The Reformation & Counter-Reformation (1500s Europe)

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The Reformation & Counter-Reformation (1500s Europe)

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  • The Reformation & Counter-Reformation(1500s Europe)

  • How did the Renaissance lead to the Protestant Reformation?(Class document handouts)

  • Document 1 The Medieval R.C. ChurchDescribe the role of the RCC in the Middle Ages.

  • Document 2The RenaissanceHow did the introduction of new trade around 1300 change Europe?

  • Document 3HumanismHow did the ideas of the Humanists differ from those of people during the Middle Ages?

  • Document 4The Renaissance ChurchHow did the Church pay for the religious masterpieces of art created during the Renaissance such as DaVincis Last Supper?

  • Document 5The Printing PressWhat were Gutenbergs first projects for reproduction?What effect would the availability of books have on society?

  • Document 6Johann TetzelWhat is an indulgence?Why would an everyday person in the early 1500s buy an indulgence from Tetzel?

  • Document 7Martin LutherWhy would Martin Luther give credibility to the protest against the abuses of the RCC?How do you think the pope will react to Luthers actions?

  • John Calvin (1509-1564)French Priest1536 published The Institutes of the Christian ReligionChristians could only reach heaven through faith alonePredestination the belief that God had determined before the beginning of time who would gain salvationChurch is led by local council of ministersFollowed strict code of conduct (no fighting, swearing, drunkenness, gambling, card playing or dancing)Set-up a model community in Geneva, Switzerland

  • Henry VIII (1491-1547)King of EnglandAfter 18 years of marriage, Henry & his wife, Catherine of Aragon (Spain), had only one child, a daughter named Mary He asked the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine in an effort to remarry and obtain a male heir (common practice during the time since the Catholic Church does not allow divorce)The pope refused Henrys request since the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, was Catherines nephewWhy does Henry want a male heir?Predict how Henry will react to the popes refusal.

  • Henrys Supremacy1534 Act of SupremacyCreated the Church of EnglandMade Henry head of the Church (not the pope)Kept Catholic doctrines & forms of worshipReaction in EnglandDevout Catholics opposed1535 Thomas More (Utopia) beheaded for treason1536-1540 Henry closed monasteries & convents and seized Church land What was Henrys goal for all of these changes?Should Henry be considered part of the Reformation?

  • Henrys WivesArchbishop Thomas Cranmer annulled Henrys marriage to Catherine in 1532. Catherine is separated from Mary, banished from court & 4 years later, died of a broken heart.Henry marries Anne Boleyn (Catherines ladyin waiting) in 1533 & they have a daughter, Elizabeth. Anne falls out of Henrys favor after a still-born son. She is executed on false evidence for treason in 1536.Eleven days after Annes execution, he marriedher lady in waiting, Jane Seymour. Jane gave birth to a boy, Edward, but died after complications 12 days later.Catherine of Aragonm. 1509 - 1532Anne Boleynm. 1533 - 1536Jane Seymour m. 1536 - 1537

  • Henrys Wives (cont.)Thomas Cromwell, his Chief Minister, persuaded Henry to marry Anne for an alliancewith Germany, as Anne's father was the Duke. However, Henry didnt find her attractive & they divorced amicably.Kathryn was a cousin of Anne Boleyn. She was19 when she married Henry (he was 50). Shewas accused of having lovers & wasbeheaded in 1542 (with the lovers). Katherine became a companion and nurse for Henry in old age. She reunited him with his children, who all came back to court beforehis death in 1547.Anne of Clevesm. 1540 Jan. - JulyKathryn Howardm. 1540 - 1542Katherine Parrm. 1543 - 1547

  • What became of the Church of England after Henrys death?Henry VIIIs will gave the throne to his children: Edward (if no male heirs) Mary (if no male heirs) Elizabeth (if no male heirs) Henrys younger sister & her family (they were Protestant)1547 Edward succeeded Henry at 9 years old to become Edward VI. The young king was surrounded by Protestant officials who pushed for Calvinist reforms.Thomas Cranmer drew up the Book of Common PrayerImposed moderate form of Protestant serviceWhy did these reforms spark violence in England?

  • What became of the Church of England after Henrys death? (cont.)Edward VI died of tuberculosis in 1553 (at 15) w/o an heir he gave the throne to his cousin Jane Grey (bypassing his sisters)Jane was queen for 9 days until one-by-one, the counties proclaimed Mary queen.Mary became queen in 1553 (at 37) & married her cousin, Philip II of Spain (at 27), the son & heir of Charles V (HRE)Many English were unhappy w/ a Catholic monarch & plots against the queen began Mary responded w/ executing 300 people & earning her nickname Bloody Mary)Why didnt Edward want his sisters to become queen?

  • What became of the Church of England after Henrys death? (cont.)Mary fell ill in the spring of 1558 & died that fall w/o an heir the crown passed to ElizabethAvoiding religious tension she adopted the Act of Uniformity (a religious compromise of Protestant belief and Catholic practice that became known as AnglicanBook of Common Prayer reestablishedThe monarch headed of the ChurchLatin was the language of the ChurchCatholic hierarchy was keptEngland was firmly a Protestant nationWhy did Elizabeth adopt the Act of Uniformity?