Welcome to J106: FRYEExpectations (me) Professional, respectful, fair, educateExpectations (you)Respectful, acquire knowledge, educate
Rules Rule #1 All THS handbook rules are followed by studentsRule #2 No cell phones or electronic devices. I will ask for it when I see it.It will be sent to the office.
What is your mood today?What does that have to do with class?
HandoutsExpectations (sign & return 8/31)Pacing Guide Study Guide (due test day)
ProjectsTri-fold Travel Brochure to Louisiana Territorywhat to see, experience, mapsPropaganda poster to encourage war with BritainUsing names, places, examples. War of 1812 posterexplaining the causes, battles and effects of the war.
All need to be colorful, creative, neat, and accurate!Due 1 DAY before test day (Sept. 4th)!
Establishing the New Nation: Goal 1
Some Facts About George WashingtonOne of the wealthiest men in AmericaBritish propaganda said he fathered many children out of wedlock.he was probably sterileGreat dancerAfraid of being buried alive and asked that he not be buried until 3 days after his deathOwned the largest whiskey distillery in AmericaFalse teeth not made of woodHuman or animal teethCouldnt eat and could barely talk with them inHis dentures were anchored by only one tooth by the time of his deathFrom cracking walnuts with his teethI cannot tell a lie..make President look good (1800)Over 6 feet tall and over 200 lbs.
First Two Political PartiesFederalistsStrong central government
Anti-Federalists (eventually Democratic-Republicans)Weak central governmentBill of Rights
My moment to the chair of government will be accompanied by feelings not unlike those of a culprit who is going to his place of execution. G.W.Oath of office taken in New York (no D.C. yet) and G.W. took office April 30, 1789The first thing to do was adopt the Bill of Rightslist of rights the government couldnt take awayThis was done to appease the Anti-Federalists after the Constitution was signed
Judiciary Act, 1789Washington had to organize the executive and judicial branchesThe Judiciary Act, 1789 organized the Supreme Court and created lesser federal courts6 Justices.today we have 9It did not create the Supreme Court; Article 3 of the Constitution did this
Washingtons CabinetThe First CabinetIs there anything in the Constitution about a cabinet?What is their job?Secretary of State: Thomas JeffersonSecretary of Treasury: Alexander HamiltonSecretary of War: Henry Knox
Alexander HamiltonFavored one economic class over anotherHamilton had developed an economic plan for the United States composed of the following ideas:
Vocabulary1. Alexander Hamilton 2. Thomas Jefferson3. Federalists4. Democratic-Republicans
5 parts of Hamiltons Economic PlanFundingState Debt AssumptionNational BankProtective tariffExcise tax*** Leave room to write something for each point.
FundingThe first thing the US needed to do was pay its debts (over 80 million dollars)Funding: issuing new bonds for old bonds; borrowing the money and paying back laterThe government would issue new bonds and replace the old ones (sold during the war) for more than their their original valueSome found out about the plan early and tried to buy up the seemingly worthless bonds before the plan came outHamilton believed the wealthy would participate in buying and the US needed their help2
State Debt AssumptionThe US govt. would assume state debts to make them debt freeThe south was upset because they had little debt; the north had higher debtWhy would this upset the south?The capital would be in a more southern location (i.e. Washington DC!!!!!)
National BankSet up to have one currency in the US and build confidence in the USEasier to do businessBefore this, each state make their own currency and it wasnt always equalIt would give more confidence in the Federal GovernmentAnti-federalists said it would only aid the wealthy and called in unconstitutional
TariffsProtective tariffs: tax on imports to protect American goods
TaxesExcise tax: sales taxThe excise tax was placed on many items including whiskey, which was profitableWhiskey production was the main source of income for many western settlers and the tax wasnt well liked
Broad InterpretationHamiltons belief regarding the Constitution allowed him to create the National Bank. Necessary & Proper Clause. The American capital was moved South to the District of Columbia as a compromise.
