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THE REFORMATION, COUNTER REFORMATION AND RELIGIOUS WARS. NAISBITT/FREILER. THE BIBLE AND THE REFORMATION. Gutenberg Bible. In the early 16 th century, Europeans developed a consuming passion for the Bible - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



  • THE BIBLE AND THE REFORMATIONIn the early 16th century, Europeans developed a consuming passion for the BibleScriptures rolled off printing presses in all languages and forms from the large Gutenberg Bibles to small pocket Bibles for soldiersWhen Martin Luther created a German translation, his Bible became an immediate best seller

    Gutenberg BibleLuther Bible

  • A REFORM IMPULSEA renewed spiritually and desire to change many of the traditional practices of the Roman Catholic Church was sweeping through EuropeThe demand for reform came from within the Church and from outside the ChurchThe inspiration for reform was based on the Word of God vernacular Bibles allowed commoners to read the Bible in their own languages

  • THE BIG PICTUREIn the early 16th century Europeans experienced one of the greatest of all religious rebirths: the Protestant ReformationThe Reformation was a movement to purify the Catholic Church that resulted in the creation of new denominations collectively known as Protestants from their protest against the Church

  • THE INTELLECTUAL REFORMATIONIf new ideas about religion were to supplant old ones, they had to communicated That was made possible with the invention of the printing press which appeared in the late 15th century in Germany and spread across Europe rapidlyThe development of printing did not cause religious reform, but reform would have been difficult to achieve without it

  • THE PRINTING REVOLUTIONThe printing revolution represents one of the true technological revolutions in Western history it was rated the #1 event of the last millennium in a Life Magazine special in 2000Printing was not invented per se, but rather was achieved through progress in related industries such as papermaking and goldsmithing

  • PAPER PLAYS KEY ROLESheepskin and calfskin were used for manuscripts and book reproductionThis process was slow and expensive In the early 15th century paper made from linen rags were substituted and made for better impressions and a smoother surface An early paper mill

  • PRINTING SPREADS RAPIDLYOnce it began, printing spread quicklyBy 1480, more than 110 towns had established presses, most in Italy and GermanyBy 1500, Venice and Paris were the centers of the industryMost of the subject matter was religious or classical


    In the first 40 years after the presses began, as many as 20,000,000 books were producedPrinting changed the habits of teachers and students, and altered the way governments did businessIt affected legal training and proceedingsPrinting standardized languages and furthered scienceIt created an international intellectual community and increased the value of ideas and thinkingPrinting allowed commoners to read the Bible in their own language

  • CHRISTIAN HUMANISMBy the beginning of the 16th century, the force of humanism was felt strongly in northern and western Europe As Italian humanism moved northward it merged with traditional theological teachingThe combination became a powerful intellectual movement known as Christian humanism

  • ITALIAN HUMANISM VS. CHRISTIAN HUMANISM Italian intellectual interests were largely secular subjects, especially classical languages and textsChristian, or Northern humanists, applied the techniques to the study and translation of Christian textsFurthermore, Christian humanism was a program of reform rather than philosophy

  • REFORM THROUGH EDUCATIONChristian humanism aimed to make better Christians through better educationHumanists founded schools for girls and advocated that they be trained in the same subjects as boysSchools now trained many who were not destined for careers in the Church

  • ERASMUS: THE CHRISTIAN HUMANISTThe man most closely associated with Christian Humanism was Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam Educated by the Brethren of Common Life, Erasmus had a quick wit and an enormous intellectHe sought to bring the gospel to all: The doctrine of Christ casts aside no age, no sex, no fortune or position in life. It keeps no one at a distance.Erasmus 1466-1536

  • IN PRAISE OF FOLLYErasmuss satire, Praise of Folly (1509), was one of the first best sellers in publishing history The book focused on the abuses in the Catholic Church through his dialogue with his friend Thomas MoreErasmus was especially critical of the clergy saying, . . . they are a style of man who show themselves exceeding supercilious and irritable . . .

  • ERASMUS TRANSLATES BIBLEErasmus was called the father of biblical criticism for his attacks upon the Scholastics, superstition, and the pretensions of the ChurchErasmuss Greek translation of the New Testament appeared in 1516Erasmus's text served as the foundation for critical editions of the Greek New Testament into the modern eraDurer

  • THE LUTHERAN REFORMATIONBy the early 16th century, abuses in the Catholic Church were causing many to call out for reformCharges against the clergy included simony (the selling of church offices), pluralism (holding more than one church office), and absenteeism

  • INDULGENCES Indulgences came to viewed as pardons to the individual who bought themTherefore, one could theoretically buy their way out of purgatoryIndulgences were bought by the living to cleanse the sins of the dead, and some people even bought indulgences in anticipation of sins they had not yet committed

  • WHAT WERE INDULGENCES? Indulgences were a means to spend less time in purgatoryAt this time the worry was not going to hell, but spending a long time in purgatory. By purchasing an indulgence, you could get out of purgatory soonerIndulgences also were extraordinarily important for the papacy as a major source of incomeIndulgences were used to finance major building projects

  • INDULGENCES BECOME BIG BUSINESSIndulgences were one of the first items printed on Gutenbergs pressPopes used special occasions to offer indulgences for papal projects (fundraisers)Other indulgences were licensed locally, usually at shrines of saints or at churches that contained relicsRelics

  • RELICS BECOME INCREASINGLY POPULARFrederick III, the Wise (1463-1525), ruler of Saxony, was one of the largest collectors of relicsHe had 17,000 items, including a branch of Moses burning bush, straw from Christs manger, and 35 fragments of the true crossTaken as a whole, his relics carried remission for sins that would have otherwise taken equal to 250,000 years in purgatory

  • TETZEL SELLS INDULGENCES In 1517, the Pope was offering a special indulgence to finance the rebuilding of the St. Peters BasilicaA Dominican friar, Johann Tetzel was hired to promote the latest indulgenceBy October, Tetzel was nearing Wittenberg Castle and a professor at the local college chose that night to post his famous 95 theses on castle church doorTetzelThe Showdown

