APF Issue 29



Reporting to the Asia Pacific Fire Protection and Fire Service Industry

Transcript of APF Issue 29

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An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 29 – March 2009


An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 29 – March 2009


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Front Cover Picture: Firefightertraining in Chongqing, China

Picture courtesy of Dräger SafetyAsia Pte Ltd

PublishersMark Seton & David Staddon

Editorial ContributorsGeary Roberts, Roger Weinmeister,Alan Elder, Mat Lock, Brad Harvey,Brendon Morris, Jeff O. Stull, Grace G. Stull, John Saunders, Kurt Werner, Brendan MacGrath

APF is published quarterly by:MDM Publishing Ltd The Abbey Manor Business Centre,The Abbey, Preston Road, Yeovil,Somerset BA20 2EN, United KingdomTel: +44 (0) 1935 426 428Fax: +44 (0) 1935 426 926 Email: [email protected]: www.mdmpublishing.com

©All rights reserved

Subscription RatesSterling – £50.00 AUS Dollars – $100.00US Dollars – $70.00 (Prices include Postage and Packing)ISSN – 1476-1386

DISCLAIMER:The views and opinions expressed in ASIA PACIFIC FIRE MAGAZINE are notnecessarily those of MDM Publishing Ltd.The magazine and publishers are in noway responsible or legally liable for anyerrors or anomalies made within theeditorial by our authors. All articles are protected by copyright and writtenpermission must be sought from thepublishers for reprinting or any form ofduplication of any of the magazinescontent. Any queries should be addressedin writing to the publishers.

Reprints of articles are available on request.Prices on application to the Publishers.

Page design by DorchesterTypesetting Group LtdPrinted in Singapore



An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 29 – March 2009


An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 29 – March 2009


March 2009Issue 29


05 NFPA Foreword

07-13 News &Product Profiles

15-18 EvaluatingFoam Proportioningwith Confidence

21-23 PPVTechnology toVentilate LargeStructures

25-28 DemandIncreases for CleanAgents

31-33 ChallengingTraining in Chongqing

35-37 EvaluatingThermal Imagers

39-42 ARFF VehicleRoundup

45-46 Medical Carein Extrication Rescue

49-52Considerations forSelecting FirefighterProtective Ensembles

55-57 DIMInstrument Training –The Achilles Heel inFire Service CBRNResponse?

59-61 Protectionthat Respects theEnvironment

63-65 ProtectingWarehouses – OneSprinkler Head Fits All?

66-71 Distributor &Representative OfficeListing

72 Advertisers’ Index









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www.mdmpuHi-Tech P






MDM Publishing Ltd, The Abbey Manor Business Centre,

Tel: +44 (0) 1935 426 428

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Y NORISONThe Abbey, Preston Road, Yeovil, Somerset BA20 2EN, UK

Fax: +44 (0) 1935 426 926

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Up-To-Date? It’s Up to You! NFPA® membership is indispensable for more than 81,000 professionals worldwide. What about you? It’s an easy decision for anyone involved with protecting people and property, because NFPA keeps members on top of breakthroughs, research, and technology...and in control of their careers. Join now and SAVE 10% on NFPA codes, products, and seminars, while you stay up-to-date with:

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To join call 1-617-770-3000, or visit nfpacatalog.org.MEM


NFPA Whole page 3/12/07 9:14 AM Page 1

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By Olga Caledonia

Executive DirectorInternationalOperations, NFPA Building on the success from last year’s convention

and feedback from attendees, we are offering anincomparable educational event featuring 130

education sessions, including dozens of case studies, testresults, and code updates; 21 preconference seminarsand the Expo with more than 300 exhibitors!

