Embed Size (px)
Transcript of LOVELL CHEN
Former Younghusband Wool Stores Complex
2-50 Elizabeth Street, Kensington
EG Funds Management
LOVELL CHEN ARCHITECTS & HERITAGE CONSULTANTS
35 LITTLE BOURKE STREET MELBOURNE 3000 AUSTRALIA
TEL +61 (0)3 9667 0800 FAX +61 (0)3 9662 1037
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 3
1.1 Scope and Objectives 3 1.2 Location and Building Names 3
2.0 Listings and Classification 5
2.1 Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 5 2.2 Heritage Act 1995 5 2.3 Melbourne Planning Scheme (Planning and Environment Act 1987) 5 2.4 National Trust of Australia (Victoria) 7 2.5 Western Region Industrial Heritage Study 7
3.0 History 8
3.1 Industrial development in Kensington 8 3.2 Younghusband Ltd 9 3.3 Early Development of the Complex: Wool Store No. 1 10 3.4 Interwar Development 17 3.5 Recent History 25
4.0 Physical Survey and Analysis 26
4.1 Documentation 26 4.2 Wool Store No. 1 26 4.3 Wool Store No. 2 36 4.4 Tallow Store (Wool Store No. 3) 41 4.5 Wool Store No. 5 43
4.6 Railway Platform 45 4.7 Internal Laneway 46
5.0 Analysis and Assessment of Significance 49
5.1 Wool Store design: key characteristics 49 5.2 Surviving woolstores, Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane 49 5.3 Development of warehouse precincts outside the central cities 53 5.4 Dimensional and Stylistic Change 53 5.5 Individual components 56 5.6 Architects associated with the complex 61 5.7 An evolved complex 61 5.8 Conclusion 61 5.9 Assessment against criteria 62 5.10 Conclusion 64
6.0 Constraints and Opportunities 65
6.1 Demolition 65 6.2 Adaptation and Development 67 Appendix A Al
Appendix B B1
LOVELL CHEN 1
2 LOVELL CHEN
1.1 Scope and Objectives
This report has been prepared for EG Funds Management, and constitutes a heritage appraisal of the former Younghusband Wool Stores complex, 2-50 Elizabeth Street, Kensington. The objective of the report is to establish the significance of the complex and to provide guidance in relation to its potential adaptation/redevelopment. The site is currently being considered for a mixed use development.
The complex is currently not subject to any statutory heritage controls under the Heritage Overlay provisions of the Melbourne Planning Scheme, but one component of the complex was identified as of heritage value in a municipal heritage study undertaken by the City of Melbourne in the mid-1980s.
The report provides an outline of the history and physical development of the property. It includes a brief history of the place and of the company Younghusband Ltd including a basic sequence of construction of the building components which make up the complex. It also describes and analyses the physical fabric, including identifying the relative age and intactness of the building fabric.
The significance of the place has been assessed, including a brief comparative analysis which places the complex in context with comparable sites. The report concludes with an analysis of heritage constraints and opportunities for the site, informed by the historical and physical research and analysis and the assessment of significance.
1.2 Location and Building Names
The subject site is located on the west side of Elizabeth Street in Kensington and is bounded by Chelmsford Street to the north, the railway line to the west and the Allied Mills (former Kimpton's) flour milling complex to the south.
The complex comprises a series of building components as follows and as identified on the plan at Figure 2. These are referenced in the report.
Name Date/s of construction
Wool Store No. 1 1901, by 1909, by 1917
Wool Store No. 2 1928, 1932
Wool Store No. 3 (Tallow Store) 1917, 1923 -
Wool Store No. 5 1957
LOVELL CHEN 3
Wool Store No. 2
Wool Store No 1
Wool Store No. 3 (Tallow Store)
Wool Store No. 5
Figure 1 The location of the subject site is indicated by the star. Source: www.streetdirectory.com.au
Figure 2 Building components within the Wool Stores complex
4 LOVELL CHEN
2.0 Listings and Classification
2.1 Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
The complex was considered for inclusion in the Register of the National Estate, however was not found to warrant entry into the Register. It is listed in the RNE as a Rejected Place ('the Australian Heritage Council or the former Australian Heritage Commission has assessed the place and found that it does not warrant entry in the Register in its own right').
The statement of significance prepared for the place is as follows:
The Younghusband Wool and Grain Store is of some interest as an example of the Federation warehouse style of architecture, but the integrity of the design has been seriously compromised by intrusive alterations and additions. The store also has some historical associations with the successful restructuring of the pastoral industry after the depression of the 1890s but this recovery is better demonstrated by other sites. The Younghusband Wool and Grain Store is not of sufficient interest to reach the threshold for entry in the Register of the National Estate.
Note that for privately owned places, inclusion in the RNE has no statutory implications.
2.2 Heritage Act 1995
The subject property at 2-50 Kensington Street is not included in the Victorian Heritage Register or the Victorian Heritage Inventory.
2.3 Melbourne Planning Scheme (Planning and Environment Act 1987)
Zoning and Overlays
Pursuant to the Melbourne Planning Scheme, the northern portion of the subject site is zoned Industrial 3 and the southern portion Industrial 1 (refer Figure 3). No heritage overlay or any other planning overlay affects the property.
Flemington and Kensington Conservation Study
The earliest building in the complex, Wool Store No. 1, was identified in as a B grade building in the Flemington and Kensington Conservation Study, prepared by Graeme Butler in 1985. The study is a Reference Document under Cl. 22.05 of the Melbourne Planning Scheme.
The local policy at Clause 22.05 of the Melbourne Planning Scheme (Heritage Places Outside the Capital City Zone) defines B graded buildings as follows:
'B' buildings are of regional or metropolitan significance, and stand as important milestones in the architectural development of the metropolis. Many will be either included on, or recommended for inclusion on the Register of the National Estate.
Note the policy at Cl. 22.05 is not relevant to the site as it is applicable only to land affected by the Heritage Overlay.
The building was described in the Flemington and Kensington Conservation Study as follows:
An austere but boldly styled Renaissance revival structure, this multi-level brick store building achieves visual force from its deeply recessed wall
LOVELL CHEN 5
- 1110 i7 7 1[ 1 111801 CHELISQJ
LI L_LL____N 3.0
bays (outlined by pilasters), central pedimented entry bay and massive parapet, held aloft by the pilasters and a dog-tooth brick corbel, to its underside. Only the essentials of classical trabeation are repeated in the facade: the remaining detail contributing also as structure.
Although powerfully composed, alterations have been equally extensive in their effect: a giant roller shutter door takes up an end bay; inserted windows and extended openings play havoc with the pseudo-structural elements of the facade, above this door; and the lower entrance bay has been reworked, albeit symmetrically. The voissoirs have been painted.
The significance of the property was noted as follows:
Architecturally, altered but retains the powerful composition of a facade which is highly visible and one of a small group of architecturally pretentious and large industrial designs which survive in near to the original condition from this period.
Historically, the only monument to an important pastoral firm of early this century; an early example of the reawakening of this industry after the 1890s crash; of metropolitan and state interest, given the widespread activities of the firm.
Figure 3 Detail of the Melbourne Planning Scheme zone map, with the location of the subject site indicated. Source: Melbourne Planning Scheme
6 LOVELL CHEN
The citation from the study is attached at Appendix A.
The balance of buildings on the site were not identified as significant in the 1985 study, though reference was made on the data sheet to 'complementary but later bays' at the 'rear of this first block' and a photograph of the No. 2 Wool Store is included in the citation.
The Heritage Places Inventory 2008 is an Incorporated Document in the Melbourne Planning Scheme. It identifies Younghusband Ltd in Chelmsford Street as a B graded site.
2.4 National Trust of Australia (Victoria)
The complex has not been classified by the National Trust of Australia (Victoria).
2.5 Western Region Industrial Heritage Study
Wool Store no. 1 was identified in this 1989 study as a site with a conservation level C. C sites were defined as of Regional or Local significance.
The significance of the building was identified as follows:
This austere example of the wool and grain store typical of this part of Melbourne stands as a monument to an important pastoral firm from early this century and demonstrates the reawakening of this industry following the disaster of the 1890s crash. Architecturally a powerful composition of a highly visible facade in what had become the standard form for wool stores (multi storey with a saw tooth roofed show floor on top). The building contributes to the distinctive character of large contemporary industrial designs of considerable architectural pretention.
The citation from the study is attached at Appendix A.