  • LUTHER CHALLENGES INDULGENCESBy the fall of 1517, the frenzy to buy indulgences had prompted some priests and monks to criticize the practiceAmong his 95 Theses was a scathing indictment of the practice of selling indulgencesHis theses were immediately translated into German and spread throughout the HRE

    Luthers 95 Theses

  • ON LUTHERA gifted student, Luther experienced a scare early in life when he was almost struck by lightningHe then entered a monastery and was ordained in 1507He continued his education and received a doctorate and was appointed to the theology faculty at Wittenberg in 1512

  • LUTHER IN TURMOILDespite being a successful preacher and teacher, Luther was tortured by his own sense of sinfulnessLuther: I was one who terribly feared the last judgment and who nevertheless with all my heart wished to be saved.No amount of good works could overcome Luthers feelings of guilt for his own sins

    Luther was tormented about his own salvation

  • THOU SHALL LIVE BY FAITHLuthers reading of Saint Pauls words, Thou shall live by faith, provided the answer to his tormentLuther believed that through Gods grace, salvation was not a burden but a gift from a merciful God Salvation could not be earned, but was given freely; Sola Fida

    Sola fida (by faith alone) was one of Luthers key tenets

  • LUTHERS KEY TENETSThe second major tenet of Luthers was Sola Scriptura (by word alone)Faith in Gods mercy came only from the knowledge and contemplation of the word of God (Bible)All that was needed to understand Gods mercy was contained in the BibleLuther believed in only two of the seven sacramentsBaptismCommunion


    Sola gratia is a Luther doctrine which teaches that God extends love and favor to sinners on the basis of the atonement accomplished through the death and resurrection of Jesus and the merit of Christ's righteousnessMan, being sinful, does not earn or deserve the love and favor of God; rather, God chooses to give that which man does not meritIt is God's grace (Sola gartia) that saves us through faith

  • PRIESTHOOD OF ALL BELIEVERSLuther thought that all who believed in Gods righteousness were equal in Gods eyesNeither pope nor priest, neither monk or nun, could achieve a higher level of spirituality than the ordinary citizenMinisters and preachers were valuable, but could not confer faith


    The doctrine of justification by faith alone meant the RCCs emphasis on good works and sacraments were called into questionLuthers doctrine of faith through individual biblical study weakened the authority of the clergyFinally, his doctrine of equality of all believers struck at the heart of the long-established hierarchy of the RCC

    Which man do you think history credits for laying the egg that Luther hatched?

  • THE DIET OF WORMSExcommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521, Luther was then ordered by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to appear before the Diet assembled in Worms, GermanyCharles ordered Luther to recant his teachings Luther replied, I cannot and I will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwiseCharles V declares Luther an enemy of the empire in both Church and state he was now an outlawPope Leo X, center, excommunicated Luther in 1521 for his radical views

  • Emperor Charles V looks on as Luther, gesturing skyward, defends his beliefs at the Diet of Worms in 1521

  • LUTHER CONTINUES TO DEFY AUTHORITIES AND GAIN SUPPORTLuther wrote many controversial books and essays after posting his thesesHis Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520), called upon princes to take the reform of religion into their own handsSome powerful supporters emerged such as Prince Frederick III of SaxonyAdditionally, political issues such as Charles desire to maintain the support of German princes played into Luthers handLuther took advantage of new printing technology to author 30 works between 1517-1520

  • LUTHER HAS PRINCES SUPPORT There were two key reasons German princes turned to Luthers theologyFirst, sincere religious conviction Second, economic considerations such as increased personal revenue (Luthers call for civic leaders to lead their own churches meant they could keep their own revenues) German princes were not above using the new theology for their own gain

  • CITIES EMBRACE LUTHERThe Reformation spread especially well in the German citiesOnce Protestant princes adopted the ideas, entire towns followedUrban dwellers had long resented the benefits bestowed on the RCC (land) and the clergy (exempt tax status)Once Protestant, city governments secured their own autonomy over the Church by taking over many of the religious houses and encouraging monks and nuns to enter civilian life

    Luther Bible

  • LUTHER APPEALS TO PROMINENT WOMENNoblewomen were among the most important defenders of Protestant reformersMarguerite of Navarre (1492-1549), sister of Francis I, created her own court in the south of France and stocked it with humanists and ProtestantsBona, wife of Sigismund I of Poland, was especially important in the eastern reform movementAn Italian by birth, Bona was a central figure in spreading both Renaissance and art and humanism learning in Poland

  • LUTHER APPEALS TO COMMON WOMEN, TOOThe doctrine of equality of all believers put men and women on equal spiritual footing, even if it did not allow for women ministersFurthermore, Luther realized the enormous value of family life and holy matrimonyFinally, by promoting the education of both genders, Luther further gained the support of women Despite his radical views on gender equality spiritually, Luther had traditional, conservative views about womens role in society and the household

  • THE SPREAD OF LUTHERANISMBy the end of the 1520s, the HRE was divided between cities and states that accepted reformed religion and those that adhered to the RCCIncluded in the Lutheran movement were parts of Germany, Poland-Lithuania, Prussia, Scandinavia and SwitzerlandIn Denmark, Christian III seized RC Church lands and created a reform religion under Luthers direct control

  • ZWINGLI BRINGS REFORM RELIGION TO SWITZERLANDHuldrych Zwingli (1484-1531) brought reformed religion to the town of ZurichZwingli was a preacher among the Swiss mercenary troops that fought for the HREHe was stricken by the plague in 1519 and came to a personal realization of the power of Gods mercyHuldrych Zwingli (1484-1531)

  • ZWINGLIS BELIEFSZwingli believed the Church had to rediscover its earlier purityHe stressed the equality of all believers, justification by faith alone, and the gospel as the chief authorityHe attacked indulgences, penance, clerical celibacy, prayers to the Virgin, and statues and images in churches Furthermore, he preferred to view mass as a commemorative event rather than one that involved the real presence of Christ (Lords Supper)Zwingli viewed communion as a memorial, thus symbolic and not the actual blood and body of Christ