New for 2009 and of special interest to our interna-tional audience is the Behind the Scenes Fire ProtectionTours to Fermi National Labs and UnderwritersLaboratories. You will be able to witness first-hand theunique fire protection challenges of the Department ofEnergy Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Fireprotection engineers must design fire protectionsystems for one-of-a-kind scientific facilities, such ascomplex particle beam experiments and undergroundaccelerators. The tour will begin with a presentation offire protection and a brief overview of the physicsresearch that takes place at Fermilab. You will visitseveral detector buildings, the main control room, andFermilab’s remote operations center for the LargeHadron Collider at CERN, in Switzerland

In addition, you can also choose to tour the Under-writers Laboratories Northbrook, corporate campus.You will be able to witness and monitor a large-scalefire test involving a warehouse rack configurationsystem within UL’s state-of-the-art fire safety engineer-ing testing laboratory. You can also appreciate howvarious building materials, building content, fire alarmand sprinkler systems are tested and certified toapplicable safety regulations. You will be able to tourUL’s one-of-a kind Traveling Safety Exhibit, a unique

mobile safety vehicle designed to promote safetyawareness. All of this with a grand finale of a lively andinformative presentation, by UL fire safety engineersand regulatory staff, on applicable fire codes as theyrelate to NFPA 13, 20 and 72.

I also invite you to join us at a panel session which Ihave the privilege to moderate on Adoption of NFPACodes and Standards Internationally. NFPA codes areused around the world and they are being increasinglyadopted by different government bodies as the de-facto code. An expert panel will share their experi-ences in three regions, Latin America, Asia and theMiddle East. This session will enable you to betterunderstand NFPA’s international outreach and work toadvance the use and adoption of codes and standardsthroughout different regions.

Please take a look at the online conference programon our home page www.nfpa.org/conference. I knowyou will be impressed with the offerings, both educa-tional and personal, as you get to walk around the city of Chicago – a premier location for world classattractions. We are working with various delegationsfrom China, Thailand and Korea that are alreadymaking their travel arrangements. Internationalattendance to our annual convention has grownsteadily during the last decade. It is very rewarding towalk the Convention Center hallways and exhibitfloors listening to so many different languages! I knowthat NFPA is making a difference in so many countriesand feel blessed to be part of such a worldwidecontribution to life safety.

Foreword 2009 NFPA Conference & ExpoMore than 5,000 fire, life safety, electrical, and security professionals will convene inChicago the second week of June for the 2009 NFPA Conference & Expo. Each year,we at NFPA do our best to create an annual program that will meet the needs of fireprotection and life safety professionals around the world.

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Firetrace INTERNATINALv6-FSWORLD AD | bleed: 303mmx216mm trim: 296mm x 210mm live: 276mm x 194mm

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Providing the right combination offirefighting agent and delivery system hasled to the Tyco SKUM™ brand beingrecognised globally as the industry’sleading provider of dependable andefficient firefighting solutions for highvalue, high risk petrochemical, aviation,marine and power plant applications.

SKUM designs and manufacturessophisticated foam-based extinguishingsystems and equipment to safeguardinstallations where a fire has the potentialto have catastrophic economic,environmental or life-threateningconsequences. In addition to developinginnovative solutions, such as the SKUMHOTFOAM™ high-expansion foam systemthat is designed for use in enclosed spaces,the brand is also at the leading edge whenit comes to foam delivery systems andengineering.

The SKUM brand’s sophisticated fixed ormobile delivery systems do away with theneed for the massive and urgentdeployment of equipment and firefightingpersonnel. They also ensure that a fire isresponded to in the shortest possible time,

so reducing the potential for the fire todevelop into a major incident. SKUM wasfirst to develop a semi-subsurface systemfor storage tank protection and this, andother SKUM systems, are today in usethroughout the world providing around-the-clock protection for oil, LNG and otherflammable liquid storage tanks and bunds.

The SKUM offering also includes anarray of fixed foam generators and fixedmonitors that can cost-effectively protectstorage tanks and associated spill orground fires. The current line-up alsoencompasses portable monitors andtrailers that can be quickly and easilydeployed. These are used extensively bymunicipal and industrial fire brigades andprofessional firefighters.

