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Water Culture Management Plan
Hotels Palma Bay, Mallorca (Mediterranean)
Author Rosa Munar Quetglas ([email protected])
Advisors Jaime Stein & Alec Appelbaum
5 August 2013
For further information contact
Programs for Sustainable Planning and Development MS Urban Environmental Systems Management
61 St. James Place Brooklyn, New York
Phone: 718-399-4323 www.pratt.edu/uesm
Tourism & Freshwater use in Mallorca 3
Consequences overexploitation freshwater in Mallorca 6
Mass water consumption in Palma Bay 8
Water Culture Management Plan for Hotels 11
Lack of regional literate case studies 16
Tourism & Freshwater use in Mallorca
Drinking water is one of the natural resources essential for human life and
activity but availability is gradually reduced in Mediterranean countries. The
global distribution of water in the hydrosphere is mainly concentrate in oceans
and seas. Underground water is less than 1% of the total water in the planet but
it represents the 30% of the global freshwater supply. It is an elevated number,
because the rest amount is located at the ice sheet in the Antarctic (see table 1).
Nowadays, availability of underground water is seriously threatened in the
Mediterranean touristic areas.
In the Balearic Islands, groundwater has been thrown millenniums the main
water source. However, in 1999, for the first time, the European Plan Bleu
estimated that 4% of the aquifers in the islands were overexploited. In Mallorca,
the biggest island of the Balearic Archipelago, groundwater bodies represent
eighty percent of the hydric provision.
Table 1 Distribution of Freshwater in the Hydrosphere by Rosa Munar.
Source: Govern de les Illes Balears. Conselleria Medi Ambien. Los caminos del agua en las Islas Baleares. Acuíferos y manantiales. Palma: GPO, 2009. Web. 13 April 2013
The absence of surface water makes groundwater the main freshwater
capital of the island. The aquifers are considered the natural underground water
tanks that recollect the rainwater, being available during dry season. Dry season
also is known as the tourist season in Mallorca. Clearly, a peak period of water
consumption is occurred at this time of year as a result of tourism.
During the last fifty years, touristic development has represented an
important economical growth in Balearic Islands. Meanwhile, underground water,
the main freshwater resource in the island, has been on overuse alert. The two
fundamental factors, which have significant impacts on freshwater ecosystem in
Mallorca, are the population growth, especially during tourist season, and the high
average of water consumption by tourist. Those are strongly related to the
tourism industry in the island.
High water consumption due to population growth
Since the touristic boom began in the 60s, population in Mallorca has been
gradually increasing, being duplicated, from 339,966.00 in 1950 to 876,147.00 in
2011 (see fig.1). The coast and its adjacent areas mostly are shaped by sand.
Since it lacks of soil nutrient for farming, the coastline has swiftly become
residential areas along with increasingly hotels business. This represents an
important migration from inland population to the coastal zones. Based on the
Annual Tourism Report done 2011 for the Balearic Government the island has
12,316,399.00 visitors every year, mainly concentrated from June to August,
make its tourism industry as an essential characteristic of the region. In 2000, the
European Environmental Agency reported that water consumption during peak
tourism month of July in 1999 in the Balearic Islands was equivalent to 20% of
that used by the local population in a whole year.
Higher consumption of water for associated facilities and leisure
Tourist facilities and leisure activities require continually access to water.
Based on the report of Freshwater and Tourism in the Mediterranean done by
WWF, a tourist in Mallorca consumes 291 liter/day, in contrast, the water
consumption of a households in the Balearic Island is 121 liter/day. Local
residents in Mallorca consumed 38,695 m3 of water in 2011, was just a small
number, compared with 3,584,072.10m3 of water consumed by 12 billions visitors
at the same year. Plus, the average stay in 2011 was 8.4 days per tourist.
Therefore, a quite simple math, the water consumption of tourism sector
represents ninety two times more than the local residents every year.
