Generating)Electricity) - ... 2015/10/08  · Generating)Electricity)...

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Transcript of Generating)Electricity) - ... 2015/10/08  · Generating)Electricity)...

  • Generating  Electricity   Pg    150  –  159  

    Syllabus  4.16  and  4.17  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Starter:  is  nuclear  energy  green?  

    1:00  0:59  0:58  0:57  0:56  0:55  0:54  0:53  0:52  0:51  0:50  0:49  0:48  0:47  0:46  0:45  0:44  0:43  0:42  0:41  0:40  0:39  0:38  0:37  0:36  0:35  0:34  0:33  0:32  0:31  0:30  0:29  0:28  0:27  0:26  0:25  0:24  0:23  0:22  0:21  0:20  0:19  0:18  0:17  0:16  0:15  0:14  0:13  0:12  0:11  0:10  0:09  0:08  0:07  0:06  0:05  0:04  0:03  0:02  0:01  End  1:00  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Generating  Electricity  

    Today’s  learning  objective  is  to…   *  Describe  the  energy  transfers  involved  in  generating   electricity  using  a  variety  of  energy  sources   *  Know  their  advantages  and  disadvantages    

    Think   How  many  energy  sources  do  you  know  which  

    are  used  to  generate  electricity?  

    October 18, 2015

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Key  Words  

    *  Renewable        재생 가능한 *  Non-­‐Renewable      재생 불 가능한 *  Solar      태양의 *  Geothermal      지열의 *  Turbine      터빈 *  Generator    발전기 *  Wind    바람 *  Water  물 *  Fossil  fuels    화석 연료 *  Nuclear  power    원자력 ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Edexcel  Specification  

    Section  4:  Energy  resources  and  energy  transfer     d)  Energy  resources  and  electricity  generation   understand  the  energy  transfers  involved  in  generating  electricity  using:   •  wind   •  water   •  geothermal  resources   •  solar  heating  systems   •  solar  cells   •  fossil  fuels   •  nuclear  power   Describe  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  methods  of  large-­‐scale   electricity  production  from  various  renewable  and  non-­‐renewable  resources.  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • The  big    picture  

    How  is  electricity     produced?  

    Have  you  ever  wondered?  ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • How  is  electricity  generated?  

    Coal burnt in furnace, produces heat

    Water boils to form steam, which rises

    Steam turns turbine blades

    Turbine drives generator, which creates electricity

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • What  are  energy  resources?   An energy resource is anything that can be used to generate power for human use. There are two categories of energy resource: l  non-renewable energy

    resources will eventually run out – once used they cannot be used again. Examples are fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and nuclear fuels (uranium, plutonium).

    l  renewable energy resources can be replaced or regenerated and will never run out. Examples are wind, hydroelectricity and solar power. ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Driving  a  turbine  

    Many energy resources are used to generate electricity by driving a turbine connected to a generator. Both renewable and non- renewable energy sources can drive a turbine. l  Some drive a turbine directly – e.g. wind and water power. l  Others drive a turbine indirectly by being used to heat

    water and create high-pressure steam – e.g. coal, nuclear and geothermal power. ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Renewable  or  non-­‐renewable?  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Wind  power  

    Wind  is  used  to  rotate  a   turbine  (the  blades)  which   turns  an  electrical  generator.    

    A  wind  farm  

    Energy  changes:   kinetic     to  electrical  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • ADVANTAGES     * Renewable  energy  source   * No  greenhouse  gases   * No  acid  rain   * No  radioactive  waste   * Inexpensive  to  build   * Short  start  up  time      

    DISADVANTAGES   * Unreliable  –  needs  wind!   * Best  used  in  places  where   they  will  often  be  regarded   as  unsightly   * Many  turbines  are  needed   to  produce  the  same  energy   of  a  small  thermal  power   station   * Noise   * Danger  to  wildlife  

    Wind  farm  off  the  coast  in  Shanghai  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Hydroelectric  power  

    Falling  water  is  used  to   drive  a  turbine  which   rotates  an  electrical   generator.       Energy  changes:   gravitational  potential   to  kinetic     to  electrical     ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Hydroelectric  power  station  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • ADVANTAGES     * Renewable     * No  greenhouse  gases   * No  acid  rain   * No  radioactive  waste   * Short  start  up  time    

    DISADVANTAGES   * Very  limited  locations   * Wildlife  affected   * Expensive  to  build  

    The  Hoover  Dam  near  Las  Vegas  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Wave  power  

    Waves  can  be  used  to   drive  an  electrical   generator.       Energy  changes:   kinetic     to  electrical    

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • ADVANTAGES     * Renewable     * No  greenhouse  gases   * No  acid  rain   * No  radioactive  waste   * No  land  needed   * Short  start  up  time    

    DISADVANTAGES   * Unreliable   * Can  only  be  used  in  areas   with  suitable  waves   * Prone  to  storm  damage   * Many  needed  to  produce   the  same  energy  of  a  small   thermal  power  station   * Danger  to  shipping  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Tidal  power  

    Moving  water  caused  by  the   tides  is  used  to  drive  a   turbine  directly  which   rotates  an  electrical   generator.       Energy  changes:   gravitational  potential   to  kinetic     to  electrical    

    Tidal  power  station  at   La  Rance,  Brittany    

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Tidal  power  station   ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • ADVANTAGES     * Renewable     * No  greenhouse  gases   * No  acid  rain   * No  radioactive  waste   * Short  start  up  time    

    DISADVANTAGES   * Very  limited  locations   * Wildlife  affected   * Expensive  to  build  

    Proposed  Severn  Estuary  Tidal   Power  Scheme  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Geothermal  energy  

    In  some  volcanic  areas  hot   water  and  steam  rise  to  the   surface.  The  steam  can  be   tapped  and  used  to  drive   turbines.  This  is  known  as   geothermal  energy.     Energy  changes:   thermal  (heat)   to  kinetic     to  electrical  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • ADVANTAGES     * Renewable     * No  greenhouse  gases   * No  acid  rain   * No  radioactive  waste   * Short  start  up  time    

    DISADVANTAGES   * Very  limited  locations   * Expensive  to  build  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • Solar  heating  

    Heat  energy  from  the  Sun  is   focussed  onto  pipes  containing   water.  The  water  boils   producing  steam.  The  steam  is   then  used  to  drive  turbines   which  turn  electrical   generators.     Energy  changes:   thermal   to  kinetic     to  electrical  

    ©  www.cgrahamphysics.com  

  • ADVANTAGES     * Renewable     * No  greenhouse  gases   * No  acid  rain   *