LOVELL CHEN 7
3.1 Industrial development in Kensington
The first Crown Land sales in the Kensington area took place in the period from 1847 to 1849. The land bounded by today's Rankins, Racecourse, Boundary and Macaulay roads was divided into 2 acre suburban lots, while the allotments south of Macaulay Road consisted of large pastoral tracts. Lots 17, 18 and 19, each of about 66 acres and extending diagonally from the current Lloyd Street in the east, between Macaulay and Dynon roads, were purchased by John Murphy in December 1848 and June 1849 (Figure 5).1
The sites adjacent to the Moonee Ponds Creek became a favoured location for industrial premises, particularly following the introduction of the Act to Prevent Further Pollution of the Waters of the River Yarra above the City of Melbourne in 1854. This Act prevented new 'noxious' industries from establishing themselves on the banks of the Yarra east of Melbourne, in order to protect the city's fresh water supply. A brick works, flour mills, tanneries, a pottery, a bone mill, and soap and candle factories were in operation along the banks of the creek by the mid 1850s. The construction of the Essendon-Melbourne railway line in 1859-60 provided further impetus for development.2
Industrial growth in Kensington continued with the boom years of the 1880s. While small domestic industries had existed since the 1840s, it was not until this time that businesses with requirements for large storage areas and transport access established themselves in the area. One such company was the NewiZealand Loan and Mercantile Company, which moved its wool and grain stores from the city to Kensington, south of Arden Street, in 1890. 3 This was a massive complex as is indicated on the MMBW plan of 1895 (Figure 6).
Other industries in the area in 1895 included a bone mill and desiccating works, a malthouse, flour mills, corn flour factory, leather belt factory, a glassworks and several tanneries (Figure
In 1885, the land bounded by Macaulay Road, Lloyd Street and today's Cragieburn and Upfield railway lines was purchased by Thomas Bent, at the time Mayor of Brighton and Member of the Legislative Assembly. Bent proceeded to subdivide the parcel into lots of varying sizes. Several allotments on the south-west corner of Chelmsford and Elizabeth streets were bought by Alexander Gillespie; who constructed a flour mill on the southernmost lots in c.1890. While the northernmost lots initially remained vacant, these were sold to R Goldsbrough Row and Co. in 1900, and it appears that construction of the wool stores complex commenced soon afterwards.5
1 Doutta Galla parish plan, D85(8)
2 G Butler, Flemington and Kensington Conservation Study, prepared for the Melbourne
City Council, 1985, pp.9, 13.
3 G Butler, Flemington and Kensington Conservation Study, 1985, p.17.
4 MMBW plan no.33, 1895.
5 Certificate of Title Vol.1770 Fol.930; Vol.1881 Fol.089; Sands & Mc Dougall Directory of
Victoria, various years.
8 LOVELL CHEN
, V . ,015" V .', V
A. 4 , .1 ,A``,''-f - ',n . ,% 10,,-*.41 ..- ,,
'',4 s (00 Se --.' ' ' \ **1-.01t1P" ' 11114.41)n
3.2 Younghusband Ltd
The early business activities of Isaac Younghusband, founder of Younghusband Ltd, included a warehousing and importing business located in Elizabeth Street, Melbourne from 1860. From 1876 Isaac Younghusband is listed as a partner in the Five Mile Creek (later known as Killeen) run near Longwood, Victoria, while in 1881 he became the wool and produce manager for the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Company. Younghusband and Company Ltd, wool and produce brokers, and stock and station agents, was incorporated in 1889. Despite Isaac Younghusband's death in 1892 and the 1893 crisis in the pastoral industries which resulted in the restructuring of the pastoral firms, Younghusband Ltd emerged as a successful and growing company. They opened their first branch in Albury in February 1895 and over the course of their operations absorbed or merged with several firms, including R. Goldsbrough Row and Co. in October 1902, becoming known as Younghusband Row and Company Pty Ltd. By 1959 the company operated 17 main branches with 39 subsidiaries. Younghusband Ltd, as it was then called, was incorporated into Elder Smith Goldsbrough Mort in 1963, later to be known as Elders IXL.6
Figure 4 MMBW plan of 1895 showing the vacant site at the corner of Chelmsford and Elizabeth streets.
6 Typewritten manuscript entitled 'Business Archives Council of Australia: Survey of
Business Records', dated 1959, obtained from University of Melbourne Archives.
LOVELL CHEN 9
3.3 Early Development of the Complex: Wool Store No. 1
Construction of the first building in the complex (Wool Store No. 1) is thought to have commenced in c.1900-1, soon after the purchase of the land by R Goldsbrough Row and Co. The first listing for the company's wool and grain warehouse, with an address to Chelmsford Street, appears in the Sands and McDougall Directory in 1901. With the merger of the two companies in 1902, Younghusband Row and Co. acquired the site.
Graeme Butler has noted that architects Oakden & Ballantyne did work on the complex in 1906 and on the basis of this has speculated that the partnership may have been responsible for the design of Wool Store No.1 in c. 1901. 7 Percy Oakden and Cedric Ballantyne (a former pupil of Oakden's) were in partnership from 1901. 8 Oakden & Ballantyne designed Wool Store no. 3 (also known as the Tallow Store) in 1917 (additions 1923). While not confirmed, the attribution for Store no. 1 is certainly conceivable. Butler also references Oakden & Ballantyne's design for the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency offices on the corner of King and Collins streets in the city, which while more flamboyant and elaborate, also has a related Romanesque quality.
Wool Store No. 1 was of red brick construction and of four-storeys in height with a sawtooth roof incorporating south lights. It faced north and had its principal faade to Chelmsford Street (Figure 9), extending southward along the Melbourne-Essendon railway line (it was serviced by a private rail siding). The first stage of the building was 18 bays in depth (to the railway line).
Though the exact date is unknown, within a few years (by 1909), the building had been extended southward by a further eight bays, with the addition essentially using the same construction and design.
By December 1909, when the Younghusband Row and Co. premises at Kensington were described in some detail in the Leader newspaper, the southern addition to Wool Store No. 1 had been constructed and additional single-storey buildings had also been constructed immediately to its south fronting onto the railway line (in the location of the current Wool Store no. 5); now demolished, these are thought to have been used for shearing sheep (Figure 11).
The Leader newspaper description of 1909 as follows:
the great warehouse...has been erected contiguous to the railway line at Kensington, some two miles from the city, and adjacent to the railway station, thus affording all the conveniences or rapid handling on consignments. The storage accommodation covers an area of about three acres and a quarter. In every respect the warehouses are perfectly suited to the purposes for which they are used, being fitted with all the most up to date appliances for the efficient handling and display of wool. A private railway siding forms an important factor, by ensuring the speedy delivery of consignments to a platform which runs along the warehouse, extending over 400 feet...
7 G Butler, Flemington & Kensington Conservation Study, 1985 - Building Citations, p. 30.
M Lewis, 'Oakden, Percy (1845-1917)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 5, Melbourne University Press, 1974, pp. 348-349.
10 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 6 MMBW plan no.33, 1895, showing the development surrounding the subject site (indicated by the star). The New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Stores (now demolished) are also marked.
12 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 7 Sequential plans
c.1901 Wool Store 1 - Section 1 and railway platform By 1909 Wool Store 1 Section 2 By 1917 Wool Store 1 Section 3
1917 Tallow Store - Ground I evel 1923 Tallow Store - Levels 1 and 2 1928 Wool Store 2 - Ground and Level 1
1932 Wool Store 2 - Levels 2,3 and 4 1951 InfiUs above R.O.W 1957 Wool Store 5 Sequential Development
LOVELL CHEN 13
Figure 8 The former New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Building (538-544 Collins Street, Melbourne), Oakden & Ballantyne, 1910.
LOVELL CHEN 1 5
Figure 9 'Entrance to warehouses at Kensington', 1909. This is the Chelmsford Street elevation. Source: The Leader
Figure 10 North (Chelmsford Street) elevation of Wool Store No. 1
It is well known that the main essential in a wool store is the top floor, and in this important direction everything has been arranged in order to ensure even light, the result being a showroom that has an unbroken measurement of 30,000 square feet, or about three-quarters of an acre, and is one of the finest in the Australian colonies. ... the northern portion of the building ... is the main entrance for buyers and clients, and the position has ready access to the store offices, lifts and showroom. On sale days may be seen numerous private vehicles, taxies and cabs, affording some idea of the business that is being transacted within the warehouses. A visit to the warehouse at this period is especially interesting. Buyers from the United Kingdom, the Continent and American manufacturing centres are to be found busily engaged in examining the wool, which is afterwards submitted to the central wool exchange. The splendidly lit and spacious showroom is greatly appreciated by wool experts, and during the valuing process an animated scene is presented to the visitor.
Younghusband, Row and Company undertake the shearing of sheep and the preparation of wool for market. The shearing shed, which adjoins the warehouses at Kensington, is fitted up in the most modern style with fourteen stands of the Moffatt-Virtue machines, and none but the most experienced wool classers, shearers and others are employed; therefore at a minimum cost, owners can be saved the trouble and additional expense of undertaking their own shearing arrangements, and can arrange for placing their clips on the market on the most favourable conditions and with a saving of time and money.1
At an unknown date (but by 1917) 2 the southern end Wool Store No. 1 had also been extended to the east, returning to the Elizabeth Street frontage of the site (Figure 14).