Fig.1. Evolution population according census tracks from 1857 by Rosa Munar
Source: Balearic Islands Statistics Institute (IBESTAT). Web 13 July 2013
Consequences overexploitation freshwater in Mallorca
The overuse of groundwater, especially during dry season, represent a
severe constrain situation for the whole island. Freshwater should be understood
as a finite and vulnerable resource that needs to be protected.
A fact is groundwater in the Balearic Islands is limited. The total amount is
estimated in 400hm3 per year. That amount is the quantity of water that is
captured in the aquifers throw the process of rainwater infiltration into the
permeable soil. If the water captured every year is pictured like 1,600 soccer
fields full of water, a single hotel consumes 6 soccer fields per year. Just in
Mallorca there are 284 hotels. As the result, the amount of water is captured in
the groundwater bodies of the group Balearic Islands will supply just 266 hotels
The groundwater in Mallorca is a vulnerable resource. It is important to
understand aquifers regeneration process to realize the vulnerability of the
system. A drop of water evaporated from the sea represents the first step of the
water cycle. The journey from the infiltration into the soil throw the aquifers until it
gets back to the sea, it is a process of millions of years. The circulation of 50km
of a drop of water into surface water takes one day. On the other hand, the same
distance throw the underground water can take months or years. When the
groundwater bodies are damage it need a long period of time to be regenerated.
The Hydrological Plan of the Balearic Islands in 2009 defined the
underground water was in serious damage. The main coastal aquifers have been
salinized with no time estimated of the possible regeneration, even of the
implementation of good water measures for the all island (see fig.2). The
contamination has affected a lot of the groundwater bodies. Also, in some of the
aquifers it has been overexploited the reservoirs, which represented the intrusion
of salt water located in the coastal zones.
Fig.2. Groundwater bodies and the period of time to reach good condition. Modify by Rosa Munar
Source: Govern de les Illes Balears. Consellería de Medi Ambient, Direcció General de Recursos Hídrics. Guía del Plan Hidrológico de las Islas Baleares 2009 Documento de Divulgación. Palma: GPO, 2009. Web. 13 February 2013
Mass water consumption in Palma Bay
Palma Bay, located on the southern part of the island, is half of the total
population of the region. The capital Palma also is the highest population city with
405,318 inhabitants. The Bay concentrates 55% of the total amount of hotels of
the island, 159 hotels of 284 hotels in total. They are located in the area
accommodates 38,876.00 hotel beds, where 83% are mainly 3 and 4 stars hotels
with 73.8% occupancy rate per year. These types of hotels consume a high
amount of water during drier months of the year. Thus, the concentration of mass
water consumption hotels in Palma Bay makes the area to become a high
potential market for implementation water saving strategies.
Furthermore, the current water supply is constrained because of not only
the decreased quality of aquifers, but also the economical crisis in recent years
nationally. Investing into new water sources, such as desalination plants, has
been a challenge for local government. In the past, the government invested in
new water-infrastructure when freshwater became scared. However, since the
50’s, the turning point of touristic development, the water supply systems have
been growing responding of the increase of the water demand. The first
resources to be exploited were the aquifers of Palma region. The last
investments in 1999 in the water desalination plant and in 2009 the transfer of the
Sa Costera spring opened a question of how to manage the future water needs
for the bay. In other words, the implementation of conservation strategies is
necessary, and the tourist industry has its potential to be the leitmotiv for the
transformation of the island into a more sustainable water management practices.
Historical Layers Water Conservation
The history of ancient civilization had number of proofs to show the
significant role of water conservation in human life. Accordingly, the analysis of
their design would be greatly helpful for us to identify different strategies to
implement these days.