  • ZWINGLIS IDEAS SPREADThe principles Zwingli preached spread quickly to neighboring Swiss states; including Bern and BaselZwinglis reform were carried out by civil governments which he allied himselfIn Zwingli states there was an important integration of church and stateIt was fitting that Zwingli died on the battlefield defending the stateZwingli felt church and state could not be separated

  • THE PROTESTANT REFORMATIONBy the mid 1530s, Protestant reform had entered a new stageLuther never intended to form a new religion; most of his energy was expended in attack on Rome and the RCCThe second generation of reformers were builders whose challenge was to create enduring structures for reformed churches

  • GENEVA AND CALVINThe town of Geneva, Switzerland was saved from a war with Savoy when it allied with powerful Swiss neighbor, BernIn 1536, the adult males of Geneva voted to become ProtestantAll they lacked was a powerful reformer; thats when a French-born priest and lawyer emerged to lead Genevas reform movement

  • CALVINS FLEES FRANCEAt age 20, Calvin converted to Lutheranism and predictably was run out of France by Francis IIn 1535, he arrived in Basel, where he wrote his Institutes of the Christian Religion The book was a defense of French Protestants against persecution For the next 25 years, Calvin organized his reform church in Geneva

  • CALVINS BELIEFSLike Luther and Zwingli, Calvin believed in justification by faith alone, the biblical foundation of religious authority, and that salvation came from Gods graceBut more strongly than his predecessors he believed that the gift of faith was granted only to some and that each individuals salvation or damnation was predestined (predetermined) before birth

  • CALVIN AND PREDESTINATIONThe doctrine of predestination was not new, but Calvin emphasized it and brought it to the center of the faithThose who were predestined to salvation, the elect were obliged to govern; those who were predestined to damnation were obliged to be governedFor Calvin, therefore, discipline and structure were criticalOr

  • CALVINS CHURCH STRUCTURECalvins greatest contribution to religious reform came in church structure and disciplineHe structured his church in four parts:1) PastorsVery few who preached the word of God2) Doctors (Theological)Studied and wrote3) DeaconsLaymen who ran hospitals and schools4) EldersGovernors of moral issuesStrict moral codes meant rock n roll was prohibited in Calvins Geneva

  • CALVINS DISCIPLINEThe most controversial part of Calvins Geneva was the strict moral code that extended into all aspects of private lifeThe 12 elders met each week in a body known as the Consistory to examine violationsOffenses ranged from blasphemy to adultery to prostitution

  • CALVINISM SPREADSWaves of Calvinist-educated pastors returned to France in the mid-16th century and established churches along Calvinist linesCalvinism spread north to Scotland and the Low Countries and east to Poland where it flourished in Lithuania and HungaryPerhaps it greatest impact was in Britain, where the Reformation took place not once but twice

  • THE ENGLISH REFORMATIONIt all started when Henry VIII wanted a divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon because she had not produced a male heirDespite 6 births and several miscarriages, Catherine and Henry VIII had one daughter that survived, Mary TudorHenry VIII believed it was Gods punishment for his marriage to his late brothers former wifeIt took a papal dispensation for his marriage and wanted a papal dispensation for a divorceNot so fast said the pope . . .

  • DIVORCE COMPLICATIONS For three years Henrys case was mired in the papal courtsComplicating his desire for divorce was the fact that Catherine was the aunt of the Emperor Charles V who took her sideWith imperial power strong in Italy, the pope was in no hurry to help Henry VIII

  • HENRY VIII MOVES FORWARDBy 1533, Henry VIII could no longer wait he had impregnated one of the ladies-in-waiting, Anne BoleynHe decided to bypass the papal courts and had his marriage annulled by Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of the highest ecclesiastical court in EnglandThat was the first step in a complete break from RomeThomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, annulled Henry VIII marriage

  • THOMAS CROMWELL LEADS SPLITUnder the guidance of Thomas Cromwell, the English Parliament passed several statutes ultimately making Henry VIII head of the church in England and owner of all its wealthCulminating with the Act of Supremacy passed in 1534, which declared the king as Supreme Head of the Church of EnglandMonasteries were dissolved and a Lutheran service was introducedEnglands first reformation came as a result of the Kings Great MatterCromwell was Chancellor of the Exchequer, and later served as Henry's Vice-Regent of Spirituals

  • THE CHURCH OF ENGLANDHenry VIII had actually suppressed the growth of reformed religion prior to his desire for a divorce and staunchly supported CatholicismHe even earned the title of, Defender of the Faith from the pope after he authored an attack on Luthers ideas in 1521However, Henry VIIIs divorce unleashed a groundswell of support for religious change in EnglandMedal of Henry VIII as Defender of the Faith issued in 1545

  • CATHOLICS SUPPRESSED IN ENGLANDIn the 1530s, the English Parliament took control of religion in England as the valuable church estates were sold to the gentryThose citizens who did not swear to new oaths of allegiance or recognize the legality of Henry VIIIs marriage suffered (Thomas More and 40 others were executed)Catholics continued to exist (even thrive) in England, surviving underground during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and reemerging under Mary I (1553-1558)

  • THE SUCCESSORS OF HENRY VIIIIt was in the reign of Edward VI (1547-1553), Henrys son by his third wife, Jane Seymour, that the central devotional changes were madeThough Protestant in tenor, there remained compromises and ambiguities:* Church service in English* Two English Prayer books created* Mass reinterpreted along Zwingli lines (Lords Supper)* Priest became ministers* Imposed the First Book of Common Prayer on English worshippers (Act of Uniformity)* Clerical reform was institutedCrowned king at the age of 9, Edward VI is regarded by many as the architect of the Reformation in England

  • MARY TUDORS REIGNThe first women to rule England, Mary Tudor was as Catholic as her mom, Catherine of AragonShe vowed to bring the nation back to the Catholic ChurchWhen Edward VI died, the ruling elite opted for political legitimacy (Mary) rather than a Protestant pretenderQueen Mary 1553-1558