3.4 Interwar Development
Tallow Store (Store No. 3)
The Tallow Store (or Store No. 3) is a three level red brick building fronting Elizabeth Street in the south-east corner of the site (Figure 15). The building was constructed in two stages. Stage 1, designed by Oakden & Ballantyne, commenced in 1917. 3 It comprised a single-storey store with sawtooth roof form and open-sided verandah to its west elevation. The verandah had a chamfered corner to the L-shaped right-of-way which originally bordered the store to the
1 'Notable Wool Warehouse: Younghusband, Row and Co. Proprietary Limited', Leader
Supplement, 18 December 1909, p.42.
2 The Oakden & Ballantyne drawings for the proposed new Wool Store to the south of
the No. 1 Wool Store on Elizabeth Street (later known as the Tallow Store) appear to
indicate the presence of a building in this location, with gates shown between the two
structures. Oakden & Ballantyne, Proposed New Brick Wool Store at Kensington for
Younghusband Row & Co., 1917. MCC Building application no. 949, Public Record
Office of Victoria (PROV).
3 Oakden & Ballantyne, Proposed New Brick Wool Store at Kensington for Younghusband
Row & Co., 1917. MCC Building application no. 949, PROV.
LOVELL CHEN 17
Figure 11 'Wool and Grain Warehouses, Kensington', view of west elevation, 1909 with railway trucks lined up on the rail siding. Note the single-storey buildings at the southern end; these are thought to have been premises for shearing. Source: The Leader
north and west. A later block plan of 1957 labels this verandah as an open skin store, numbered Store No. 4.4
The second stage of construction commenced in 1923 to a design of Beaver & Purnell. The works added a further two levels to the building. Plans show a bridge on the first and second floors linked Store No. 3 to Store No. 1 to the north.5
Wool Store No. 2 (1928/1932)
Construction of Wool Store No. 2, a five level red brick building (Figure 16), was also carried out in two stages. The first stage, commenced in 1928, was designed by Purnell, Round & Graham and comprised a two storey building with hipped roof form. Plans show that three bridges linked Store No. 2 with Store No. 1, accessed via a sliding hatch in the roof of Store No. 2. Two bridges were located on the southern half of the west side of the building and one on the south side.6
Purnell & Associates, Younghusband Limited Elizabeth and Chelmsford Streets
Kensington Block Plan, 1957. MCC Building application no. 31787, PROV.
5 Beaver & Purnell, Proposed Additions to Wool Store Elizabeth Street Kensington for
Younghusband Ltd, 1923. MCC Building application no. 5025, PROV; University of
Melbourne Archives, Purnell collection, flat box 26.
6 Purnell, Round & Graham, Proposed New Additions to Wool Store Elizabeth &
Chelmsford Sts Kensington for Younghusband Ltd, 1928. MCC Building application no.
18 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 12 West elevation, Wool Store No. 1.
LOVELL CHEN 19
Figure 13 'The Wool Show Room, Kensington' [Wool Store No. 1], 1909. Source: The Leader
Figure 14 The addition to Wool Store No. 1 returns eastward where it fronts Elizabeth Street. Its date of construction is unknown. To the right in this view is Wool Store No. 2 (1928/1932).
20 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 15 No 3 Wool Store (also known as the Tallow Store), originally designed by Oakden & Ballantyne and constructed in two stages (1917 and 1923)
By 1932, Arthur Purnell, no longer in partnership, had designed an additional three levels with sawtooth roof for the store. Plans show that three bridges linked Store No. 2 with Store No. 1 on each of the three additional levels. The bridge to the south side of the store and the southernmost of the bridges to the west side are shown in the same position as those in the 1928 works, while the second bridge to the west elevation is now located at the northern end of the building.7
Further works, commenced in 1951, include the insertion of a roller door into the Chelmsford Street (north) elevation of the store to accommodate a truck loading bay.8
Also in 1951, three-storey red brick infills were added to the Elizabeth Street frontage, the first between Wool Store No. 3 and Wool Store No 2, and the second between Wool Store no. 1 and Wool Store no. 2.
Works to construct the current Store No.5 commenced in 1957 on the location of earlier buildings and incorporating some materials reused from these buildings. The exact sequence of construction of the buildings previously on this part of the site has not been confirmed. The 1909 photograph (Figure 11) shows a series of single-storey gable and hipped roof
7 Arthur W Purnell, Proposed Additions to Wool Store Elizabeth 8( Chelmsford Sts
Kensington for Younghusband Ltd, 1932. MCC Building application no. 13747, PROV.
8 Arthur W Purnell, Proposed Truck Dock for Younghusband Limited Elizabeth Street
Kensington, 1950. MCC Building application no. 20803, PROV
LOVELL CHEN 21
Figure 16 Wool Store No. 2, originally designed by Purnell, Round & Graham and constructed in two stages (1928/1932). From top, the Elizabeth Street frontage, view of Wool Store No. 2 from the north-west (Chelmsford Street), south and west elevations to internal laneway.
2 2 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 17 Aerial photograph, 1945. Source: Land Victoria Aerial Photography Library
LOVELL CHEN 23
structures assumed to have been used in part at least for shearing on site. Later aerial views from the 1930s and 1940s (refer Appendix B) appear to show a different configuration of buildings however it is possible that sections of the c.1909 buildings survived until the 1957 demolition and redevelopment works.
On the site just prior to the construction of Store No. 5 were an open air skin store (No.4), which was formed by the verandah of the Tallow Store (1917), and an earlier Store No.5 building which was usedlor hides and skins. The two earlier stores are described in the specification for the 1957 works as follows:
The No. 4 Store, Open Skin Store with bluestone kerb and rough open store of timber and corrugated iron on brick and bluestone floor, with an overhead conc-rete and steel bridge between No 3 and No 5 Stores.
No 5 Store, Hides and Skins, has dwarf brick walls with timber frame and corrugated iron, stud walls with corrugated iron roof and timber trusses, carried on timber posts, with concrete lower floor, and timber first floor carried on steel stanchions, timber stairs, and mens change room and lavatory with hot water system.9
These buildings were replaced with a new Store No. 5, designed by Purnell & Associates, a utilitarian two-storey brick and fibre cement sheet clad building with sawtooth roof.
Figure 18 Block plan 1957 showing the redevelopment of the south-west corner of the site.
9 Purnell & Associates, Specification for 2 storey building, Elizabeth Street, Kensington,
1957. MCC Building application no. 31787, PROV.
24 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 19 Store No. 5 (1957) west elevation.
3.5 Recent History
The complex was operated by Younghusband until at least the 1970s. It has in recent years been adapted for a diverse range of uses including as a costume store for the Australian Ballet.
LOVELL CHEN 25
Figure 20 North (Chelmsford Street) elevation of Wool Store No. 1
26 LOVELL CHEN
4.0 Physical Survey and Analysis
Original drawings, as obtained from the following sources, have been consulted in the preparation of this report.
City of Melbourne Building Application index VPRS 11202, Public Record Office, Victoria and associated drawing collection.
Arthur Purnell collection, University of Melbourne Archives.
4.2 Wool Store No. 1
The Chelmsford Street faade is four storeys in height and was originally comprised of nine bays with the centre bay housing the main entry, four arched headed windows, three arched niches and was topped by a render pediment. Either side of the central bay there are three equal bays, recessed at the first and second floor levels, with matching arched windows at ground, first and second levels. The fourth floor level is left without fenestration and is lit from above through south roof lights. The end bays are narrower than those adjacent and are without windows.
The composition of the facade is Romanesque in inspiration, with groups of linked round arched windows and corbels heading each of the recessed bays. The composition is delivered in red English Bond face brickwork with cream bricks forming the header courses to both the shallow arched windows and the smaller round arched windows. Running plumb with the face brickwork at ground floor level, simple piers run unbroken the height of the first and second storeys to carry a deep parapet that forms the upper level. The parapet has projecting courses that frame painted signage that sits in lieu of a more decorative entablature. A stepped render applied to the face brickwork at ground level bases the composition and acts as a plinth.
The central bay of the facade has been subject to substantial alteration with the removal of the original door opening and a group of three circular arched windows. This appears to have been to integrate a new grilled door set, a grilled ventilation opening and two vertically louvered openings that all serve an electrical substation added behind in 1960.
Another major alteration is the creation of a substantial opening in the fagade to serve as a loading dock. This opening halves one of the arched headed timber window frames while narrowing the piers, drastically in one case, it also removes two original windows in their entirety. A reinforced concrete lintel has been keyed into the existing brick work and bears behind the piers. Openings for new timber framed double hung sash windows have also been cut into the western end bay and adjacent pier. Additionally a small louvered window has been cut into the eastern end bay at first floor level.
Figure 21 North elevation - non-original faade openings
LOVELL CHEN 27
Figure 22 Wool Store No. 1 - change in roof form
The western faade faces what was the Melbourne-Essendon railway line and appears to have been completed as two distinct though similar sections. The facade presents as three storeys in height as the ground floor is essentially cut in to the railway embankment. This effect is heightened by the covering of the ground level fenestration by the railway platform.