The Mediterranean Sea hosts a history of interaction between cultures that
began the 8th millennium BC. The Balearic Islands, one of the seventeen
autonomous regions of Spain, are a part of that millennium history. The first
settlers, known as the Caves Culture, walked from Italy to the islands during the
first Bronze Age, 2000-1200 BC. They first lived in caves after they had started to
develop villages with wood, mud and foliage. During the second Bronze Age,
1200-654 BC, known as the Talaiotic Culture, they started to build with stones of
3 to 10 meters high megaliths structures. These exclusive buildings, called
Talaiots, can still presently be seen all around the island of Mallorca. The settlers
of the Taliotic Culture were the first to become aware of the value of water on the
island. They built a variety of systems for collecting and filtering rainwater that
have been preserved to this day. The Carthaginians were the first to occupy
Mallorca with the intention of its becoming an important point for the
Mediterranean Trade. During that period the island become a pirate land until the
Roman Conquest in 123 AC. The Romans founded on the Southern Bay, the city
of Palma and near the North Bay, the city of Pollentia. They understood water as
a key element for new urban settlements. Their engineers built the first
underground water channels to guide the main streams and provide water for the
fountain Font de la Vila in Palma and the fountains of Ternelles in Pollentia.
During the Roman Empire, fountains were located in plazas or centric point of the
city where people and animals used to gather around. The fountain was a central
social architecture piece of the Romans’ life. After a multiple invasions from
Vandals, Byzantines, Mussulmen to Normans, eventually, peace was brought
back to Mallorca in 902 along with the Muslim Domination Period. Between the
tenth and thirteenth century, as a part of the medieval Muslim state, the Al-
Andalus water engineers started to reshape the island territory, creating complex
irrigation systems for agriculture and spectacular garden palaces. They built
sophisticated systems to collect, transport and store groundwater, the main water
resource of the island. They left to the next generations the most important
architectural water management legacy: irrigation canals (acequias), dams, baths,
waterwheel, water mill and cisterns. The end of the Islamic water heritage was in
1229 under the Christian Conquest. The beginning of the actual Majorcan society,
an agriculture culture that had developed a serial of traditional construction based
on harvesting culture.
Water Culture Management Plan for Hotels
The Water Culture Management Plan is a water conservation design service that
can be subcontracted by hotels. The implementation of the management plan is
divided into 4 phases (see fig.3):
Phase I Analysis Existing Condition
Phase II Identification Type of Improvement
Phase III Prioritize Goals and Schedule Implementation
Phase IV Implementation, Monitoring and Control
Fig.3. Four Phases Water Culture Management Plan by Rosa Munar
Phase I Analysis Current Situation
Analysis of hotel’s current situation is defined as the starting point of exploring the
plan. It must be conducted rigorously and comprehensively, requiring a certain
period of time. First of all, it is important to understand the water consumption of
the hotel and the costs of the overuse of water. A proper analysis, which is
measured by a profitable economical investment, will be a basic step in design
process toward a best practices. The analysis of the current situation is based on
carrying a report that includes the main features of the enter facility and sanitary
equipment that consume water. The report will include the followings:
• Analysis of water consumption and the water rates
• Meter reading for a certain period of time
• Assessment of the general condition of the internal pipes
• Assessment current situation sanitary equipment: faucets, toilets, the kitchen,
dishwasher and washing machine.
• Assessment of water consumption points: bathrooms guestroom, kitchen,
swimming pool and garden
• Assessment workers habits (cleaning and maintenance)
• Assessment habits costumers
Phase II Identification Type of Improvement
After the analysis of the current situation, it is time to identify potential
improvement alternatives to reduce water consumption. For each consumption
point, it is necessary to evaluate the following:
• Whether or not to buy new equipment or devices
• Type of investment and payback period
• Staff training needs to achieve behavioral changes
• Information needs of clients to achieve their collaboration
The final decision will primarily be based on the evaluation of the consumption
points and the operational situation of the hotel. The implementation can be
scheduled in phases to be able to maintain the 100% operational of the hotel.