Whiskey Rebellion1794Rebellion against taxes on the frontier of PennsylvaniaWashington sent out 3,000 militia and stopped the rebellion. Showed the power of the federal government and that they wouldnt accept rebellionLeads to more support for the Republican Party among the common people Some saw the Federalists were seen as a party against the common people
Federalist PartyWhat type of bank?State or National
Republican or Anti-FederalistsWhat type of bank?State or National
QUESTIONSWhat were the first two political parties?What did each represent?What was the Judiciary Act of 1789?What is a Presidential Cabinet?List the five parts of Hamiltons economic plan.Why was the Whiskey Rebellion an important moment for the power of the Federal Government?
Vermont and Kentucky Join1791, 179215 stripes on the flag
Stay NeutralUS still having problems with Spain and England1793: France declared war on England.who would we support??
Washington said the US would remain neutral.Proclamation of NeutralityIt was important to keep out of world affairs since our nation was so new
Impressment: taking of sailors from US ships to British ships
Hamilton urged peace (supports British) and Republicans wanted war
Jays Treaty, 1795John Jay (Chief Justice) sent to deal with problems concerning the BritishBritish must give up forts in the NW territoryAvoids war with BritainNo mention of impressmentTreaty not very well liked because it didnt work
Pinckneys Treaty, 1795Treaty with Spain that gave us use of the Mississippi RiverWestern farmers supported thisAlso gave us the right of port in New Orleans
Conflicts with IndiansIndians in the Northwest Territory refused to give up their lands and wanted direct negotiations with the USBritish soldiers who resided in forts still in the territory encouraged them to rebelThe federal government sent in troops to gain controlLed by the Miami tribe war leader, Little Turtle defeated the US army twice
General Mad Anthony Wayne was sent in to stop the IndiansLittle Turtle urged peace, but the Miami Indians didnt listenThe Miami Indian confederation was defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers which led to the Treaty of Greenville.
Treaty of Greenville, 1796Indians surrendered all northwestern lands after the Battle of Fallen Timbersopened up the Ohio Valley for settlement
Washingtons Farewell AddressWashington served two terms and decided that was enough
In his Farewell Address he told the American people the US should remain neutral; no permanent alliancesAvoid political parties (factions)
Creation of the CapitalWashington helped support and create the new capital and was put in charge of itPierre LEnfant drew up the plansIsolatedNo roadsNo buildingsWhy go there?He would never live thereOptional:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ti2hV7BfYBo&feature=related
The new guy.Imagine you just got hired for a job and you had to replace the best worker in the history of the company that everyone loved, admired and respected.What pressures would you feel?Would you enjoy your job?
John Adams (1797-1801) Federalist Peaceful transition of powerVP was Thomas Jefferson (Republican)
Adams wins by narrow margin. Notice the North/ South or Rural/ Urban split?
John MarshallAppointed by John Adams as Chief Justice of the Supreme CourtFederalistStrengthens power of the Supreme Court
Abigail AdamsJohn Adams wifeSupported rights for women; they had few at the time
XYZ Affair, 1797The French began impressing US sailorsAdams sent delegates to France to negotiateTallyrand, the French Foreign Minister, would not meet with US and sent representatives who were codenamed XYZThey wanted a bribe of 250,000 dollars just to meet to discuss the issue of impressmentWe said NOFailed negotiation with French to end impressmentThis led to a quasi-war with France over impressmentWar not actually declared, but there was still fightingXYZ
Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798Since the Democratic-Republicans supported the French, they were not liked during the XYZ Affair and Adams used this against them. The Alien and Sedition Acts allowed the President to deport or jail immigrants. Why? Many immigrants were French who supported the Democratic-Republican party.
Federalists were also trying to end Democratic-Republican power by reducing their ability to criticize the Federal government. What amendment is this a violation of?
Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsJames Madison and Thomas Jefferson wrote the Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsThe VA & Kentucky resolutions called the Alien and Sedition acts unconstitutional.They called for the states to nullify the federal law; 10th Amendment (states rights) Nullify: get rid of; void
Vocabulary5. Whiskey Rebellion6. Washingtons Farewell Address7. Alien and Sedition Acts 8. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions9. Nullification
Election of 1800Candidates:Thomas Jefferson(Dem-Rep)Aaron Burr(Dem-Rep)John Adams(Federalist)OthersJefferson and Aaron Burr as his VPBoth had a tie for electoral votes
Led to a run off vote in the House of Representatives (HOR) which Jefferson wonHOR was controlled by the FederalistsAlexander Hamilton helped Jefferson get electedAlthough they were political enemies, he hated Burr more than Jefferson and swayed the voteJefferson or Burr? The former without all doubt.Alexander Hamilton
Led to the duel between Burr and Hamilton (July 1804)Burr was Jeffersons Vice President from 1801-1805. While VP, he would kill Hamilton in a duel. He fled to South Carolina for a time, but eventually returned to finish his term as VP. In 1805, he then fled the country west to Spanish held territory.
Revolution of 1800Change of political power without bloodshed and a different party came to power and people accepted it
Who could vote?FreeWhite21 MaleLandowners
Losing touchThe election of 1800 ended Federalist power12th Amendment calling for separate election of VP and President after the Burr\Jefferson problemThe Federalists were losing touch with the common people; the frontier people support the RepublicansWhy?Whiskey Rebellion
Judiciary Act, 1801Before Adams left office, he passed an act to create new judgeships; Adams filled them with FederalistsAdams stayed up until midnight before he was supposed to leave filling the judgeshipsMidnight judges name given to judges Adams createdJefferson didnt like this and tried to keep it from happening
Marbury v. Madison, 1803Judicial review was established in this caseCourts can declare a law unconstitutional; called part of the Judiciary Act, 1789 unconstitutionalSec. Of State Madison didnt deliver the appointment of the judgeship to William Marbury (FED) and he asked the Supreme Court to make a rulingJohn Marshall had to make a decision that wouldnt be ignored, but who would he support?Part of the Judiciary Act, 1789 was unconstitutional and Marbury could come straight to the Supreme CourtMidnight judges laws later overturned, but many left in power
Louisiana Purchase: Elbow Room 1803Bought from FranceWe originally wanted to buy New OrleansBought for 15 million; about 3 cents an acreDoubles the size of the US
Jeffersons DilemmaConstitution said nothing about buying land, but Jefferson bought the land using a treaty (which was in the Constitution) instead.
Meriwether Lewis and William ClarkExplored LouisianaSent to find a water route for westward expansionTrip lasted two years; actually started before it was boughtSacajawea Indian guide for Lewis and Clarkknew the land (Shoshone)had a baby in tow (Jean- Baptiste Charbonneau) (Toussaint Charbonneau) Expanded the Ohio & Mississippi valley economically
Results of the exploration
Lewis and Clark InfoHad to pull barge up stream some timesBlack servant YorkThe BearTranslations (English to French to Shoshone then back again)Only one death (Charles Floyd of appendicitis)Died at what is now Sioux City, IowaOver 2 year journey
RESULTS OFLOUISIANA PURCHASEWho benefits?Farmers!!!