The northern section incorporates a total of eighteen equal bays with an additional narrower nineteenth bay at the northern end. The fenestration detail, deep parapet with painted signage framed by brickwork coursing and masonry detail of corbelled heads to the bay are all maintained from the Chelmsford Street faade. Decoratively this faade is less elaborate with the window header courses in red brick rather than cream and no decorative render work. The fenestration pattern is akin to that on north faade with the exception that six bays have the arched headed window openings replaced with arched door openings at first (platform level) and second floor level. The doors are timber ledged, braced and battened doors with bluestone sills. The door and window joinery appears to be original though in many cases has been altered to incorporate fixed glazing.
The southern section is made up of eight equal bays and is compositionally the same as the northern section, utilizing the same palette of materials. The detailing of door and window joinery is slightly different as is the detailing of masonry openings. The most substantial of these differences is use of mild steel lintels above entry doors that open on to the railway platform dispensing with the arched form.
Both portions have been subject to extensive graffiti and show remnants of the original hydraulic crane equipment presumably used for the handling of bales and other stock.
The southern corner of the western faade is topped with a curved face brickwork upstand that turns the corner onto the southern faade allowing for the higher parapet level required to meet the ridge of the saw tooth roofs.
The southern faade was constructed in two sections with the eastern addition to Store No. 1 (returning to Elizabeth Street) constructed after the additional bays on the south of the
28 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 23 Wool Store No.1, south-west corner
original store. The western section is divided into eight bays with masonry details to match the southern section of the western facade. At first and second floor levels the facade is without fenestration though large steel framed windows appear above the corbels on each bay in lieu of south light glazing above. Masonry filled door and window openings are evident from within Wool Store 5 though many of the bays to the southern facade of Wool Store No. 1 appear to have been constructed as blanks originally.
The eastern section of the south facade is largely obscured by the three levels of Wool Store No. 3 to the south and the infill extension that sits over the former laneway. Where visible, the upper level is very similar in detail to the adjacent face brickwork of the western section and is broken into eight equal bays with an extended ninth at the Elizabeth street end of the facade.
The Elizabeth street facade of Wool Store No. 1 is five storeys in height and unlike the other frontages of the building is not broken into bays with piers of brickwork dividing recessed areas. The fenestration pattern is made up of a grid of equally spaced, arched headed windows, eight openings wide across the first, second and third storeys. At ground floor level the windows are omitted at either end leaving only six while the fourth floor level, like the other sections of the building, is without any fenestration. Like the other facades the
LOVELL CHEN 29
Figure 24 Wool Store No.1 East (Elizabeth Street) faade
Elizabeth Street elevation has a face brick parapet with projecting courses that frame a banner of painted signage. The parapet is capped with two courses of projecting brickwork and has a curved upstand to the southern end that allows the installation of windows to the southern elevation. Above the face brick parapet the corrugated galvanized sheet metal ends of the saw tooth roof profiles are clearly expressed.
The Elizabeth street facade appears to have undergone some quite destructive stripping work that has removed the face of much of the brickwork and the outer section of the mortar courses across much of the lower two levels leading to a severe change in the appearance of the brickwork in some areas.
The north fagade of Wool Store No. 1 faces north on to the internal laneway and is similar in detail to the northern section of the western faade. The key difference in the original masonry is an additional horizontal brick element which sills the windows to the second level. This extra horizontal leaves the facade composition rather less vertical than the others to Wool Store No. 1 dividing the vertical bays and changing its overall reading. Additionally it appears that though present the projecting brick courses that frame the signage on all other frontages were never painted on this faade.
This faade is obviously heavily impacted upon by the three storey infill section that runs between Wool Stores 1 and 2 as well as the three level reinforced concrete walkway that spans the laneway. The integration of both of these elements along with an external stair that has been removed has lead to the alteration or removal of a number of original window openings.
30 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 25 Wool Store No.1 - Elevation to the E-W (left) and N- S (right) sections of the laneway
At ground level the use of the laneway for access and the addition of the three levels of infill above appear to have lead to the conversion of some original window openings to doors and the removal and replacement of one section of masonry wall with a compressed fibre cement system with louvered fenestration.
The eastern faade of Wool Store No. 1 facing onto the laneway is made up of 15 bays, the northern 14 of which are all detailed to match the western elevation of Wool Store No. 1. The key difference is that, due to the slope of the site and the presence of the railway platform, the ground floor level to this faade is fully visible.
The 15th bay to the fagade appears to date from the second phase of the stores development and, like the western facade, the break between the two stages is denoted by an enlarged pier. The base of the southernmost bay includes an arched door opening, with four header courses for vehicular entry. The opening is framed by large bluestone quoins and is served by a concrete ramp from the laneway that appears to be of a rather later date.
The external walls of Wool Store No. 1 are all constructed in English bonded face brick, all are load bearing as are the main internal walls. The three internal walls run from ground floor level to the under side of level 3 and are punctuated on each level by arch-headed door openings, some still fitted with fire doors. The roof and floors are supported by, in addition to the internal and external load bearing masonry walls, riveted mild steel columns built up out of a series of plate and angle sections. The detail of the mild steel columns reduces in size as they move up the building with the reduction in load culminating in a simple rolled I section supporting the bottom cord of the roof trusses at level 3.
LOVELL CHEN 31
Figure 26 Wool Store No. 1 - Internal steel structure and new openings
The level 1, 2 and 3 floor structures are largely made up of Oregon floor joists, with herringbone strutting, spanning between pockets in the external and internal masonry walls and a series of Rolled Steel Joists and riveted I beams spanning between the steel columns. All upper floors are made of tongue and groove strip flooring that appears to be of several species of Australian hardwood. At ground floor level a series of different materials are in evidence with the flooring alternating between redbrick pavers, hardboard, concrete and a bituminous membrane. All finishes in evidence imply some sort of original concrete blinding slab or compacted substrate designed to carry a masonry floor finish.
Within the north south section of Wool Store No. 1 approximately two-thirds of the level 2 flooring has been removed to create a double height space. Some of the steel joists have been removed, in particular those aligned on original door openings, so as to create a double height corridor, flanked on either side by double height spaces, divided into bays by the remnant original steel work. Large new saw-cut openings have been created in the three course thick internal walls to facilitate the movement of large objects around the double height areas. These areas also have extensive application of mild steel plate and particle board flooring fixed to original floors. The northernmost third of the timber flooring and floor structure has been removed from level 3, this appears to have been to facilitate high level winching equipment fixed to the bottom chord of the roof trusses.
In the southernmost third of the north south section of Wool Store 1 No. both the second and third floors remain intact leaving the structure with its original four floor levels.
Dividing the north-south and east-west sections is a relatively recent aerated concrete wall aligned with the western most wall of the laneway. This acts to divide the third floor into two tenancies. The same division has been achieved at the lower levels with a bricking up of the original arched openings in an internal masonry wall on the same alignment.
32 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 27 Wool Store No.1 - Ground Level
4.2.3 Roof Form and Construction
Though the roof is consistently saw tooth in form its exact detail and construction varies in accordance with its stage of completion much like the faades.
The roofs are consistently made up of timber king post trusses with timber struts to complete the triangular roof form. Internally the roof is lined below the purlins with beaded edge lining boards. The roof is clad externally with galvanized corrugated sheet roofing with galvanized steel flashings. The south light windows are glazed throughout with steel framed glazing.
On the northernmost section of Wool Store No. 1 the saw tooth roof form has a hip at either end to allow the run of a box gutter behind the parapet. On the southern section of the building the end hips are dispensed with and the roofs drain to rainwater heads face mounted on the parapet. This section of roofing appears to run continuously from the western faade fronting the railway through to the Elizabeth street frontage.
Unsurprisingly there seems to have been little by way of elaboration of the interiors in this building devoted to agricultural storage and sales. Internally the walls are largely white painted face brickwork, floors are unpolished and heavily worn and patched, internal structural steelwork and Oregon floor timbers are left unpainted. Adjacent to the new truck loading bay on Chelmsford Street some simple internal partitions have been installed to act as a tea room, office and workshop at first floor level with some additional partitioned spaces above on level 2. On level 3 the trusses and other exposed roof timbers have been painted white or brown, while the internal lining boards are painted white throughout.
The original internal arrangement is much more obscured on the ground floor of the north south section of the wool store. Relatively contemporary full height lightweight plaster board partitions have been installed to divide the ground floor level into artist's studios. This appears to have been undertaken with minimal interruption to either the original masonry or the timber and steel internal structure.
LOVELL CHEN 33
Figure 28 Wool Store No. 1 - Timber roof trusses
Figure 29 Wool Store No.1 - Level 3 interior
34 LOVELL CHEN
The Elizabeth street section of Wool Store No. 1 is far more heavily altered than the section fronting Chelmsford Street. The current internal arrangement is close to the one documented by Arthur W. Purnell in 1951 with the stair well, lift core and other key items remaining in the same locations. The internal partition arrangement on levels 1 and above have been altered to a large degree by subsequent tenancies but all works have been in the form of lightweight internal partitioning lined in lining boards or plaster and there seems to have been little alteration to the original internal structure beyond what was documented in 1951.