The faces of repair or renovation together with maintenance can be done without
creating any inconvenience or loss of comfort for the clients. The faces of
refurbishment can be done during the low occupancy months, December and
January, when is more flexibility to change the rooms for guests. Types of water
conservation intervention is classified by the level of construction (see appendix):
A. Renovation / Maintenance - Installation water efficiency equipment
B. Repairs / Maintenance - Reducing water loss
C. Refurbishment – Use harvesting systems and reuse wastewater
Phase III Prioritize Goals and Schedule Implementation
Once drawn conclusions about improvement alternatives, this phase will conduct
a timeline for achievements and set the goals.
It is important to establish a general goal first hand, which determines the number
of percentage of water consumption in a period of time. For example, in one year
the hotel will reduce 10% of the water consumption. In other hand, establish
concrete goals that are related to certain areas. For example, reducing water
uses by watering in the garden with the replacement of local species adjusted to
dry climate. The following table shows a possible schedule of implementation:
Phase IV Implementation, Monitoring and Control
In this phase, the stage of monitoring and control should work together with the
stage of implementation. The measurements will allow to monitor and control,
while the capacity of continuously improvement establishes the correctively
measurement. Monitoring the progress of the plan is essential also ensuring that
objectives will be achieved. Since the results are reflected in the measures and
essential to the success of the plan, establish the administration control
measures benefit of facilities and tourist workers. Control to evaluate the
success of the measures set include:
• Keep track of expenses and investments
• Take periodic readings of the meters
• Verify the operation of devices and equipment installed
The control of the meters should be evaluated and coordinated by periods define
previously. The evaluation of the impact of the actions taken actions can be done
as the following:
Lack of regional literate case studies
The following step of Water Culture Management Plan is to analyze
different case studies, which have not only implemented water saving strategies
but also reinforced these in order to bring out economical benefits. However,
there are very few of case studies that included the economical benefits analysis
of water-saving measured in Mediterranean hotels. Most of the recent reports
are only focus on the quantity of water consumption savings. Knowingly relevant
case studies would be the key firstly to provide hotel owners a better
understanding of this holistic implementation, and secondly to make compromise
with them in order to achieve successfully the mission. Hence, by identifying
types of intervention, potential cost, payback period, potential economical savings
and water saving, this creation plan is a step forward approaching clients’
environmental sensibility, as well as a guiding toward a best practice of
In further steps, classifying hotels, which have the same characteristics first
hand included climate zone and already implemented water saving measures, in
order to accomplish a more comprehensive case study. Analysis based on
collected data from a same group of categorized hotels will develop more
convincing publication report in term of cost benefit. Moreover, those also would
provide the most effective arguments upon the criteria of the Water Culture
Management Plan evaluation.
The Water Culture Management Plan represents a holistic understanding
of the water conservation strategies for hospitality buildings. The mission of this
report is to engage not just the hotel owners, the fundamental clients, but also
local residents into this implementation plan regarding to water conservation; also,
throughout its process determine the enormous impacts upon the future of
Mallorca. Additionally, the interventions of water saving in a building are
understood as a part of the three scales. Big scale, the island scale explains the
environmental research of the water constrain situation in Mallorca. Medium
scale, the regional scale analyzes the current water supply situation in the Palma
Bay. Small scale, the building scale is the Water Culture Management Plan
implemented water conservation practices. Expectantly, this achievement, which
is compiled by the economical, social and environmental benefits, will be
considered as a cornerstone of future design-built system responding to
The types of intervention of water conservation intervention in Phase II are
classified by the level of construction.
A. RENOVATION / MAINTENANCE - Installation Water Efficiency Equipment
The installation of water efficiency equipment can be done as part of a renovation
and maintenance with the 100% of the hotel operating, without creating any
inconvenience to the guest.
The first step, before implementing any water saving device, is to analyze the
current situation of the bathrooms equipment. There are two possible scenarios:
yes or no, there are install water saving devices. In both cases is necessary to
test the efficiency of the actual equipment. After the evaluation, it is time to
determine the best improvement in terms of cost-benefit analysis.