SKUM monitors are noted for suchcharacteristics as long throw capability andfast knock down. Many, such as the latestFJM-EL ranges of electric remote control ofmonitors, incorporate features not readilyfound on other systems on the market,and use materials that are more resistantto the corrosion found in marine or harshindustrial environments. Several of theSKUM water or foam monitors are lessthan half the weight of some competitors’comparable models.

Further details on SKUM – Skum is theSwedish word for foam, which ispronounced “skoom” – solutions andexpertise can be found at www.skum.com



SKUM™ protection forhigh risk environments

HOLMATRO RESCUEEQUIPMENT has officiallyopened its firstrepresentative office inShanghai, China on 29September 2008. Thisoffice will play asupporting role to thedealers and end users andwill meet the increasingdemand for high qualityrescue equipment in thiscountry. Floris Evers,country manager China, ishappy with this newdevelopment: “this newrepresentative office formsa solid foundation for newdevelopments of Holmatroin the Chinese market”.

Holmatro opensrepresentativeoffice in China

From left to right: Mr Xiao (China SeismologicalBureau), Mr Pourchez (Dutch Consulate), Mr Meijer(Holmatro CEO and Chairman), Mr Evers (HolmatroCountry Manager China)

Company information:Holmatro China, Unit 14/D – 9 Joy Tower, 9 Zhen Ning Road, Shanghai 200050 P.R.C. Tel: + 86 21 5238 7330 Fax: + 86 21 5238 7320 Website: www.holmatro-china.com

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28 of British company FIRE FIGHTINGENTERPRISES’ Fireray reflective beamdetectors have been installed across 8Adlabs Films cinema complexes in India, byregional distributor Code Red Electronics &Security Systems. A further 7 Adlabscinema projects are expected to followsuit, requiring another 30 detectors.

Adlabs Films Ltd. is India’s fastestgrowing film entertainment company, andruns the largest Indian cinema chain – BIGCinemas, with nearly 400 screens acrossthe subcontinent, Malaysia and the U.S. Inthe year to come, more than 30 millionpeople are expected to watch a film in oneof the company’s theatres, and it isnaturally of vital importance to safelyprotect them in the event of a fire. To thatend, 8 F100R and 20 F50R Fireray units arenow protecting the Lakshmi, Alankar,Ganesh, KS, Nagalaskhmi, KeerthanaRamana, Prakash Kailiash and MajestyTheatres, all in the south-eastern region ofTamilnadu.

FFE’s reflective beam products wereselected for these installations due to theirproven reliability, easy maintenance andinstallation, and exceptional coveragerange in large indoor areas – the wide,high ceilings of the cinema screens wouldtake many, many point detectors toprotect effectively. One Fireray F100R cansafely detect smoke over an area of1500m2 – 100m x 15m, 7.5m laterallyeither side of the beam; it would take atleast 14 point detectors to cover that samespace.

For more information, please contact:Fire Fighting Enterprises LtdEmail: [email protected]: www.ffeuk.com Distributor Contact:Code Red Electronics & Security SystemsPvt. Ltd.Email: [email protected] Website: www.coderedsys.com



Fireray Protects IndianCinemasBeamDetectorsforBollywood

Wormald fireprotection solutionsSCBA & CompressionWormald, Australasia’s leading distributor of Scott® and Sabre® Self Contained BreathingApparatus (SCBA) products, will soon introduce a new Scott® Advanced Carrying System (ACS).

Developed following extensive research, the Scott® ACS is a major breakthrough in SCBAcarrying systems offering a lightweight solution with exceptional flexibility, easydecontamination and high performance pneumatics. A range of facemasks, cylinders and valvestyles allows the system to be tailored to individual requirements.

Once released, Wormald anticipates the new ACS will become the industry standard carrierfor SCBA in the marine, industrial and fire environments.

