The Reformation and Counter-Reformation "Europe's Search for Stability"

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The Reformation and Counter-Reformation "Europe's Search for Stability" Elisabeth Carter Andrea Chattler Marielle Hanley FROM: 146420319215526107/The_Reformation_and_Counter- Reformation_2.ppt

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FROM:http :// The Reformation and Counter-Reformation "Europe's Search for Stability". Elisabeth Carter Andrea Chattler Marielle Hanley. Reformation/ Protestant Reformation Timeline. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Reformation and Counter-Reformation"Europe's Search for Stability"Elisabeth CarterAndrea ChattlerMarielle HanleyFROM:

  • Reformation/ Protestant Reformation TimelineOctober 31, 1517: Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Casle Church in Wittenberg and that heralded the start of the "Reformation"June-July 1519: At the Disputation at Leipzig, Andreas von Carlstadt and Luther debated with John Eck. Eck forced Luther to admit that he agreed with Hus.Jan 27-May 25, 1521: Many Imperial discussions (Diets) were held in Worms, but the most famous Diet of Worms was the one Martin Luther attended in 1521.May 25, 1521: The Edict of Worms, signed by Emperor Charles V declared Martin Luther a heretic and placed him under an imperial ban. It also specified that all Luther's books were to be burned.

  • Reformation Time Line (Continued)January 29, 1523: Ulrich Zwingli presented his 67 Theses at the Zurich Disputation.June 1524 -1525: The Peasant's Revolt began peacefully; by 1525, the protests turned violent and more than 40 German monasteries and castles were burnt. 1526: William Tyndale published an English language New Testament in Worms.June 25, 1530: The Augsburg Confession; Emperor Karl V called the Parliament together in Augsburg to resolved the political, religious and social problems created by the Reformation.

  • Reformation Time Line (Continued)15301531: The Schmalkaldic League was formed as a defensive alliance against the empire. In a meeting set up by princes Philip of Hesse and John of Saxony, eight princes and eleven cities met and adopted the Augsburg Confession.1536: Menno Simons, a former Priest, formed the Mennonites; this group has influenced Baptists, Amish, Hutterites and Quakers.April 1539: The Treaty of Frankfurt was an attempt to bring peace between the Schmalkaldic League and Emperor Charles V. It failed to prevent future wars between Catholics and Lutherans.1549: "Consensus Tigurinius"

  • Reformation Time Line (Continued)September 25, 1555: The Peace of Augsburg was an edict of toleration for Lutheranism; each individual Prince could choose the religion for his area.1563: The Heidelberg CatechismAugust 24, 1572: St Bartholomew's Day massacre; 10,000 Huguenots were killed.1618-1648: The Thirty Years War; Germany was invaded by the imperial armies of Austria and then by the Swedish army who came to help the Protestants.October 24, 1648: The Peace of Westphalia; the start of the separation of church and state. Calvinists were added to the list of tolerated religions, which brought increased stability.

  • Counter-Reformation/ Catholic Reformation Timeline1534: Paul III becomes Pope & Loyola founds the Jesuits

    15451563: Council of Trent; met sardonically to reform parts of the Church. Popes: Paul III, Julius III, and Pius IV

    1563: Spanish Inquisition; simony and indulgences uprooted, standardized worship, reorganized church law, new educational requirements for priests, reformed orders, scrutinized clergy

    1580: Restoration of the Roman Catholic Church under Queen Mary

    1618-1648: Thirty Year's War.

  • Geographic

  • PoliticalReformationThe posting of the Ninety-Five Theses on Wittenburg ChurchDiet of Worms, 1521 Charles V outlaws LutherPeace of Westphalia- May 15, 1648Counter-ReformationCouncil of Trent

  • IntellectualLutheranism: Justification by Faith, only valid source of doctrine is bible, transubstantiation

    Calvinism: predestination, banned card playing, gambling, dancing, swearing, prayer was nourishment for faith, consubstantiationAnglicanism: King Henry VIII's church used to divorce Catherine and marry Anne Boleyn

    Anabaptism: radicals, had to be baptized and undergo a conversion experience to be a "real" christian