Generally, most of the sanitary equipment are located at the guest bathroom with
a shower, a toilet and a sink. The implementation of water saving devices in
systems that consume hot water also contributes to the corresponding energy
savings needed to heat the water. The following are different water saving
devices that exist in the market to reduce water consumption. In some cases are
elements that can be add to the existing faucets or toilets, in other, there are new
modern equipment that have been designed for a more rational use of water.
A.1.1 Bathroom _ Faucets Systems
Exist in the market a wide range of adaptive water saving devices. They can be
divided by adaptive measures (flow limiter, diffuser, and pressure limiters) and
new equipment (mechanical flow switches, mixer taps, self-closing faucet,
electronic faucet, and thermostatic mixing valve).
Addition Existing Equipment:
Flow limiter (sink and shower)
The flow limiter is a device that regulates the flow of water in terms of water
demand and pressure. It is a mechanical device that limits the flow of water. It is
located between the shut-off valve and the rubber strap in the case of sink taps
and between the faucet and the hose in the case of showers.
The most modern faucets devices have already incorporate the flow limiter inside
the cartridge. The only way to regulate is to remove the covers and screw more
or less depending the type of faucet (sink or shower).
The water saving depends on the limit modification, but in general these devices
can reduce the flow up to 50%. It reduces the output flow of 10 liters per minute,
when usually a shower is 20 liters per minute.
Diffuser (sink and shower)
The diffuser is a device that mixes air with the water, even when the supply has
low pressure. It is reduce the water consumption without losing comfort. It is
cylindrical device screw at the end of the tap. Some of these filters are designed
to prevent blockages caused by the accumulation of lime, which helps keep taps
in good condition and prolong its shelf life.
There are many brands and types in the market adaptable to any kind of faucets
(sink or shower). The most modern faucets devices have already incorporate the
The market price is low and they are easy to install. The water savings are
between 30-70%. It is recommended to install it in all the faucets.
Diffuser with flow limiter (sink and shower)
It is a device that includes a flow limiter and a diffuser. Both devices sprayed
water with a continuous pressure (works even with 1 bar of pressure). This effect
increase the volume of water, with less flow it achieved the same effect and
comfort as normal use before the installation.
Pressure limiters (room or floor)
The pressure limiter can be located at the bathroom inlet pipe or the inlet pipe for
the entire floor. This device is a valve that reduces water pressure. It not
represents a net water savings but it avoids sudden changes of pressure in the
network consequence of the offer use of toilets and showers in certain hours.
The valves can be adjusted depending of the needs of each floor, or each
bathroom, limiting the maximum pressure of water.
Replacement Existing Equipment:
Mechanical flow switches (shower)
The mechanical flow switches open and close when driving a handle. It is a
recommended system for showers with two water inlets because this system
allow cut the flow and turn it on again without necessity to regulate the
temperature again. This system avoids the waste water and energy use to return
at the same flow and temperature.
The saving varies depending on the user but the water savings are between 10-
Mixer taps (sink and shower)
Mixer taps systems have significant advantages in terms of water savings. Most
of the models in the market already have flow limiter and diffuser. This type of
faucet allows regulating better and faster the water flow and the temperatures
avoiding unnecessary losses.
The water saving depends on the flow limiter and diffuser inside, but can reach
Self-closing faucet (sink and shower)
Self-closing faucet are mechanisms for sink and shower that lock the volume
automatically after a preset time. They have flow limiters inside. The timer tap
works with a switch that needs to be pressed every 10-15 seconds for sinks and
every 30 seconds for showers.
The water saving can be 30-40% for the shower systems and 20-30% for the
Electronic faucet (sink)
The electronic faucet works with a motion detector that opens a valve allowing
water flow in response to the presence of hands in close proximity. The flow and
temperature are pre-established, although the user can modify it using a
command button. As a safety system in case of continuous presence the tap
closes automatically after 30 seconds.