Wormald also offers a range of Scott® breathing air compressors, including the Hush Air,Simple Air and RevolveAir systems.

The two stationary air compressor systems – Hush Air and Simple Air – offer a completecompressor assembly with maximum air flow and performance.

The RevolveAir system consists of a charge station which allows two Breathing Air Cylinders(BACs) to be simultaneously charged within the projective chamber, while two further BACs areexchanged outside of the chamber.

Fire SuppressionWormald’s innovative Inergen® gas fire suppression system is ideal for mission critical environmentsfeaturing expensive, high-tech equipment (for example, plant and data rooms) where a firesuppressant is required to not only protect equipment from fire, but also prevent any damage fromthe fire suppressant itself. Whereas a wet suppressant could not fulfil this requirement, Inergen®’snatural gas composition is designed to minimise damage caused to the equipment.

For restaurants which require a fire suppressant system designed to combat the hightemperatures reached in a commercial kitchen, Wormald provides two systems aimed at twodifferent situations – the Ansul® PIRANHA™ and the Ansul® R-102™.

The PIRANHA™ system addresses the increasing use of higher temperature cooking oils andmore efficient, slow cooking appliances, whereas the R-102™ system is specifically designed tosuppress fires occurring in cooking appliances and ductwork. In the event of a fire, both systemsdischarge a wet chemical agent that forms a vapour sealing blanket for rapid flame knockdown.To further cool hot surfaces, the PIRAHNA™ system takes the additional step of then dischargingwater.

For further information, visit www.wormald.com.au or call +61 2 9947 7550

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New CBRN RespiratorThe SE40 positive-pressure demand PAPR (powered air-purifying respirator) isapproved according to the NIOSH CBRN-PAPR standard.


Specially designed for first responders, SE40provides protection against a wide variety ofchemical, biological, radiological and nuclear

warfare agents.The SE40 does not function like a conventional

continuous-flow PAPR. It operates on the demandprinciple, much like a breathing apparatus. The airsupply opens on inhalation and closes on exhalation.In short, air only goes through the filters when thewearer breathes in. This greatly extends the life ofboth canisters and battery, with significant savings asa result. Running costs are greatly reduced, as thefilters have been found to last approximately twice aslong in the SE40 as in a continuous-flow respirator.

The fan unit can maintain positive pressure athard work without ‘dipping’ into negative pressureand consequent inward leakage, as can often bethe case in conventional PAPRs.

SE40 offers many essential features for theresponder, such as voice communication, highmobility, several hours’ operation time, de-misting,self-testing, audible and visible alarms and muchmore.

The respirator can be used with a variety ofpressurized protective suits, including a military-grade encapsulated model that has been testedfor warfare agents.

Positive pressureThe SE40 is capable of delivering air flows over400 litres/minute, which means that positivepressure is maintained in the face piece even atheavy work. The microprocessor controlled fanunit continuously monitors the user’s breathingpattern, measures the pressure in the mask, alertsthe user to any dips in the internal pressure belowthe ambient pressure, monitors and warns of lowbattery power and canister capacity, records criticaloperational data, and logs a data trail that can bedownloaded to a personal computer.

The respirator checks its own operation at alltimes, and automatically performs a self-test everytime it is switched on. Through a pressure sensorin the mask, the SE40 adjusts its fan speed foroptimum air delivery, and no further adjustmentsare needed.

Single button operationSwitch on the fan unit and forget about it. TheSE40 is designed with simplicity in mind. A cleardisplay panel on the fan unit shows normal opera-tion, and a status indicator is always in the user’sfield of vision. Both visual and audible alarms willalert the user to any event that requires attention.

The unit is powered by a high-capacity batterywhich will provide trouble-free operation for up to6 hours. For particularly demanding situations, adual battery configuration is available, effectivelydoubling the operating time of the respirator.

CBRN canistersThe filter canisters have been tested to NIOSHstringent standards, and have been subjected to a

wide range of industrial chemicals and CBRNwarfare compounds such as sarin, phosgene,mustard gas, nerve gas, cyanogen and manymore, including hazardous biological materials.