  • QUEEN MARYS CHANGESMary reestablished papal sovereignty, abolished Protestant worship, and introduced educational programs to train new priestsShe ordered the burning of Cranmer and three other bishops along with 270 othersMany English Protestants fled to friendlier nationsShe failed to restore old church lands, howeverIllustration of Cranmer going to the stake

  • ELIZABETH I RETURNS ENGLAND TO PROTESTANTISMWhen Mary died in 1558, her half-sister Elizabeth I came to the throneElizabeth I ushered in the second English Reformation and like Mary she used execution as a means to her religious goals The English Church adopted the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and the simplification of the churchThe Thirty-nine Articles (1563) continued the English tradition of compromising points of disputed doctrineUnder Elizabeth I (1558-1603), England adopted a kind of Calvinist-lite Protestantism

  • THE RADICAL REFORMERSWhile Luther attacked the Catholic Church and was considered quite controversial theologically, he never intended and did not desire subverting civil authorityLet every person be subject to the governing authorities with fear and reverence, Luther often quoted from the BibleOther Protestant groups were not so inclined They represent a radical group of second generation Protestant reformers who sought greater social reforms

    Luthers, On the Jews and Their Lies, (above), illustrate his social and political conservative leanings

  • THE ANABAPTIST CHALLENGE Often called the left-wing of the Reformation, Anabaptist (meaning to baptize again) described the outcasts from the Protestant foldAnabaptists first appeared in German and Swiss towns in the 1520sAnabaptists believed only adults could make the decision to be baptizedThis belief put them at odds with mainstream Christians who viewed infant baptism as a core doctrine

  • ANABAPTIST TENETSAside from the radical baptism stance, Anabaptist believed more in the mystical side of religion and gave testimony to revelations they experiencedFurthermore, and perhaps most objectionable to the mainstream was their belief in separation of church and stateThey wanted nothing to do with civil authority and did not pay taxes, perform military obligations or take oathsAnabaptist are considered among the first pacifists

  • ANABAPTISTS PERSECUTEDWherever they settled, the small bands of believers were persecuted to the full extent of the laws of heresy Catholics and Protestants tortured and executed scores of AnabaptistsOne stubborn group that persevered were the Moravian Anabaptists in Bohemia, Poland and Hungary Another enduring sect was founded by Dutch Anabaptist Menno Simons (1496-1561) whose followers became known as MennonitesModern Amish have their roots in the Mennonite community

  • CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATIONDespite the Protestant Reformation, Catholicism remained strong especially in southern Germany, Italy, Poland-Lithuania, Spain, France, and IrelandWhile they felt the same impulse for reform that Protestants did, Catholics reformed their church from withinThe RCC placed a new emphasis on personal piety, founding new religious and missionary orders, and preaching educationThe Protestant Reformation actually served to revitalize the RCC, and Catholicism was stronger at the end of the era than it had been before

  • THE SPIRITUAL REVIVALThomas a Kempis influential book, The Imitation of Christ (1427), was the central text in a Catholic movement known as the New PietyThe book instructed the reader to lead a simple Christian life with personal devotion at its coreThis New Piety was a central influence on Christian Humanists (Erasmus) whose goals included reform of the RCC through education and simple devotion, but always within the confines of the Church Early in the 15th century, Catholics were experiencing a spiritual revival

  • SPAIN AVOIDS PROTESTANT REFORMATIONSpanish Archbishop Jimenez de Jimenez de Cisneros, who also served as Inquisitor-General of the Spanish Inquisition, undertook a wide-ranging reorganization of Spanish religious life in the late 15th centuryCisneross program took the bite out of Protestant attacks on clerical abuse, and there was never a serious Protestant movement in SpainJimenez de Cisneros (1436-1517)

  • ITALY AVOIDS PROTESTANT REFORMATIONPerhaps the most influential reforming bishop was Italian Gian Matteo GibertiGiberti lived a simple, frugal life, visited his parishes regularly, and enforced vows and residency requirements of all his clergy Additionally, Giberti founded almshouses to aid the poor and orphanages to house the homelessGian Matteo Giberti (1495-1543)

  • NEW ORDERS FORMED The most important indication of a renewed spirit of reform within the Catholic Church was the foundation of new religious orders in the early 16th centuryThe Capuchins in Italy sought to follow the teachings of Saint Francis of Assisi and were devoted to penance and good worksA particularly arduous order of sect of Franciscans, the group still flourishes today

  • SAINT TERESA OF AVILAIn Spain, Saint Teresa of Avila (1515-1582) led the reform of the CarmelitesShe believed that women had to withdrew totally from the world around them to achieve true devotionShe founded a convent and began writing devotional tracts such as The Way of PerfectionShe went on to supervise the organization of 16 religious houses for women

  • THE URSULINESIn 1535, Saint Angela Merici (1474-1540) established another female order The UrsulinesA unique foundation, the Ursulines were composed of young unmarried women who remained with their families but lived chaste lives devoted to the instruction of other womenThe Ursulines began in northern Italy, spread into France and helped provide women with education and moral role models

  • LOYOLAS PILGRIMAGESaint Ignatius Loyola (1491- 1556) led one of the most important movements for religious reform in the 16th centuryTrained for military service in Spain, a cannonball shattered his leg in 1521As he recovered, he read extensively on the life of Jesus and the saintsHe decided to give his life over to spirituality Stained glass depiction of an injured Loyola on the battlefield

  • LOYOLA EXERCISES HIS DEMONSLike Luther, Loyola was tormented by his inability to achieve grace through penanceUnlike Luther, he remained a dedicated Catholic He wrote a book of devotion called The Spiritual ExercisesIn 1540, Loyola won the approval of Pope Paul III to establish a new holy order, the Society of JesusLoyola volunteered his followers (Jesuits) to serve all over the world

    Ignatius Loyola formed the Jesuits in 1540. The order remains an important feature of modern Catholicism.