4.2.5 Plant and Equipment
Several generations of bale lifts are still in evidence within Wool Store No. 1 with the earlier timber framed lifts still located against the inner face of the east and west external walls. Located adjacent to the inner face of the southernmost wall of Wool Store No. 1 are a pair of more recent, rather smaller bale lifts constructed in mild steel.
Also in evidence on level 3 against the west wall is a small timber framed and clad plant cupboard that may have serviced the hydraulic cranes mounted on the other side of the wall and serving railway platform.
Figure 30 Wool Store No.1 - Bale Lift
LOVELL CHEN 35
4.3 Wool Store No. 2
The Chelmsford Street facade of Wool Store No. 2 is five storeys in height on a raked street front topped by a large parapet wall. The facade is composed in red English bonded face brickwork divided at each floor level by a reinforced concrete band beam, replaced in some areas of the ground floor by a matched band of cementious render applied to the face brick work.
The facade was constructed in two stages, 1928 and 1932, with construction of an additional three storeys in the second stage, largely above the upper band beam of the 1928 scheme with some changes to the fenestration at first level.
Unlike the other buildings on site the facades are composed in a utilitarian manner with little to no decorative treatment. The fenestration pattern is made up largely of proportionally square steel framed windows, with hopper ventilators and obscured glass, arranged in pairs, which consistently use the band beam as a lintel. The pairs are arranged at equal spacings across the facade, set to sit neatly centred between major steel and concrete structural members not visible from the exterior. The other repeated fenestration element is the group of three rectangular windows, arranged to the same facade grid as the square windows, and with the same width overall. These were not present in the original 1928 scheme but were co-ordinated in the 1932 scheme with the bathroom locations internally. Additionally two of the original steel framed windows have been replaced by contemporary aluminium frames with a very different transom and mullion arrangement.
Figure 31 Wool Store No.2 - Elizabeth Street (East) facade
36 LOVELL CHEN
DESPATCH t MOWRY door 19 a
Like Wool Store 1, Wool Store No. 2 has a deep parapet in red face brickwork to conceal the saw tooth roof form and carry painted signage between two projecting courses. Stormwater is reticulated down the facade externally with rainwater heads at low levels draining the roofs' box gutters.
The timber framed and battened double door was the only entry at ground floor level shown on the 1928 scheme; it remains on the northern end of the eastern facade. The 1932 renovation brought an additional timber door to the western elevation facing onto the right of way. Several additional entries have been inserted since the 1932 additions, with one coming, in 1951, with the addition of an internal truck loading bay to the southern end of the east corner of the facade. Additional non-original entries have also been cut in the western end of the north facade, one by cutting out the panel below an existing window another on the far western end to allow an additional vehicle entry.
The original 1928 scheme also introduced three bridges that each spanned the laneway to a different section of Wool Store No. 1. These bridges were all constructed in reinforced concrete with tubular steel handrails. They were uncovered and served the upper level of the store via sliding hatches on the roof. With the removal of the roof to add the additional floor levels in 1932, additional bridges were also installed at levels 2 and 3 of the building. The new bridges were to a similar detail and were covered at the uppermost level by a sprung corrugated sheet metal roof. The 1928 scheme documents the northern of the two bridges that span the north-south section of the laneway in a different location to where the new bridges were documented in the 1932 scheme. It is unclear if the original bridge was constructed other than as documented or if all three levels of the bridge were constructed as part of the 1932 works.
The building's external walls are load bearing red brickwork with concrete band beams acting in some cases as edge beams at each floor level.
Figure 32 Wool Store No.2 - New openings
LOVELL CHEN 37
Figure 33 Wool Store No.2 - Level 3 and 4 structure
Internally the building's structure varies in construction if not in layout from level to level. Where the first floor sits above the much smaller ground level, the Oregon framed tongue and groove strip flooring is supported by a grid of rolled steel sections bearing on a series of concrete columns that in turn bear on the ground level concrete slab. A small section to the north east corner of the first floor is constructed in reinforced concrete. Due to the terracing of the site the ground floor is substantially smaller than the first level above leaving level 1 with a timber framed sub-floor in Oregon and Australian hardwood to support the remainder of the floor.
Levels 2 and 3 are made up of a grid of reinforced concrete beams cast in-situ, some with rolled mild steel sections cast inside. Above level 3 the reinforced concrete grid is replaced with mild steel columns with rolled steel joists of varying sizes spanning between. The RSJs carried a now demolished 4th floor that appears to have had Oregon floor joists with herringbone strutting.
The original 1928 scheme appears to have needed little amendment to allow the construction of the three additional floors above with the largely timber framed level 1 floor appearing to have remained in place. It appears from the 1932 documentation that areas of brickwork adjacent to window openings were thickened to allow for the additional load but that few other alterations where made to the fabric that was to remain.
38 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 34 Wool Store No.2 - Level 2 structure
4.3.3 Roof Form and Construction
The roof of Wool Store No. 2 can be broken into two sections. The larger southern section is a fairly conventional saw tooth arrangement while the northern section has a much more complicated asymmetrical hipped arrangement that accounts for the awkward site boundary to the north eastern corner.
The southern section has hips to both east and west ends of the south light to allow for a box gutter to be easily installed behind the parapet. The roof is comprised of corrugated galvanized sheet metal with galvanized gutters and flashings. The roof supported on timber mono-pitch trusses with threaded steel bar ties. The underside of the roof purlins are lined in timber boards which also surround the steel framed windows and line the bulkheads beneath the box gutters.
The northern section of the roof is more structurally complex though rendered in the same materials. The main hipped section is formed in a series of timber Waddell 'A' trusses, with threaded mild steel ties, which increase in span to accommodate the splayed corner. Part of the southern face of the hip is opened to include additional south light glazing. Part Waddell trusses support the end hips at the eastern end while the north eastern and north western most edges are made up of a series of hips and skillions dressed suit the awkward geometry.
LOVELL CHEN 39
Figure 35 Wool Store No.2 Northern section of roof structure
Like Wool Store No. 1 this utilitarian structure had little by way of elaboration to the interiors. It appears that internal masonry and in-situ concrete was painted while floors were left floated but unpolished. Internally there was little by way of partitioning with the large floor areas devoted to bale storage.
There are several varnished timber framed stairs left from both stages of the building's construction. Those to levels 2 and 3 are mounted within tilted in-situ concrete cores probably to sufficiently fire isolate the floors. The stair between level 1 and level 2 is of most prominence as it is located well away from the external walls and does not run parallel to any members of the structural grid.
Levels 1 and 2 have recently had new partitions and a revised bathroom fit out installed to accommodate a warehouse facility and design studio for the current tenant. The fit out is all lightweight and appears to have had little impact on the original fabric of the building.
Levels 3 and 4 are without a tenant and have no partitioning and only the remnants of the earlier original bathroom fit out.
4.3.5 Plant and Equipment
The only remaining plant in Wool Store No. 2 is the bale lift. This was moved from the inside face of the southern facade of the building to the inside face of the western faade at the time of the 1932 additions. The in-situ concrete lift core is in place at all levels and still appears to have its original fire doors and, at level 1, appears to have had a control system installed in more recent times implying that it has been operational recently.
40 LOVELL CHEN
4.4 Tallow Store (Wool Store No. 3)
The east facade, to Elizabeth Street, is three storeys in height and is divided loosely into six bays by the expressed downpipes and the saw tooth profiles that top the parapet. The facade is constructed in English bonded red face brickwork with two cementious render bands that cover reinforced concrete band beams that are more clearly visible internally. Below the upper render band is a band of painted signage identifying the space as the tallow store.
The Tallow Store was constructed in two main stages, 1917 and 1923. The ground level brickwork appears to date from this first stage of construction though there have been substantial changes to the fenestration pattern during later works to add two additional floors. There is little by way of decorative brickwork or render to the facade other than for two courses of projecting brickwork on the sloped section of the saw tooth parapet.
The fenestration pattern of the 1923 scheme is awkward in that while it approaches a symmetrical faade composition with the fenestration of the north and south end bays mirrored about the centre line of the facade, it then duplicates the second and fifth bays and third and fourth without mirroring. During the 1923 works, four windows at ground floor were filled in with face brick to form niches; while at level 1 square steel framed windows with hoppers have been inserted above those that remain open from the 1917 scheme. Square niches matched in size with the square windows were also formed above the newly infilled openings on the level below.
Figure 36 Wool Store No. 3 (Tallow Store) - Elizabeth Street (east) facade
LOVELL CHEN 41
The 1923 scheme retained the two timber loading doors with their bluestone sills that had been part of the 1917 fagade though one of these has now been demolished to install an internal truck loading bay. The loading bay has been installed with the removal of almost the full width of brickwork to the ground level of one bay with a roller door and relatively recent glazed entry installed.
