The English Reformation and Catholic Counter Reformation
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The English Reformation and Catholic Counter Reformation Chapter 1 section 4
English Reformation Henry VIIIDefender of the Faith- resisted the Protestant revolt1527 wanted his marriage annulled and the pope refused.
1. Took over the English church through the Act of Supremacy iii. 1536-1540: Henry VIII seized the lands and the wealth of English convents & monasteries.
1. granted some to nobles and high-ranking citizens securing their support for the Anglican Church.
II. Catholic Counter Reformation a. Leader- Pope Paul IIICalls the Council of Trent in 15451. Reaffirmed traditional Catholic viewsa. Salvation comes through faith and good works. b. The Bible is a major source of religious truth, but not the only source.
2. Ended abuses in the Church. a. Stiff penalties for worldliness and corruption among clergy.3. Established schools to create a better-educate clergy who challenged Protestant teachings.
ii. The Inquisition
1. Church court set up during the Middle Ages. 2. Goal: bring people back to the faith3. Used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy. 4. Prepared the Index of Forbidden Books.
a. too immoral or irreligious for Catholicsb. Books by Luther & Calvin.
iii. Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 1. brought back the Catholic faith to Africa and the Americas2. educated natives
Iv. Did it succeed?Reforms slowed the ProtestantsReturned some areas to Catholic ChurchEurope remained divided into Protestant North and Catholic South.
III. Persecution Catholics and Protestants intolerant of one anotherWitch hunts1450-1750 thousands of women and men died.Why?People saw link between magic and heresy.Scapegoats- ex. Midwife blamed for an infant deathWhere? German states, Switzerland, France, and all centers of religious conflict.
Jews1516 Venice ordered Jews to live in the ghettorefused to convert; Luther calls for their expulsion from Christian Lands & synagogues and books to be burnedsome German princes did expel Jews; others forced them to live in ghettos and wear a yellow badge when traveling1550s many Jews migrated to Poland-Lithuania and parts of the Ottoman Empire