  • JESUITS TRAVEL THE WORLD TO SPREAD THE WORDOne Loyola discipline, Francis Xavier, made converts to Catholicism in India and JapanThe New World was the destination of other Jesuits missionaries hoping to convert the native populationsThe Jesuits embraced a kind of militant Catholicism; they called themselves soldiers of God who served beneath the banner of the crossLoyola founded schools to train recruits for his order. The training was rigorous. Soon teaching lay people became the Jesuits most important function as they established over 100 colleges worldwide.

  • THE CATHOLIC COUNTER-REFORMATIONThe traditional Catholic Church was determined to meet the challenge of Protestantism head-onThe Counter-Reformation saw the revival of the Inquisition, a list of prohibited books published, new religious orders thriving, and a general meeting to (re) establish church doctrine

  • THE COUNCIL OF TRENTThe most important aspect of the Catholic Reformation was the Council of Trent which met intermittently during the mid-16th century and corrected a number of abuses (most noteworthy was the ending of the sale of indulgences)formulated rules for the regulation of priestssaid the Churchs interpretation of the Bible was finalemphasized the function of the clergy and celibacyprepared a new modern and uniformed Catholic service updated the Index of Prohibited booksReiterated Catholic doctrine reaffirming the 7 sacraments, justification by faith and works, and the miracle of the Eucharist (transubstantiation)The Council met in Trent, Italy from 1545-1563

  • CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS CONFLICTBeginning in the 1530s, Western European Christianity (especially Germany) took to the battlefield to settle their differences and assert their powerOn one side were the Catholics, headed by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V On the other side were the Protestants, led by the northern German towns and Zwinglis Swiss contingency

  • PEACE OF AUGSBURGAfter decades of fighting, a broken and dying Charles V signed the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 The treaty granted the princes of Germany the right to establish the religion of their peopleThus, Protestant princes would govern Protestants states and Catholic princes would govern Catholic statesThe Peace of Augsburg ended 40 years of religious struggle in Germany

  • WAR LOOMS ON HORIZONDespite the Peace of Augsburg, religious differences in western European Christendom were far from overFor the next century, Europe would engage in numerous religious warsLuther had forever split Christianity and unleashed a deadly battle for power that would not end until the middle of the 17th centuryLuthers ideas not only split Christianity, but ultimately led to a century of religious warfare

  • EUROPE AT WAR: 1555-1648The wars that dominated Europe from the Treaty of Augsburg (1555) to the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) were fought on a larger scale, were more brutal and more expensive, and claimed more victims than previous conflictsReligious differences were exacerbated by dynastic claims and international rivalriesThe future of Europe was shaped by this century of slaughter

  • WHY NO TOLERATION?Toleration seemed so logical that it is difficult to understand why European nations failed to embrace it The problem was that society had had been organized under one king, one faith for centuriesThose that advocated even limited forms of toleration were universally despisedOnly Poland-Lithuania, Hungary, and a few German states experimented with religious toleration in the 16th century

  • THE FRENCH WARS OF RELIGIONProtestantism came late to FranceIt was not until after Calvin reformed the church in Geneva that French society divided along religious linesBy 1560, 10% of France was Protestant Protestantism was especially popular among French merchants, traders, artisans and aristocratic women

  • POWER VACUUM IN FRANCEAfter Valois King Henry II (1547-1559) died in a jousting contest, his oldest son, Francis II (1559-1560), under the influence of his wife, Mary, Queen of Scots, allowed the Guise family to dominate the statediesheirheirs wifeGuise family

  • GUISE FAMILY FLEX MUSCLES, COMPETE WITH BOURBONSThe Guises controlled Valois Monarchy and the two other most powerful institutions of the state, the army and the Catholic ChurchTheir enemies were the Bourbons, a family with a direct line to the throne and many powerful ProtestantsThe Guise family was determined to rid the country of Protestants

  • FRANCIS II DIES, CHARLES IX TAKES OVERAfter Francis II died, Guise power evaporatedHis ten-year-old brother, Charles IX took the throne under the control of his mother, Catherine de Medicis, who declared herself regent of FranceDiesRegent10

  • FRANCES CIVIL WAR In 1562 French Catholics and Protestants went to warThe Catholics wanted Henry Guise (the head of the ultra Catholic faction) to ascend to the throne and reclaim France for Catholicism and they courted the support of Catholic SpainThe Protestants, or Huguenots, wanted the right to practice their faith freely and they imported Swiss and German mercenaries

  • THE ST. BARTHOLOMEWS DAY MASSACREBy 1570 Catherine de Medicis was ready to reconcile by marrying her daughter Margaret to Henry of Navarre in August of 1572The ceremony presented the Guises with an opportunity to turn the tide of the war by assassinating leading Protestants in attendanceAnd they did . . .On August 24, 1572, the streets of Paris ran red with Huguenot bloodIn the weeks that followed, the violence spread to the countryside as thousands more Protestants were killedAn eyewitness account of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre by Franois Dubois

  • CONSEQUENCES OF THE MASSACREThe St. Bartholomews Day Massacre prolonged the French Civil WarHuguenots now had an emotional attachment to the continuation of the conflictEven some Catholics joined the outrage over the savage slaughterThose sympathetic Catholics became known as politiques, from their desire for a practical settlement of the wars

  • CATHOLIC LEAGUE FIGHTS PROTESTANTS, CATHOLIC POLITIQUESThe Catholic league was formed and took up where the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre left offBy 1585, when the final civil war began called the War of the Three Henrys, named for King Henry III, Henry Guise, and Henry of Navarre the crown was teetering on the edge

  • WAR OF THE THREE HENRYSIn December 1588, Henry III summoned Henry Guise and Guises brother to a meeting in the royal bedchamberThere they were murdered by the kings orderThe politiques were blamed for the murdersHenry III fled Paris under pressure from the Catholic League and made a deal with Henry NavarreIIIGuiseNavarreModerate CatholicProtestantUltra Catholic

  • ROYALISTS SEIZE PARISHenry III and Henry Navarre team up to save Paris from control of the Ultra CatholicsOther developments happened quickly as Catherine de Medicis died (1589) and that same year a fanatic priest gained revenge for the murder of Guise by assassinating Henry III