The other substantial divergence from the 1923 facade scheme is the presence of three timber framed double hung sash windows in the northern most bay at second floor level. These windows do not match the rest of the steel framed window joinery but do appear to match the windows of the Elizabeth street facade of Wool Store 1 which has had some of its north and south windows removed to accommodate works over the two laneways. The additional windows have had a severe impact upon the original banner signage with their header coursed obstructing the last word.
The Tallow Store's external walls are load bearing red brickwork with concrete band beams acting as the fixing point for the steel internal structure in some areas.
Internally the structure is made up of riveted mild steel beams and columns supporting Oregon floor joists with herringbone strutting. The ground floor is slightly raised relative to street level which would confirm an instruction within the 1923 documentation to construct the new tongue and groove Jarrah strip flooring and substructure over the existing floor. The level one and two floors appear to also be tongue and groove strip flooring in an Australian hardwood.
The structure is largely intact internally with the main alteration being the inclusion of an additional stair well to the south east corner.
4.4.3 Roof forms and construction
The roof is saw tooth in form with very finely framed timber south light glazing. The roof is carried on timber framed mono-pitch queen post trusses. These are in turn carried on square stop chamfered timber columns. The underside of the roof purlins are clad with lining boards while the timber framing below the box gutters is fully expressed.
Externally the roof is clad in galvanized corrugated sheet metal with galvanized flashings, cappings and box gutters.
Both the 1917 and 1923 documentation indicate that there was no subdivision of the sizeable internal volume of the building as it was largely devoted to warehousing. On level 2 there never appears to have been any paint finish to the internal face of the brickwork. The entertainment venues that currently occupy the ground and first floor levels both have extensively applied soft furnishings and paint finishes directly on to the original structure though there seem to have been no major internal alterations beyond the installation of internal light weight partitions to subdivide the space for tenancy purposes.
4.4.5 Plant and Equipment
The 1923 addition brought the addition of a bale lift, with an in-situ concrete core, to the southern end of the western facade. The core is still in place with the original timber joinery to the gates still in evidence on level 2.
42 LOVELL CHEN
4.5 Wool Store No. 5
The western facade of Wool Store no. 5 is a two-storey facade with the lower ground level largely obscured by the platform and the railway berm. The facade is divided into six bays each with a sawtooth roof above and originally a centralized sliding door or window opening at platform level.
The facade is constructed in face brickwork to both the ground and first floors with compressed fibre cement sheeting lining the ends of the sawtooth profile. The fascias to the skillion roofs are in timber with relatively new zincalume flashings dressed over.
The stormwater reticulation is fully expressed with downpipes running from rain water heads at the bottom of each saw tooth to stormwater reticulated below the railway platform. At ground floor level there is highly obscured timber framed strip glazing that looks out into the berm.
The facade remains largely in its original form with the addition of a small galvanized steel canopy to the door of the northern most bay. There is also a large amount of graffiti in particular to the Level 1 masonry.
Structurally Wool Store no. 5 relies heavily on the adjacent buildings with its external perimeter structural support coming from the southern external wall of Wool Store no. 1 to the north, the western external wall of the Tallow Store to the East and the re-use, on the southern side, of what appears to have been an existing face brick wall from an earlier structure on the site.
According to the 1957 working drawings the ground floor level the building is founded on a series of substantial concrete pad footings measuring up to 2 square metres. A reinforced concrete floor slab is poured at ground level with reinforced concrete columns supporting the suspended level 1 floor slab above.
4.5.3 Roof Form and Construction
The roof is supported on reinforced concrete columns cast into the level 1 floor slab. The roof form is created by exposed steel framed sawtooth trusses that are connected perpendicular to steel framed lattice girders which are, in turn, aligned above the concrete column supports. While providing vertical support for the sawtooth roof ridge the lattice girder also provides lateral restraint for the steel framed south light glazing.
Internally the roof purlins have been lined on their underside with a compressed fibre cement sheet system while the box gutters have been dressed to form a bulkhead in the same material. The linings and associated fixings appear to be relatively recent and probably replace the earlier fibre cement sheet lining documented in 1957.
Externally the roof appears to have been re-sheeted with zincalume corrugated steel sheet with matched flashings and cappings in the last two decades. This would appear to have replaced the Corrugated Sheet Iron Roofing called up in the 1957 documents.
LOVELL CHEN 43
Figure 37 Wool Store No.5 - West elevation
Figure 38 Wool Store No.5 - direct bearing on the masonry wall to Wool Store No. 1
44 LOVELL CHEN
Level 1 of Wool Store No. 5 had little to no interior treatment with the face brickwork of the adjacent buildings being left as constructed. The concrete floor is simply float finished with no coatings or coverings beyond the temporary ones installed by the tenant to prevent undue wear from the business' production of theatrical scenery. The roof steel work, south light glazing frames and sheet linings are all paint finished in white. The original lavatory to the north-east corner is still in place with the original terrazzo finishes still in evidence. This area has been slightly altered to incorporate a ladies' bathroom in addition to the gents in the 1957 scheme.
There are some additional light weight partitions at level 1 not documented in the 1957 scheme. These all stop short of the ceiling with one forming a small mezzanine level to the north-west corner. On the whole they are constructed of remnant sections of stage scenery with some additional studwork.
The largely subterranean ground level to Wool Store No. 5 appears from the 1957 drawings to have had little by way of internal fit out with a single L-shaped dividing wall to divide the wool and hide stores. Bathrooms, a change room and lunch rooms are also shown. The lunch room and change room appear to have been removed and are now an extension of the open floor area. A lightweight partition is still present along the line of the dividing partition indicated on the 1957 plan though the current wall has additional door openings and a slightly greater extent.
Also present is a significant amount of lightweight partitioning in addition to that documented within the 1957 documentation. This occurs in varying locations around the grid but does not appear to have had any major impact upon the structure. The truck dock is still present in what appears to be its original form with an additional timber deck and stair present along the northern face of the Tallow Store that is not referred to in the 1957 documents. All areas of the ground floor have been painted matt back, with, in some areas, metallic applied decorative finishes.
4.5.5 Plant and Equipment
The bale lifts documented in the 1957 scheme for Wool Store 5 appear to have been removed at Level 1. The door openings they served to the Tallow Store are still in place. It was unclear from the access available whether the lifts had been removed in their entirety.
4.6 Railway Platform
The existing railway platform is a reinforced concrete structure fully cast in-situ that has no paint or other decorative finishes. It is spalling severely in several locations with a large amount of reinforcement fully exposed.
While it may incorporate early fabric, the platform appears to have been substantially modified, with what seem to be pockets for sizeable timber bearers still in evidence beneath the existing concrete platform. There does appear to have originally been a concrete beam integral to the Wool Store No. 1 western faade and this forms some of the pockets.
LOVELL CHEN 4 5
Figure 39 Wool Store No. 5 - Level 1
A major in-situ cast concrete ramp has also been added to the platform in front Wool Store No. 5; from the appearance of the integral steel members this appears to have been a relatively recent addition. There are also several sets of mild steel stairs that access the platform from track level all of which appear to date from after the construction of the concrete platform.
The scope of the railway platform to the western elevation of the site varies significantly between the Melbourne Metropolitan Board of Works plan of 1951 and the later block plan prepared for the site by Purnell, Round and Graham in 1957 which shows a far larger platform already in place. Both plans however differ from the current layout.
4.7 Internal Laneway
The internal laneway that divides Wool Store No. 1 from Wool Store No. 2 is paved in bluestone pitchers with an inward fall to a central spoon drain. Where it meets Chelmsford Street an English bonded face brick wall encloses the splayed section of the lane which remains unmade. Hydraulic services pipe work, much of it crudely decommissioned, projects from the wall in this area indicating its possible use as a services yard of some form.
Above the existing laneway on Elizabeth Street is a three-storey infill building that appears to have been constructed in 1951. This infill is mirrored to the southern side of Store 1 with a second infill section, also constructed in 1951, that internalizes a laneway that once lead to the rear of the Tallow Store. In both cases, the 1951 street facade is simply constructed as a flat face of exposed red brickwork of a poor standard with six arched-headed window openings. The timber window joinery appears to match that to Wool Store No. 1 adjacent, and may have been salvaged from the demolition works required to its north and south facades to create these extensions. The masonry skin of the street facade is supported on a
46 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 40 Railway platform
reinforced concrete beam that spans the laneway while the floors all appear to be constructed in Oregon joists, with herringbone struts, that also span the current or former laneways.
The northern infill has a faade that faces the current laneway which is a peculiar form with two planes of galvanized corrugated sheet metal roofing, at differing non-vertical pitches, forming both walls and roof. The remnants of an external stair landing are present on the southern side as is a single piece of rudimentary glazing. This facade is badly dilapidated with extensive corrosion to sheet metal and water damage to the exposed timber elements.