It is important to know that to implement this system is necessary having
electrical connection near the equipment, except the types that works with
batteries. In addition, its price is higher than other models. The water saving are
Thermostatic mixing valve (shower)
Thermostatic taps is a valve that blends hot water with cold water to ensure
constant temperature. These systems are used in showers, they allowed to save
energy and water because there are no losses to regulate the right temperature
for the user. In addition, they have flow limiters and diffusers. The water saving
can get up to 50%.
Main Recommendations Faucets:
• It is important to install mixer faucets in showers will increment the client
comfort and will reduce the water consumption because it allowed to get
faster at the desire temperature, saving in energy.
• Install pressure limiters in places where there is a high demand of water in
certain period of time, that will allowed to avoid the changes on water
pressure increasing the clients comfort.
• Install flow limiters low cost investment allowing 50% of water consumption
A.1.2 Bathroom _ Toilets Systems
There is in the market a range of different water saving devices for toilets. They
can be divided by adaptive measures and new equipment, with the incorporation
of water saving measures. A conventional cistern have 9 liters because the UNE
67-001-88 criteria establish the maximum capacity of the tanks in nine liter. Most
of the adaptive measures are located inside the cistern without the necessity on
replacing them. The new equipment, with limited discharge or dual flush, can
ensure up to 60% of water savings but most of the times the just save between
35-50% because there are not use properly.
Addition Existing Equipment:
Limiter toilet flush
It can be placed in conventional tanks. Devices are incorporated in the overflow
valve or on the flush out valve. When the toilet is flush it works closing the valve
after a few liters. If it is need bigger flush it needs to be press three or four
seconds. The limiter toilet flush is not design for higher tanks but can be adapt to
Fill up tank limiters
There are measures to limit the fill up of the tanks, reducing the flush. The
following are some measures:
- Introducing a spring inside of the tank shooter so that it exerts a constant
pressure when releasing the handle locks out water.
- Regulate the overflow tube preventing the tank fill up its full capacity.
Simultaneously must be regulated the level of the float in the tank
- Introducing inside the cistern an object (a bottle full of water closed) occupying
part of the water volume. When it is flush the object volume is not use.
Replacement Existing Equipment:
Toilet flow restrictor (cistern-behavioral system)
The toilet flow restrictor is a measure located in the tank. It is activated with the
flush bottom interrupting the discharge. It works pushing twice the bottom flush or
just one long time. During the double push it is the short discharge using from 4
to 6 liters. The longer discharge uses the full capacity of the cistern, between 9 to
Dual flush toilets (cistern-behavioral system)
The tanks have a double switch that allows two amounts of discharge. A large
discharge that empty the all cistern and a short discharge with a partial use of the
total amount. With a proper use the water saving can be up to 40%.
Fluxometer two stages (fluxometer-behavioral system)
In the same way as tanks, the fluxometer control the stages of discharge throw a
push bottom. They need the same type of pressure and pipe dimension that the
Main Recommendations Toilets:
• In the case of install new equipment with toilet flush restrictor, dual flush or
fluxometer with two stages, it is recommended to fixe the short discharge
between 3-5liters and the large discharge between 7-9liters. Because a lot
of times the users flush if the short discharge is lower. Do not put restrict
limits because most of the times will increase the use of water because the
users push a couple of times. It is very important to inform the user using
advisement notes, to promote the correct behavior.
• The introduction of one or two bottle full of sand is a very simple system
with low cost and easy to implement.
• Install a spring on the inner shooters
Kitchens are one of the important points of water consumption in tourist facilities,
as used both for washing and cooking food and for washing dishes and utensils
in general. It is important to remember that the staff work habits contribute
significantly to achieve rationalize water consumption.
A.2.1 Kitchen _ Faucets Systems
It is important to install all mixer faucets that incorporate diffusers and flow
reducers. The diffusers are very useful to the taps used to wash utensils or
washing food as they allow having a homogeneous flow.
For hand washing of utensils and food is important to evaluate the possibility of
installing faucets with electronic closing that open and close automatically
preventing flow taps remain open unnecessarily.
These faucets are the most efficient for the kitchens in restaurants, bars and
cafes. It works with a pedal that regulates the flow.