  • HENRY OF NAVARRE BECOMES HENRY IVIf Henry of Navarre was to ever become King of France he would have to be a Catholic kingReportedly saying, Paris is worth a mass, Henry of Navarre converted to Catholicism He finally was crowned Henry IV in 1594Resistance to his rule continued for years, but he was a strong and capable rulerThe league collapsed, and moderate Catholics rallied around him

  • EDICT OF NANTESIn 1598, Henry IV proclaimed the Edict of Nantes, which granted limited toleration to the HuguenotsIt was a compromise that satisfied no one, but it was a compromise that everyone could acceptOne king, two faiths was as apt a description of Henry IV as it was of the settlementYet, sporadic fighting continued and Henry IV survived 18 attempts on his life before he was finally assassinated in 1610The Edict of Nantes marked the end of religious wars between French Roman Catholics and Protestants for 87 years

  • THE WORLD OF PHILIP IIBy the mid-16th century, Spain was the greatest power of EuropeThe dominions of Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific; his continental territories included the Netherlands and Milan and NaplesIn 1580, he became King of Portugal, uniting the Iberian peninsulaSpains maritime power was unsurpassed as was their cultural and intellectual prowess

  • ON PHILIPS REIGNFew monarchs took their tasks more seriously than Philip IIPhilip II earned his reputation as the King of Paper by maintaining a grueling work schedulePhilip poured through the mountain of paper his empire createdNo detail was too small to escape his attention

  • PHILIP II VS. OTTOMANSIn the Mediterranean, Spain stood alone against the expansion of Ottoman powerPhilip took up the challenge of defending European ChristianityIn 1571, both sides prepared for a decisive battleA combined Spanish and Italian force of more than 80,000 men met an even larger Ottoman force off the coast of GreeceThe Spanish naval victory at Lepanto was considered one of the great events of the 16th century and marked the end of the Ottoman advancesFresco of the Lepanto battle plan by Antonio Danti in the Vatican Museums

  • European artists, story-tellers, and song-writers celebrated Philip IIs victory against the Ottomans at Lepanto for centuries after the 1571 battle

  • Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese 1572

  • PHILIP II AND THE ENGLISHPhilip was equally aggressive against the English ProtestantsIronically, for a brief time Philip II was King of England through his marriage to Mary I (1553-1558)He encouraged Marys efforts at restoring Catholicism in EnglandWhen Mary died and Elizabeth I (1558-1601) rejected his marriage proposal, his limited rule in England endedFrom then on, Spain and England entered a long period of hostilityMary ILiz IPhil II

  • PHILIP II VS. THE ENGLISHEnglish pirates raided Spanish treasure ships returning to EuropeElizabeth I secretly aided both French and Dutch Protestants Finally, in 1588, Philip II decided upon an invasion of Britain using his powerful ArmadaThe Spanish Armada had over 130 ships and were bigger and stronger than the English

  • THE SPANISH ARMADA GOES DOWN IN DEFEATThe Spanish Armada was the most powerful navy in the world, but the English ships were faster and more maneuverable Furthermore, the English ships had re-loadable guns while the Spanish could take only a single shot before hand-to-hand combat beganThe English were able to defeat the Spanish Armada and dealt Spain and Philip II a military and psychological blow1588

  • THE REVOLT OF THE NETHERLANDSThe biggest crisis of Philips reign was the revolt of the Netherlands (an important Spanish possession)The Netherlands was one of the richest and most populous regions of EuropeThe region was the international leader in manufacturing, banking, and commerceCharles V attempted to unify the diverse areas of the Netherlands by removing them from the HRE and establishing a regent under his eldest son, Philip II

  • PHILIP II LOSES CONTROL OF LOW COUNTRIESOnce firmly in Madrid, Philip II named his half-sister, Margaret of Parma, as regent of the NetherlandsTraditional resentments built up hostility to foreign rule, distrust of royal advisers, and contempt of royal policies and culminated in Philips religious policy Margaret of Parma

  • THE NETHERLANDS RESISTS PHILIPS CATHOLIC DOGMAProtestantism, especially Calvinism, was popular among the large urban population of the Netherlands (Amsterdam, Antwerp)As Philip attempted to strengthen and enforce Catholicism in the Low Countries, Protestant resistance intensifiedLeading Protestants, including William of Orange, made ultimatums to Madrid regarding tolerance

  • REBELLION AND WARSoon Calvinists rioted against governmental intolerance by occupying Catholic Churches and destroying stained glass windows, statues of the Virgin and saintsPhilip was determined to punish the rebels and enforce the heresy lawsA large military force under the command of the Duke of Alba was sent to occupy the NetherlandsCatholic symbols were destroyed by rioting Calvinists

  • COUNCIL OF BLOODThe Duke of Alba was brutal in his suppression of the rebellion in the NetherlandsHe executed leading Protestants via a military court called the Council of Blood, which convicted 9,000 and murdered 1,000He allowed his soldiers to rape and pillage towns before slaughtering entire populations and razing them to the ground

  • THE PROTESTANT REBELSAlbas brutal policies drove the Protestants to further rebellionSpain was forced to raise taxes to maintain a large army in the NetherlandsThe tax increase led to further Protestant assaults some succeeded in surprising Alba and the Spanish forcesProtestant generals established a permanent base in the province of Holland and Zeeland

  • SPAIN STRUGGLESAs William of Orange led the two renegade provinces (Holland, Zeeland), Spains government was collapsing all over the NetherlandsMargaret of Parma resigned over Albas tactics soon after Alba was relieved of his dutiesWith no one in control of the Spanish army, they roamed the southern Provinces looking for plunderThe wayward army attacked Antwerp for 4 days in 1576 and turned one of the worlds important banking centers into ruins

  • PROVINCES BREAK FROM SPAINThe Spanish fury in Antwerp effectively ended Philips rule over the NetherlandsThe Protestants had established a permanent home in the north and the States-General had established rule in the southTerms were all that was left to decide