LOVELL CHEN 47
Figure 41 North and South Infills - Elizabeth Street (east) elevation
Figure 42 Rear of northern infill and east-west section of laneway
48 LOVELL CHEN
5.0 Analysis and Assessment of Significance
5.1 Wool Store design: key characteristics
In the nineteenth century, the handling and storage of wool was a process that was strongly associated with sea ports and rail heads, and this was reflected in the location of wool stores in the principal Victorian ports of Melbourne and Geelong. The form of the buildings was also related to the nature of the sale and handling processes; unlike other export products, wool required vast areas of undercover space for storage, inspection, viewing and sale. As a result, though in many respects similar to the more generic warehouse form, there were a number of characteristics which set wool stores apart. These included the following:
location, usually near a harbour and rail transport and in close proximity to a commercial centre with facilities for the auctioning of wool (in Melbourne the major city wool stores complexes of the nineteenth century were located around the west end of Collins, Bourke and Flinders Streets and at the south end of William and King Streets, close to both the railways and the shipping wharves of the Yarra)
distinctive external architectural treatment and imposing scale;
multi-storey buildings with timber floors, joists, beams, timber or steel columns and low ceiling heights;
large loading doors;
designed with large uncluttered floor spaces with columns and windows arranged around the module set by wool bales;
designed with a well-lit top floor (the show floor), usually with a saw-toothed roof with glazing on the south side, for the inspection of wool prior to auction; and
provided with a general abundance of light and ventilation at all levels.10
Wool stores varied in their external architectural treatment depending on their location and date of construction. It is noted that city wool stores, which sometimes incorporated the company's head offices, tended to have substantial corporate facades which reflected the substance and status of the firm. Another point of interest is that in the twentieth century there was a move by some of the major woolbrokers towards the adoption of a uniform architectural treatment for wool stores in various states, as evidenced, for example, by the wool stores constructed by Dalgety's in the 1940s.11
5.2 Surviving woolstores, Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane
In Melbourne, whether in a central city and metropolitan context, there are relatively few surviving wool stores complexes. Most of the nineteenth century city wool stores in Melbourne, including the vast New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Co. city complex in
10 Allom Lovell Sanderson. Former Dennys Lascelles Woolstore Conservation
Management Plan, p. 69, Allom Lovell Sanderson. Former Dalgety Woolstore -
Conservation Study. pp. 82-83.
11 Allom Lovell Sanderson. Former Dalgety Woolstore - Conservation Study. pp. 82-83.
LOVELL CH EN 49
Collins Street, have been completely demolished. The main exception is the Goldsborough Mort city complex, part of which survives on the north-east corner of Bourke and William Streets. The surviving four and five-storey bluestone building (514-526 Bourke Street, 152- 162 William Street, Figure 43) dates from 1862. Though it has been substantially gutted and stripped internally, it is otherwise intact, including the sawtooth roof structure. This building demonstrates the wealth and status of this particular company through its large scale, use of bluestone and distinctive architectural treatment.
The former PB Curtain wool store, constructed in 1878 and comprising a three-storey brick building with a dressed basalt and render fagade, until recently retained its original sawtooth roof structure incorporating south lights to the top display floor. It recently has been substantially demolished (only the fagade and a limited depth of building remains) and the site redeveloped for a residential tower (Figure 44).
Of the two city examples, the former Goldsborough Mort wool store is more imposing; the PB Curtain wool store is by comparison a relatively modest example of such buildings. No other purpose-built wool stores are known to survive in the central city.
Also on the city fringe and not far from the Kensington site, there are two other surviving former wool store buildings; both are at the end of Sutton Street in North Melbourne (where it runs up to City Link) and appear to date from the late interwar or early post-WWII period. Neither of these examples has the aesthetic qualities of the Kensington complex.
There are two other major wool stores complexes further from the city in Melbourne's western suburbs. The former Australian Estates wool store in Sunshine Road, Footscray West (47 Sunshine Road) is a substantial red brick wool stores complex of 1940 located on the rail line adjacent to the Tottenham railway sidings (Figure 46). When constructed it was apparently described as the most modern in Australia. 12 It features a distinctive mansard-style parapet which conceals the roof form in most views to the building (Figure 47). Immediately adjacent and to the west (63 Sunshine Road) is another large interwar example, the Goldsborough Mort wool store, of c. 1940-1941. The Maribyrnong Heritage Review assessment of this building notes it marks a transition in terms of wool store design from the traditional wool store forms (columned structures with a degree of architectural elaboration to the principal facades) to a more utilitarian format with unornamented facades and open span internal spaces. 13 Both the Sunshine Road examples appear to be externally relatively intact (though the Goldsborough Mort building is reported to have been gutted internally) and both have individual Heritage Overlay controls pursuant to the Maribyrnong Planning Scheme.
Further afield, the wool stores complexes at Geelong (including the Dennys Lascelles wool stores complex of 1872 and later, the Dalgety's wool stores of 1891 and later, and the Strachan Murray and Shannon Wool Stores of 1889 (Figure 53) comprise the most significant group in the state. They also have strong links with other surviving Geelong buildings associated with the wool industry including the former wool exchange building in Corio Street (1927-28). The earliest of the Dennys Lascelles complex (the offices and stores building of 1872) is included in the Victorian Heritage Register, as are the Strachan, Murray and Shannon Wool Stores of 1889. Other surviving examples in this location are variously
12 Jill Barnard Graeme Butler Francine Gilfedder & Gary Vines, Maribyrnong Heritage
Review - Industrial Places, Volume 3, Appendix 1, p. 183.
13 Jill Barnard Graeme Butler Francine Gilfedder & Gary Vines, Maribyrnong Heritage
Review - Industrial Places, Volume 3, Appendix 1, p. 185.
50 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 43 Former Goldsborough Mort Wool Store (1862), William and Bourke Streets, Melbourne
Figure 44 The former PB Curtain Wool Store (1878) is on the left in this view.
LOVELL CHEN 51
Figure 45 PMG Stores building, Harbour Street, Sydney Source: Australian Heritage Photographic Library
included in the Wool Stores Industrial Heritage Area and/or have individual heritage overlays in the Greater Geelong Planning Scheme. The group includes wool stores ranging in date from the last half of the nineteenth century (1870s) through to the mid-twentieth century.
Interstate, in a general sense, the Kensington wool stores complex relates to the later and larger Darling Harbour-Pyrmont warehouses in Sydney and the stores complexes in Brisbane's Teneriffe dockland from around 1911.
In Sydney, eight large warehouses of five storeys or more (commenced 1906-15) survive in the Darling Harbour - Pyrmont area, beginning with Arthur Blacket's Waite and Bull warehouse in Pyrmont Bridge Road (1893). 14 All these were added to and altered in the
14 See The Heritage of Australia, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1981, pp. 2/86, items 1-5, 2/88,
item 3 for dates and divisions, and Trevor Howells and Mark O'Donnell, Survey of
warehouses and Woolstores within the City of Sydney, Sydney, 1997, p. 85-7 (Waite
and Bull) , 98-9 (Winchcome Carson) 100-101 (Goldsborough Mort).
52 LOVELL CHEN
1920s and 1930s. In Brisbane the Teneriffe area retains the Saratoga, Dakota, McTaggart, London, Australian Estates and Winchcome-Carson stores, the last commenced in 1911 and most of the precinct construction being in the mid-1920s. These Brisbane buildings have mostly been converted to flats.15
The Younghusband complex in Kensington retains its connection to the rail lines (including brick and stone retaining walls, local layout, signalling and wiring stanchions from the early twentieth century, located along the west elevation to the Younghusband warehouse (Figure 12), in contrast with the Darling Harbour and Teneriffe complexes which have had their railways removed.
5.3 Development of warehouse precincts outside the central cities
The small number of wool stores that do survive in Melbourne tend to demonstrate the geographical shift (over the late nineteenth century into the twentieth) of such buildings from the central city (where they were located close to the docks) to the north and western city fringe (Kensington and North Melbourne) where sites could be served by railway sidings off the main lines, and subsequently further west again. The siting of the Younghusband complex follows this pattern, which normally involved a location close to water with a direct rail link, such as at Teneriffe, Brisbane or Pyrmont-Darling Harbour, Sydney.
Sydney's later cenfral city warehouses, originally closer to the Darling Harbour docks than they are now, demonstrate the early phase of this development, with a number being built in the Factory Street - Kent Street region of the central city after 1890. These were still on tight central city sites but facing Darling Harbour and the larger warehouse sites around Pyrmont Bridge Road, Pyrmont, in particular Harris Streets and Darling Island.
Subsequent warehouses and industrial complexes were usually sited further away, again on major rail routes, as with Crago's two large flour storage facilities in Lewisham and Homebush in Sydney's inner west (1920s). The Australian Estates and Goldsborough Mort warehouses in West Footscray and Sunshine (Figure 47 to Figure 49) reflect a similar shift in Melbourne.