A.2.1 Kitchen _ Dishwasher
The use of dishwasher is an important source of saving water, energy and time.
Dishwashers currently marketed reduced water consumption, compared to 15
years ago, approximately 60%. There is a wide range of brands that sell various
models of washing programs. The dishwashers have different programs to
choose it is important to choice the most suitable to our needs, being aware of the
economical program that reduce the water consumption.
Main Recommendations Faucets Kitchen:
• Install faucets that have flow limiters and diffusors
• Use eco friendly soap dishwasher and do not overuse in quantity because
involve a higher consumption of water to clear and an increase of
• In case to wash by hand is necessary to put a rubber tap
Main Recommendations Dishwasher Kitchen:
• Before buying a new dishwasher request information on consumption of
water of different brands and models
• Not need to clear the dishes before placing in the dishwater
• Expect the machine is completely full before turn it on. If never gets full
maybe the size of the dishwasher is not adequate for the needs of the
• The proper use of the type of program will maximize the performance
reducing consumption of water, detergent, salt and rinse aid
• Is important to know the hardness of the water to adjust the dosage of
detergent and rinse aid, also improving the quality of the wash.
B. REPAIRS / MAINTENANCE - Reducing Water Loss
The reduction of water loses in the networking can be done as part of a
renovation and maintenance with the 100% of the hotel operating, without
creating any inconvenience to the guest.
The internal water pipes supply is a networking system to bring water from the
entrance of the building to the different point of use. The maintenance and
control of these installations is an important aspect to prevent losses and leaks.
Generally the losses and leaks in the network are due to the aging of facilities, the
quality of the materials and the lack of maintenance. As a result of these factors
these losses can reach values between 10 and 12% of the circulating water
systems in most modern distribution (building under 25 years old) and between
15 and 30% in older systems.
Although it may seem a simple water leak does not generate excessive
consumption, it is desirable to take care of the condition of the facilities for two
• Avoid unnecessary loss of water
• Avoid damage, in the short term may not seem important but can cause
progressive deterioration of the structural elements of the building due to
moisture. The most serious diseases of the buildings are cause because
humidity, like the case of carbonation of concrete or aluminous.
B.1 Material supply networking
The quality of materials is a decisive factor in preserving the condition of the
network. Oldest installations have lead pipes, but currently systems are installed
in metal piping materials such copper or galvanized steel; they can be also made
of plastic materials such as PE (polyethylene) and PP (polypropylene).
Plastic pipes have some advantages over metal piping materials: better resist the
effects of temperature ensuring a higher conductivity and their boards are more
watertight. In contrast, the plastic pipe material prices are relatively higher than
the metal pipes.
B.2 Controlling leaks supply networking
Have a periodical verification of the piping installations allow reducing leak
problems. It is advisable to complete overhauls of the facilities each year and
watertightness testing every three or four years. A simple way to detect leaks in
the network is close the consumption points in the installation and control the
movement with meters.
The water meter readings taken periodically (daily if its possible) also detect
losses in the network. The results of these readings must be displayed in the form
of indicators that allow comparisons of water use over time: for example water
consumption by room or per customer.
The modern facilities usually have valves at the entrance of the dependencies
(bathrooms, kitchen, etc) or even in each device. The installation of entrance
valves is highly recommended to make a good control and prevent leaks and
flooding, but both represent an improvement in the network.
Controlling leaks in equipment decrease considerable the overall water
consumption. The detection of leaky taps is based on the knowledge that a
conventional faucet use 10-15liters per minute. A leaky faucet, dripping one drop
per second, can waste 135 liters of water daily.
Note that the critical points of the supply water networking are connections
between pipes, solder and security points of the pipes and taps. It is therefore
important to monitor and verify that these points are sealed.
It is also important to monitor joins between the surfaces (like walls and floors) of
the sanitary equipment and renew the silicone seal if it is necessary.