Vocabulary10. Marbury v. Madison11 Louisiana Purchase
Embargo Act, 1807After an attack on the US ship Chesapeake in 1807 by the British, Jefferson respondedEmbargo Act: the US wouldnt trade with countries that impressed our sailorsBackfired on Jefferson and hurt US economywhy?Jefferson was President
James Madison (1809-1817)Next president after Jefferson(Democratic)-RepublicanHe was Jeffersons Secretary of State which was the stepping stone to the PresidencyHad to clean up Jeffersons mess
Trade with FranceFrance stopped impressments and we began to trade with them; upset Britain
WAR HAWKS(chicken hawks)In 1810, Congressional elections were held and a young group of men from the west (nicknamed War Hawks) were electedCongressmen; born in US; from South and WestSupported war against Britain
Two of the most important War HawksHenry Clay of KentuckyJohn C. Calhoun of SCFuture leaders in the US
Indian ProblemsIn September 1809, William H. Harrison, governor of the newly formed Indiana Territory, negotiated a treaty (Fort Wayne) in which various American Indian leaders sold about 2,500,000 acres to the United States. One of the Indian leaders, Tecumseh, was not happy
TecumsehTecumseh: tried to organize tribes to work together against white settlers coming to Indiana(1805)Dont sell your land, dont drink the fire water, dont copy white customs, etc.
Battle of TippecanoeWilliam H. Harrison attacked Tecumsehs village The Indians lost the battle and the confederation fell apart; Because of this, many Indians then fought on the side of the British in the War of 1812
New EnglandWhy would the wealthy north not want to fight with Britain?New England wanted to avoid war with Britain; trade and Federalist supportLoss of population to the west = less political powerThe War Hawks wanted to take over Canada (some good farm land)
War Hawk Reasons: War Hawks see the war as a way to gain land (Canada) and expand political powerThe south and west called for help from the govt. with their Indian ProblemMadison, who didnt want war, buckled under pressure and war was declared against Britain
Causes of the War of 1812Impressment: the taking of US sailors (French and British)British giving weapons to the Indians in the Northwest territoryWar Hawks (wanted to invade Canada)US cannot compete economically
Vocabulary12. Embargo Act 13. Impressment14. War Hawks
War of 1812Fought against Britain & British Canada in 1812-1814Called Mr. Madisons War
Info on War of 1812Why wasnt the US ready for war?Weak army and navyMost battles were in the North We attacked York (capital of Canada) and they attacked DC and burned itNational anthem created by Francis Scott Key. Uncle Sam created as a national patriotic identityThe end of the war coincides with the defeat on Napoleon in Europe
U.S.S. ConstitutionFamous U.S. War of 1812 battleship. Nicknamed Old Ironsides as cannonballs would bounce off of the Live Oak sides (from the Cape Fear) during the War of 1812Never lost a battleCurrently anchoredin Boston, Mass.
Great Lakes BattlesDefeats on land; look to waterControl of the Great Lakes was vitalOliver Hazzard Perry built up a fleet on Lake Erie and gained a victory over Britain in 1813We have met the enemy and he is oursInspired American nationalist spirit in 1813
1814-Chesapeake BayBritish attempted to invade area (Virginia\Maryland)Led to British taking Washington, DC and burning the Capitol and White HouseMadison fled westBritish troops ate the meal prepared for the President before burning itThey then moved to Baltimore and were defeated at Fort McHenryStar Spangled Banner
Fort McHenryStar Spangled Banner
During the battle, Francis Scott Key penned the national anthem as a poem while on a ship in the Baltimore Harbor.
Original star spangled banner from Ft. McHenry
Treaty of Ghent, 1814Dec. 24, 1814Urged partly by European powers (Russia feared France)John Q. Adams and Henry Clay sent to negotiateArmistice ends the War of 1812No land gained; fighting just stoppedFighting continued until February
Battle of New Orleans, Jan. 8th 1815Fought after the peace treaty was signedAndrew Jackson made a heroThe US was outnumbered greatly, but had only 45 deaths compared to 2000 BritishVICTORY Increased pride & nationalism
Hartford ConventionMeeting of Federalists party leaders from Dec 1814 to January 1815. They met to discuss secession by northern statesLeaving the US and making a new countryThe meeting showed Sectionalism: division between north and south When the War of 1812 was over, the Republicans were the heroes and the Federalists were pretty much done as a political party
Results of the WarIncreased US manufacturingIncrease nationalism (patriotism & honor for US as a country)Est. US as independent power
15. Battle of New Orleans16. Nationalism17. Hartford Convention