ud*es" And assured+' it $as not the

    ima*e $hich constituted the di%init'"

    In $hat %ie$( therefore( did the' see the statues

    of their fa+se *ods in the tem)+es J With the same

    %ie$( if $e ma' so e=)ress ourse+%es( that the

    Catho+ics see the ima*es( the oect of their %enera6

    tion" The error $as not in adorin* a )iece of $ood

    or mar+e( ut in adorin* a fa+se di%init'( re)re6

    sented ' this $ood and mar+e" The dierence

    et$een them and the Catho+ics is( not that the'

    had ima*es( and the Catho+ics had none the dif6

    ference is( that their ima*es re)resented the fan6

    tastic ein*s of a fa+se re+i*ion( and that the Chris6

    tian ima*es re)resent rea+ ein*s in a true re+i*ion"

     The ree

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    statues of the ods after ha%in* fasted" The'

    $a+

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    8>> Phi+oso)hica+

    We are sur)rised at the )rodi*ious numer of

    dec+amations uttered in a++ times a*ainst the ido+atr'

    of the Romans and ree

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    descend( from the hei*ht of hea%en( to diuse more

    fa%ors and to $or< more mirac+es in Loretto than

    in &a++" This mu+ti)+icit' of ima*es of the same

    )erson a+so )ro%es that it is the ima*es that $e

    re%ere( and that the $orshi) re+ates to the )er6

    son $ho is re)resented for it is not )ossi+e that

    e%er' ima*e can e the same thin*" There are

    Dictionar'" 8>B

    a thousand ima*es of St" Francis( $hich ha%e no

    resem+ance to him( and $hich do not resem+e one

    another and a++ indicate a sin*+e Saint Francis( in6

    %o

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    for us to ascertain ho$ far the im)utation has een

    a mere )rete=t to accuse them of ido+atr'"

    A *ross and su)erstitious )o)u+ace $ho reason

    not( and $ho

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     The ree

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    and a car)enter ein* doutfu+ $hether he shou+d

    ma

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    functions" Is a throne or a+tar the +ess re%ered e6

    cause it mi*ht ha%e een formed into a ; Phi+oso)hica+

    #It is .o%e $hom $e adore in the ima*e of .o%e(2#

    $rites O%id - #Co+itur )ro .o%e( forma .oins"#2

    #The *ods inhait our minds and osoms(# o6

    ser%es Statius(#and not ima*es in the form of them -22

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    Nu++a autem e*ies( nu++i commissa meta++o"

    Forma Dei( mentes haitare et )ec tor a *audet"

    Lucan( too( ca++s the uni%erse the aode and em6

    )ire of od - #Estne Dei( sedes( nisi terra( et )ontits(

    et aerf# A %o+ume mi*ht e G++ed $ith )assa*es

    assertin* ido+s to e ima*es a+one"

     There remains ut the case in $hich statues e6

    came orac+es notions that mi*ht ha%e +ed to an

    o)inion that there $as somethin* di%ine aout them"

     The )redominant sentiment( ho$e%er( $as that the

    *ods had chosen to %isit certain a+tars and ima*es(

    in order to *i%e audience to morta+s( and to re)+'

    to them" We read in &omer and in the chorus of

    the ree< tra*edies( of )ra'ers to A)o++o( $ho de6

    +i%ered his res)onses on the mountains in such a

    tem)+e( or such a to$n" There is not( in a++ an6

    tiuit'( the +east trace of a )ra'er addressed to a

    statue and if it $as e+ie%ed that the di%ine s)irit

    )referred certain tem)+es and ima*es( as he )re6

    ferred certain men( it $as sim)+' an error in a)6

    )+ication" &o$ man' miracu+ous ima*es ha%e $eJ

     The ancients on+' oasted of )ossessin* $hat $e

    )ossess( and if $e are not ido+aters for usin* ima*es(

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    ' $hat correct )rinci)+e can $e term them so J

     Those $ho )rofess ma*ic( and $ho either e+ie%e(

    or aect to e+ie%e it( a science( )retend to )ossess

    Dictionar'" 8 >?

    the secret of ma

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    We +a%ished this re)roach u)on them $hen $e

    had neither statues nor tem)+es( and ha%e continued

    the inustice e%en after ha%in* em)+o'ed )aintin*

    and scu+)ture to honor and re)resent our truths( )re6

    cise+' in the same manner in $hich those $e re6

    )roach em)+o'ed them to honor and )ersonif' their

    Gction"

    SECTION III"

    Whether the Persians( the Sac1ans( the E*')tians(

    the Tartars( or the Tur Phi+oso)hica+

    for a +on* time had neither ima*es nor tem)+es" If

    the' $ere $ron*( it $as in renderin* to the stars

    that $hich e+on*ed on+' to the creator of the stars"

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    0oreo%er( the do*ma of 4oroaster( or 4erdusht(

    teaches a Su)reme !ein*( an a%en*er and re$arder(

    $hich o)inion is %er' distant from ido+atr'" The

    *o%ernment of China )ossesses no ido+( ut has

    a+$a's )reser%ed the sim)+e $orshi) of the master

    of hea%en( Kien6tien"

    en*his Khan( amon* the Tartars( $as not an

    ido+ater( and used no ima*es" The 0ahometans(

    $ho inhait reece( Asia 0inor( S'ria( Persia(

    India( and Africa( ca++ the Christians ido+aters and

    *iaours( ecause the' ima*ine that Christians $or6

    shi) ima*es" The' rea< the statues $hich the%

    Gnd in Sancta So)hia( the church of the &o+'

    A)ost+es and others the' con%ert into mosues"

    A))earances ha%e decei%ed them( as the' are eter6

    na++' decei%in* man( and ha%e +ed them to e+ie%e

    that churches dedicated to saints $ho $ere former+'

    men( ima*es of saints $orshi))ed

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    ans$er"

    Dictionar'" 8>9

    As men rare+' form )recise ideas( and sti++ +ess

    e=)ress them $ith )recision( $e ca++ the enti+es(

    and sti++ more the Po+'theists( ido+aters" An im6

    mense numer of %o+umes ha%e een $ritten in

    order to de%e+o) the %arious o)inions u)on the

    ori*in of the $orshi) rendered to the deit'" This

    mu+titude of oo

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    *a%e E*')t to his son ThautJ Such is one of the

    most res)ecta+e monuments of antiuit'"

    Or)heus $i++ teach us no more in his #Theo*6

    on'(# than Damasius has )reser%ed to us" &e re)6

    resents the )rinci)+es of the $or+d under the G*ure

    of a dra*on $ith t$o heads( the one of a u++( the

    other of a +ion a face in the midd+e( $hich he

    ca++s the face of od( and *o+den $in*s to his

    shou+ders"

    !ut( from these fantastic i