B.3 Controlling point of consumption
As the control of the internal pipe network, it is important to establish a regular
control of the consumption points to check possible losses. It is important to keep
daily track records with the date and signature of the control done.
The main sanitary equipment that can waste more water is the showers, faucets
and leaky tanks. Another element that must be periodically reviewed is the state
of the rubber taps.
Main Recommendations Supply Networking:
• Installed preferably plastic pipes (PE or PP), their joins are more airtight,
the lime doesn’t effect them and because of their thickness of its walls have
less heat loss when it comes to hot water
• Perform daily readings of water meters and take a record
• Requested the collaboration of staff and customers, notify the responsible
maintenance leaks and breakdowns to detect
• Periodically review the parts of the network that are in the open space and
they are easy to access, also brought a descriptive record of their status.
• Periodic inspections consumption points (faucets, toilets, showers,
irrigation areas) and keep a record of repairs made
C. REFURBISHMENT – Alternative water sources
The use of alternative water sources can reduce the demand of potable water
provide by the city water supply system. The alternatives water sources are:
rainwater, wastewater and treated water, provide by the water treatments plants
of the region. The first to alternative sources require an intern installation in the
hotel, the third source require a regional management plan. The use of alternative
sources will reduce the water demand and the wastewater output, having positive
effects on the water bills.
C.1 Rainwater collection
The collection of rainwater is the oldest strategy to accumulate water during the
scarcity periods. Because of the water supply system that provides potable water
services in the urban area, the harvesting systems are not being use. On the
other hand, because of the high water consumption in hotels the use of
harvesting systems will not be enough to cover the necessities of the building.
However, a small installation of rainwater capture can be use to irrigate gardens,
reducing the water demand. The elements require are: water capture system, a
accumulation tank and a pressure bomb.
C.2 Reuse wastewater
The reuse of gray water is to reserve potable water for the most demanding
applications in terms of quality of water like showers, sink taps or kitchen faucets
for cooking. The gray water can be use in devices that no require a high quality
of water like toilet cisterns, watering the garden and cleaning of certain areas.
The installation of wastewater systems has to be done in the building or the
surrounding garden with the installation of a double circuit system: one for the
conduction of the potable water and the other one for the conduction of the gray
water. The reuse of wastewater reduces the cost of drinking water and
The incorporation of a gray water reuse systems can be done in any existing
building but is better include the design in case of future refurbishments. In many
cases the installation of these type of can have significant water saving,
representing minimum 35% of total consumption.
Govern de les Illes Balears. Consellería de Medi Ambient, Direcció General de Recursos Hídrics. Guía del Plan Hidrológico de las Islas Baleares 2009 Documento de Divulgación. Palma: GPO, 2009. Web. 13 February 2013 De Stefano, Lucia. Freshwater and Tourism in the Mediterranean. Rome: WWF Mediterranean Programme, 2004. Mediterranean Panda. 17 January 2013 Govern de les Illes Balears. Consellería de Medi Ambient. Los Caminos del agua en las Islas Baleares. Acuíferos y manatiales. Documento de Divulgación. Palma: GPO, 2009. Web. 13 April 2013 Unió Europea. LIFE-Medi Ambient. Programa ECOTUR. Guia de bones pràctiques ambiental per a instalacions turístiques: la gestió de l’aigua. Documento de Divulgación. Palma: GPO, 2006. Web. 09 June 2013 Smith, Michael. Enhancing water conservation strategies in NYC. Saving water to save energy . New York: Programs for Sustainable Planning & Development, 2012. 12 May 2013 Calyx Sustainable Tourism. Hotel Water Conservation A Seattle Demonstration. Seattle Public Utilities Resource Conservation Section, July 2002. 13 March 2013 Schneider, Winfried. Aparatos sanitarios y sistemas de ahorro de agua. Institut fur Baubiologie, 2013. 20 March 2013 New York City Department of Design and Construction. Watter Matters A Design Manual for Water Conservation in Buildings, 2012. 22 May 2013