  • PACIFICATION OF GHENTThe settlement, The Pacification of Ghent ((1576), saw the Spanish government concede local autonomy in taxation, the central role of the States-General, and the withdrawal of Spanish troopsFive southern provinces remained loyal to Catholicism and the regent (though that was not permanent)By 1609, Holland was a major rival of Spain and Portugal in building empires

  • THE STRUGGLES OF EASTERN EUROPEUntil the end of the 16th century, Poland-Lithuania was the dominant power in Eastern EuropeDuring the 16th century, Poland lost lands to Muscovy in the east, but the union with Lithuania in 1569 and the absorption of the Baltic region of Livonia more than compensated for the loses

  • THE POLISH DIETWar, peace, taxes, religious policy and reform were all placed under the strict supervision of the Polish parliamentary body known as the Polish DietRoman Catholicism was the principal religion in Poland, but the state tolerated numerous Protestant and Eastern creeds

  • SIGISMUND IIIAfter the Jagiellon Monarchy of Poland failed to produce an heir, Sigismund III (1587-1632) was elected to the throne Sigismund III, also the heir to the Swedish throne, accepted the idea of tolerance while actively promoting Catholicism in Poland through Jesuit schools and the expansion of monastic orders

    Sigismund III attempted to regain the Swedish throne but could not despite spending Polish money and manpower on the effort

  • MUSCOVYS TIME OF TROUBLESFollowing the death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584, the Muscovite state began to disintegrateIvans conflicts with the boyars (nobility) had created an aristocracy unwilling to aid his successorsBy 1601, the crown was plunged into a crisis of legitimacy known as the Time of Troubles

  • WHO TO RULE?After Ivan the Terrible killed the heir to the throne, his half-witted son was left to inherit the crownGroups of boyars and military officials backed their own claimants to the thronePoland tried to take advantage of the Time of Troubles as Sigismund III abandoned his war with Sweden to intervene in the struggle for the Russian crownPolish forces poured into Muscovy and in 1610, they took Moscow and Sigismund III proclaimed himself tsar, intending to unite the two massive states

  • BOYARS UNITE AGAINST FOREIGN INVASIONThe Russian boyars rose up against the Polish enemyThe Polish garrison in Moscow was starved into submission, and a native Russian, Michael Romanov (1613-1645) was chosen tsar by an assembly of landholders, the Zemsky Sobor Michael Romanov initiated a 300-year family dynasty as tsars of Russia

  • THE RISE OF SWEDENSwedens rise to power culminated in the 17th centuryIn 1523, Gustav I Vasa led the uprising of the Swedish aristocracy that ended Danish domination in the Baltic regionNobles had a powerful voice in Swedish affairs through the Rad, the council of state

  • SIGISMUND III BOOTED, CHARLES IX INProtestant Swedes did not appreciate Sigismund IIIs close alliance with Polish Jesuits, so despite his claim to the throne, they replaced him with Charles IX (1604-1611)War with Poland resulted from Sigismund IIIs efforts to regain the Swedish crownSweden had the edge at sea, while the Poles were better on landEarly Polish victories were not followed up as Sigismund decided to intervene in Russia affairs

  • THE DANES TAKE ADVANTAGEThe Danes continued to claim sovereignty over Sweden and took the opportunity of the Polish-Swedish conflict to reassert itIn 1611, under the leadership of the Danish King Christian IV (1588-1648), Denmark invaded Sweden from all directionsFinally, Sweden accepted humiliating terms in 1613, renouncing all claims to the northern coasts and recognizing Danish control of the Arctic trading routeDanish King Christian IV reasserted control over Sweden

  • GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS SUCCEEDS CHARLES IX IN SWEDENProtestant prince Gustavus Adolphus (1611-1632) was raised to be king of SwedenHis greatest skills were military as he introduced new weapons like a light mobile gun and reshaped his army into standard- size squadrons and regimentsHe re-captured Riga and firmly established Sweden as a coequal Baltic power

  • ADOLPHUS CREATES PROMINENT STATEBy mid-17th century, Gusatavus Adolphus enhanced Swedens prestige and increased her commercial prosperityHis marriage into the family of the Protestant rulers of Prussia gave Sweden a presence in Germany as wellAdolphus now took his place among leading Protestant Princes of Europe, and Sweden among the leading Protestant powers

  • THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 1618-1648Finally the isolated European conflicts merged into a major warThe Origins:The Spanish had reluctantly accepted Dutch independence and hoped to regain the territoryThe Twelve Years Truce between the Dutch and Spanish (1609-1621) allowed the Spanish to prepare for a final assault

  • BOHEMIA REVOLTSBy the beginning of the 17th century, Catholicism and Protestantism had achieved equal numbers within the German StateIn 1617, Mathias, the childless Holy Roman Emperor, began making plans for his Catholic cousin, Ferdinand Habsburg, to succeed himComplicating matters was the necessity of Ferdinand being elected King of Bohemia to ensure control of the electorsThe Protestant princes of Bohemia could not prevent Ferdinands election, but they could cause trouble Where is Bohemia?