In the Victorian context, this pattern of decentralisation was not seen so overtly in the regional centre of Geelong, where there was less urban pressure to redevelop its central activities district and where the city adjoined the docks anyway. Even there, however, the city developed a new Corio Wharf warehouse area in c. 1905-6, primarily for meat and wheat export.
In the case of Younghusband, the siting of the complex on the railway line in Melbourne's inner north-west, its co-existence with other related industries such as the flour milling complex to its south, and the relationship to worker housing to the north, are all demonstrative of key themes both in the history of the local area itself and in a broader regional/metropolitan context.
5.4 Dimensional and Stylistic Change
Architecturally, the most direct result of the shift of wool stores and other warehouses and industrial buildings from the central city to its fringes was a spectacular increase in scale and dimension. Long attached railway platforms and initially more open spaces were the main determinants, but the vertical dimensions also increased, in large part due to steady improvements in hydraulic and then cable lift design.
15 For the Teneriffe warehouses see commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:Teneriffecildl.PG;
www.mactaugarts.com.au/historv.htm, both accessed 3 December 2009.
LOVELL CHEN 53
Figure 46 Former Australian Estates Wool Store, Sunshine Road, West Footscray.
There were also major stylistic shifts that coincided with the decentralisation of the major wool stores complexes; earlier Melbourne stores buildings, such as Goldsborough Mort (1862, Figure 43) or PB Curtain (1878, Figure 44), both in Bourke Street in the city, drew from the Renaissance and classical legacies in their divisions into basement (ground level), piano nobile (middle level) and attic (top level). Goldsborough Mort used rusticated quoining, ground floor arches and a roof parapet, all in the manner of a sixteenth century Roman or Venetian palazzo; while Curtain's used a rusticated basement and piers surmounted by a parapet.
By contrast, the newer generation of warehouses tended to be characterised by the round-arched Romanesque, with this and other detailing drawing on sources in Ferguson's Architectural History (1858) and applications from the 1880s of round-headed, giant order arcades to warehouses, offices and department stores by HH Richardson and others in the United States, especially the Marshall Field Wholesale Store in Chicago (1885). This became the dominant form for Australian warehouse design after c. 1890, prompted both by the dimensional jump and by a shift away from Renaissance idioms. Early Sydney examples in this general mode include the 'grand wool warehouse' design for the PMG Stores building of c.1890 at 64 Harbour Street (Figure 45), with its round attic arches, heavily scaled segmental arches lower down, red and brown face-brick and broad signage frieze. These external forms are all seen in the earliest building in the Younghusband complex (No. 1 Wool Store) ten years later. Other related Sydney examples include 350, 352-8, 360-2 and 364- 72 Kent Street, all c.1890s or 1900s and comprising five to eight storeys.
54 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 47 East elevation of the Australian Estates Wool Store, showing the mansarded parapet extending back and concealing the sawtooth roof form.
Figure 48 Principal north elevation of the Goldsborough Mort Wool Store, also on Sunshine Road at West Footscray.
LOVELL CHEN 55
Figure 49 West elevation of the Goldsborough Mort Wool Store. The building has a traditional sawtooth roof form incorporating south lights.
5.5 Individual components
As noted earlier, the design of the earliest building on the Kensington site (Wool Store No. 1, of 1900-1) reflected a shift from c.1890 to the use of free treatments of round-arched Romanesque style. This was in contrast with earlier buildings such New Zealand Loan and Mercantile's Wool Store in Lloyd Street (completed in 1889 to a Lloyd Tayler design), which used a complete set of segmental arches for its windows, 16 giving it an older, more mid-nineteenth century appearance. By contrast, the heavily-sculpted contours and use of polychrome on Wool Store No.1 offers a particular vigour and robustness of architectural expression. In this context, it relates to Carlton Brewery's Malt Store in Swanston Street, Melbourne (539 Swanston Street, Carlton, HV & A Champion, 1905-6, Figure 50) , a similarly round-arched design with a scaled pediment and breakfront, but more intact externally.
In the case of Wool Store No. 1, the breakfront facing Chelmsford Street is in a tradition running back through the first Dennys Lascelles store in Geelong of 1872 (Figure 54) but has been inventively transformed to utterly de-classicise it and link it to an array of heavy round and segmental arches. This is done by narrowing the breakfront to the width of a pavilion rather than a portico, and giving it a trio of small Romanesque windows. Its simple detailing and rather tentative evocation of the Romanesque pale in comparison with the elegant thoroughness of the Pyrmont warehouses in Sydney. 17 Notwithstanding, Wool Store No. 1 is singular in its combination of elements, enlivened by the compression of most fenestration into the lower part of the elevation, as compared to the even spread seen in the Sydney wool
16 See Vines and Ward, Western Region Industrial Heritage Study, Melbourne, 1989, Site
0431, graded B.
17 See Trevor Howells and Mark O'Donell, Survey of Warehouses and Woolstores within
the City of Sydney, Sydney, 1997, p. 96.
56 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 50 Former CUB Malt Store, Swanston Street, Melbourne (1905-6) Source: State Library of Victoria.
stores. The later openings in the Chelmsford Street faade have significantly compromised its presentation.
The designs for the 1910s addition to Wool Store No. 1 (returning onto Elizabeth Street) and for Wool Store No. 3 (1917) used segmental arches again, but without the heavy delineation that linked the Chelmsford Street frontage to the Romanesque. Both these building present as related to the earlier building but are simpler, stripped versions.
The 1923 and 1928/1932 additions (additions to the Wool Store No. 3 and Wool Store No. 2) show the arrival of a clear industrial modernism soon found widely through Australia's inner suburbs. This predated the modernism seen in the 1930s in houses and retail buildings, but in most other respects is a red face-brick version of modernism overseas. The modernity of these is expressed through their total absence of applied ornament, their steel-framed windows, and their signature ribbon lintels in reinforced concrete. The Tallow Store addition (Wool Store No. 3) defers slightly to earlier fabric in its use of very slightly segmented ground floor arch - lintels, but Wool Store No.2 Store's Elizabeth street frontage is unequivocal in this respect. The 1932 additions to Store No. 2 included new fourth and fifth floors, extending the industrial face-brick and concrete lintel modernism seen in the original three levels. The modernist sensation is heightened here by the bridges linking the store with No.1 across an alley, and by the rounded corners to allow trucks and drays to turn. These are dramatised by the sweep of the concrete lintel-courses. Related modernist styling is seen on other commercial and industrial buildings of the later interwar period such as the Myer warehouse in Carlton (thought to be by Tompkins Shaw & Evans, c. 1936, Figure 51), Harry Norris' Melford Motors Building (1940, Figure 52), and Buchan's Pilkington factory at Geelong (1936 and later), though these are all more distinctive and have a pronounced horizontality not seen in Store No. 2.
The addition of Store No.5 in 1957 was far less imposing as a design and unprepossessing in its use of materials, and the combination of brick lower wall and asbestos cement cladding to the sawtooth roofing was common by 1957.
LOVELL CHEN 57
Figure 51 Former Myer warehouse, Barry Street, Carlton, 1936
Figure 52 Melford Motors Building, Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, 1940.
58 LOVELL CHEN
Figure 53 Strachan, Murray and Shannon Wool Store (1889), 95-97 Malop Street, Geelong Image from Heritage Victoria database
Figure 54 Dennys Lascelles Wool Store (1872), 26 Moorabool Street, Geelong Image from Heritage Victoria database
LOVELL CHEN 59
Figure 55 Dennys Lascelles Wool Store (1934) Image from http://www.wycombegroup.com/higher-education/dennys-lascelles/
Figure 56 Oblique aerial of Deakin University's 'waterfront campus' on Eastern Beach Road in Geelong, a major refurbishment of a series of major wool stores.
60 LOVELL CHEN
5.6 Architects associated with the complex
The Younghusband complex includes buildings designed work by two noted Melbourne architectural firms: Oakden and Ballantyne and Arthur Purnell. Both were responsible for buildings of architectural interest and distinction in Melbourne, including, for example, Beaver and Purnell's Southern Stand at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (1937, demolished), and Purnell's Michael's Pharmacy and Camera Store (1918-19, extant). Oakden and Ballantyne had designed the New Zealand Mercantile (Figure 8, 1910) and many other city buildings, and Oakden's partner, Cedric Ballantyne is known for his theatre and cinema design work across Australia.18
While the association of the complex with these relatively prominent architects is of interest, in neither case are the Younghusband buildings considered to rank amongst the best work of these practitioners.
5.7 An evolved complex
One of the more distinctive aspects of the Kensington complex is its evolution over a 50 year period (c.1900-1957). It is of interest for its ability to demonstrate through a series of different building elements, aspects of the emergence of modern industrial architecture in the first half of the twentieth century. A comparative example, in chronological and stylistic spread, is the Dennys Lascelles wool stores complex in Geelong, the oldest dating from 1872, the most recent (part of Deakin University's Waterf