  • ReligiousMartin Luther Ninety-Five Theses: attacked the papal abuses and the sale of indulgences by church officialsBelieved and taught that salvation is a gift of God's grace, received by faith and trust in God's promise to forgive sins for the sake of Christ's death on the crossExiled after Diet of Worms LutheranismFirst person to translate The New Testament in the commonly-spoken dialect of the German people; published in 1522Martin Luther vs Pope Leo X rap

  • Religious (Continued)William TyndaleCaptain of the Army of Reformers, and was their spiritual leaderFirst man to ever print the New Testament in the English languageHeld and published views which were considered heretical, first by the Catholic Church, and later by the Church of England Tried for heresy and treason in a ridiculously unfair trial, and convicted; he was then strangled and burnt at the stake in the prison yard, Oct. 6, 1536

  • Religious (Continued)Ulrich ZwingliAppointed "People's Priest" in 1519Zwinglian Protestantism, as well as its spiritual inheritors (the majority of Protestant churches), overwhelmingly stressed the divine nature of ChristZwingli's theology and morality were based on a single principle: if the Old or New Testament did not say something explicitly and literally, then no Christian should believe or practice it

  • Religious (Continued)John CalvinCalvinismInstitutes of the Christian Religion was published in 1536Geneva adopted religious reform in May 1536Placed great importance on sermons-logical and learnedEcclesiastical Ordinances: no bishops and all ministers were equal; they had to preach, administer the sacraments and look after the spiritual welfare of the people

  • Religious (Continued)St. Ignatius LoyolaWrote his famous "Spiritual Exercises" after seeing visions from God and other Catholic SaintsFounded the Society of Jesus; vowed to travel to Jerusalem and preach the Gospel to the MuslimsThe Jesuits' Goals:renewal of the Roman Catholic Church through extensive education and the encouragement of frequent use of the sacramentsextensive missionary work in non-Christian countriesa suitable response to the growing challenge of Protestantism

  • ArtisticReformationCalvin and Zwingli encouraged iconoclastic movementiconoclasm:the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's ownreligiousiconsand other symbols or monuments, usually forreligiousor political motivesDue to the idea that all of life can bring glory to God, Protestants depicted all areas of life in their art.Protestant artists focused on more secular subjects: landscapes, history painting, portraits, and still life.Counter-ReformationAs a result of the Council of Trent, art in Southern Europe was regulated so as to maintain strictly religious contentCatholics only painted religious symbols and depictions

  • Art Cont.Cranach the Elder's AltarpieceatWittenburg.An early Protestantwork depicting leading Reformersas Apostles at theLast Supper

    Peter Bruegel'sPeasant Wedding Feast

  • Art Cont.The Last Judgmentfresco in theSistine ChapelbyMichelangelo(1534-41)came under persistent attack in theCounter-Reformationfor,among other things,nudity, notshowing Christ seated or bearded,and including the pagan figure ofCharon.

    Scipione Pulzone'sLamentation, a typical Counter-Reformation work

  • TechnologicalPrinting PressThe establishment of the printing press played a key role in mobilizing the Reformation.Martin Luther recognized the power of printing to mobilize the grass roots support for Reformation.Luther used the printing press to mass produce Scriptures and Reformation publications.The printing press was later used in the Counter-Reformation as a means of spreading their beliefs and mass publication.

  • EconomicReformationShift from Mediterranean to Atlanticmoney markets, sophistication of business, division of West and East agriculture, economically dominant cities, rural industry, population shift, silverCalvinism helped promote the development of capitalism in EuropeCounter-ReformationSome responded to the "faith not works" challenge of the Protestants by finding a new vocation in social justice.Vincent de Paul and Francis de Sales were intensely devoted to caring for the poor, founding orders with that mission at a time when an emerging capitalist economy was adding to the social wreckage.The capitalist society was not beneficial to all.It was a time of increasing poverty and homelessness in the face of growing wealth and power for the elite.

  • SocialReformationreligion was not a matter of personal preference or opinion, it was the very basis of society.Religious uniformity was essential for social stability.The Peasants War, which began in 1524, is a response to Luther's urgings of democratic reform and a reaction to an unbalanced social system.As spouses and mothers, women brought the ideas of the Reformation to the families of the aristocracy and the common people.Counter-ReformationWomen were allowed to choose their paths: mystical devotion or social serviceProstitution became popular because it was a declaration of a woman's independenceWitch-hunting

  • Work Cited