  • Historically, Bohemia is a region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. With an area of 52,750 sq. km. and 6.25 million of the country's 10.3 million inhabitants, Bohemia is bounded by Germany to the north-west, west and south-west, Poland to the north-east, the Czech province of Moravia to the east and Austria to the south. BOHEMIA

  • DEFENESTRATION OF PRAGUEFerdinands Protestant opponents in Bohemia objected to his limitation of Protestant liberties by throwing two of his chief advisors out of a upper story window of Prague castle The officials survived the defenestration by landed in a pile of manure The Encyclopedia describes defenestration as the act of throwing someone or something out of a window and the traditional Czechoslovakian method of assassinating prime ministers" May, 1618

  • DEFENESTRATION BEGINS 30 YEARS WARThe Defenestration initiated further Protestant offensives throughout Habsburg landDespite the protests, Ferdinand succeeded Mathias as HRE and became Ferdinand II (1619-1637)Meanwhile, Frederick V, one of the Protestant electors, accepted the Bohemian crown Frederick was the leader of the Protestant Union and the "Winter King of Bohemia" Ferdinand II HREFrederick V King of Bohemia

  • FREDERICK V - THE WINTER KINGA sincere but weak Calvinist, Frederick V had famous relativesHis mother was a daughter of William of Orange and his wife, Elizabeth, was a daughter of James I of EnglandOnce Frederick V accepted the Bohemia crown he faced war on three frontsHis immediate opponent, Ferdinand II had plenty of Catholic support, while Frederick V had little help from Protestant nationsAt the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, Ferdinand II annihilated Frederick Vs army forcing Frederick and Elizabeth to flee north

    Battle of White Mountain

  • BOHEMIA FALLS TO HREBohemia became part of the hereditary Habsburg lands and subject to imperial lawProtestants were repressed and rooted out, forever consolidating the Catholic character of BohemiaThe Battle of White Mountain was a turning point in the history of central Europe

  • THE WAR WIDENSThe Habsburgs were now more dangerous than everFerdinands aggressive Catholicism now threatened Protestant princes of GermanyA grand Protestant alliance supported secretly by the French brought together England, Holland, several German states and DenmarkThe Danes led this potentially powerful alliance against the Spanish and the HRE

  • KING CHRISTIAN IV LEADS CHARGE . . .UNSUCCESSFULLYIn 1626, a large Danish army under the command of King Christian IV engaged imperial forces on German soilBy the Danes could not match the superior forces of the Catholic mercenaries under the brilliant Count Albrecht von WallensteinIn 1629, the Danes withdrew and sued for peace

    WallensteinKing Christian IV

  • PROTESTANTS THREATENEDFerdinand II was determined to return all previous Catholic land (prior to 1555) back to the CatholicsFurthermore, he proclaimed that the Peace of Augsburg made no provision for the toleration of CalvinistsFerdinand IIs bullying had succeeded in pushing the Lutherans and Calvinists into an alliance against him

    Emperor Ferdinand II threatened the very survival of Protestant nations with his aggressive Catholicism

  • SACK OF MAGDEBURG PROVIDES RALLYING POINT FOR PROTESTANTSMeanwhile, the Imperial forces sacked the Protestant German town of Magdeburg setting new standards in cruelty and brutalityProtestants rallied around the sack of Magdeburg as it gave the Protestant community a unifying symbol In 1630, King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden decided to enter the German conflict

  • GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS GAINS PROTESTANT SUPPORT, VICTORIESKing Adolphus was joined by the German states of Brandenburg and Saxony He had 140,000 men under his command and he soon won decisive victories against the Imperial forcesHis victory at Breitenfeld marked the first Protestant gains since the onset of the warKing Adolphus would now take the war to the CatholicsGustavus Adolphus shown at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631 the first important Protestant victory in the war

  • ADOLPHUS PRESSES HIS ADVANTAGEAfter his victory at Breitenfeld, Adolphus pressed his advantage as the Swedes marched west to the Rhine, easily taking Catholic cities and the lower PalatinateNext, Adolphus captured the Upper Palatinate from Bavarian ruler Maxiliian There are two areas of Germany described as "Palatinates": the Upper and the Lower. The Upper is in eastern Bavaria and the Lower is on Germany's western border...they are not connected.

  • THE SHOWDOWN: ADOLPHUS VS. WALLENSTEIN In the winter of 1632 the armies of Protestant King Adolphus and Catholic general Wallenstein met at the battle of LutzenThe Swedes won the battle, but lost their leader Adolphus left his legacy as Protestant forces now controlled most of central and northern Europe

  • FRANCE AND SPAIN RESUME STRUGGLEThe final stage of the war involved the resumption of the century-old struggle between France and SpainAfter the Spanish declared war on the Dutch in 1621 and the Habsburg success in central Europe, French King Louis XIII and his chief minister Cardinal Richelieu finally decided it was time to intervene in European politicsKing Louis XIIICardinal RIchelieuFrance declared war on Spain in 1635

  • FRANCE AND SPAIN POUND ON EACH OTHERFrance took the offensive first, invading the Spanish NetherlandsIn 1636, Spain struck back, pushing to within 25 miles of Paris before being repelledThe war resembled two punch-drunk fighters pounding each other

  • FRANCE OUTLASTS SPAINIn the end, Spains poor economy and Imperial loses in central Europe, proved too much to overcomeAt the battle of Rocroi, exhausted French troops held out and the Spanish invasion failedThe desire for peace was universal as the war took its toll on the combatants

  • PEACE OF WESTPHALIAA series of agreements, collectively known as the Peace of Westphalia, established the outlines of the political geography of Europe for the next centuryThe focus was on the HRE, and reflected Protestant success in the final two decades of the war

    The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Mnster and Osnabrck respectively, refers to the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War, and "officially" recognized the United Provinces. The treaty was signed October 24, 1648, and meant an end to the long conflict between Catholic and Protestant forces.

  • DETAILS OF SETTLEMENTSweden gained further Baltic territoriesFrance gained territory and prestigeThe Dutch gained statehood through official recognition by Spain Habsburgs regained control of both Bohemia and HungaryRights of Calvinists and the independence of the Swiss cantons were officially recognizedThe Emperors political control over the German states was weakenedGerman rulers were given independent authority

    The Holy Roman Empire clearly lost prestige, land, and power

  • COST OF THE WARThe costs of the conflict were horrificThe population of Germany fell from 15 million in 1600 to 11 million in 1650Plague and famine were resurrectedThe war played havoc with the economies of the combatants

  • THE BOTTOM LINELuthers questioning of his own faith led later to a series of religious and political conflicts of enormous proportionsIn the end, the northwest of Europe England, Holland, Scandinavia, and the north German states was Protestant, while the south was CatholicThe HRE was dead, while the Austro-Hungarian Empire was just beginningHolland and Sweden became international powers; Spain and Denmark fadedMuscovy began a long period of isolation