The 125 mm diameter of the light-weight filtersleads to extremely low pressure drop over thecanister, and the large volume of filtering mediameans great adsorption capacity and long servicelife.

The fan unit itself is completely sealed withEPDM gaskets and covers, and passes live agenttests with no penetration.

Integrated protective suitsThe SE40 can be fully integrated with a military-grade encapsulated suit, chemical-resistant andimpervious to warfare agents. Various other suitsare also available, such as dust and splash suitsand heavy-duty PVC fully encapsulated models.

Encapsulated suits can be pressurized internallyby the fan unit.

Voice communicationA powerful clip-on mini-loudspeaker is connectedto a microphone mounted in the face piece, givingloud and clear speech amplification. Designed foreasy adjustment even with thick gloves, thevolume button can also be used to switch the SE40on, and to de-mist the visor with a boost of air.

Accessories and storageOptional accessories span from spectacle insertsand welding shields to head harnesses and batterymanagement systems. The SE40 is supplied in arugged military-style bag. The stackable bag itselfmeets NIOSH environmental tests, simulating 9years in the boot of a car under extreme tempera-tures, followed by a live agent test. APFFor more information call:

The S.E.A. Group on +61 2 9910 7500, email [email protected] or visitwww.theseagroup.com

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INTERNATIONAL FIREX 2009, the fireindustry’s leading event, is taking placefrom 11-14 May at the NECBirmingham, UK.

Hosted in partnership with the FireIndustry Association (FIA), InternationalFirex returns this year with moreinnovative features, educationalcontent and industry renownedexhibitors than ever before.

LPCB Red Book PavilionThe Loss Prevention Certification Board(LPCB) Red Book Pavilion is a new featurefor 2009 and will promote the importanceof third party approved products andservices in the fire protection sector.There will also be a comprehensive educationalseminar programme with industry experts fromthe LPCB leading the sessions. Dedicated staffwill be on hand to answer any queries.

FIA Learning ZoneThe Fire Industry Association will once again behosting a series of seminars and presentationsaimed at fire alarm systems designers, installers

and end users, with particularemphasis on hotels, bed &breakfasts, residentiallandlords and care homes.These free-of-chargeeducational sessions will alsoprovide these end users withupdates on the impact of thechanges in fire safetylegislation and provideguidance on how to becomefully compliant. Seminartopics will include: “Landlords– Don’t get burnt by firesafety legislation, hosted byLACORs”, “Carehomes –know your fire safety

responsibilities”, “Installers – beat therecession, we’ll show you how” and “Do youhave paying guests? Don’t get burnt by firesafety legislation”.

ExhibitionOnce again, International Firex will showcasethe very best manufacturers and distributors ofthe fire protection, fire prevention and firefighting products and services. With more than100 industry leading exhibitors, includingAdvanced Electronics, Apollo Fire Detectors,Cooper Fulleon, Fireco, Hochiki Europe, Kentecand Ventcroft, already confirming theirpresence, this exhibition is a must for all fireindustry professionals.

Fire Excellence Awards DinnerTaking place on Tuesday (12th May) evening,the Fire Excellence Awards Dinner is anopportunity for manufacturers and guests tocelebrate the very best in product innovation,export growth system design, fire safetymanagement and outstanding action. Withmore than 700 industry professionals inattendance, this event promises to provideunrivalled networking opportunities.

Gerry Dunphy, Event Manager ofInternational Firex, comments: “The addition ofthe LPCB Pavilion to our already establishedfeatures will give this year’s International Firexan extra dimension. With more than 100industry renowned companies exhibiting and anexpanded seminar programme, we believe thisevent will address all aspects of the fireprotection industry and is therefore a must forall fire industry professionals. We are very muchlooking forward to the event in May.”

International Firex 2009 will be co-locatedwith Fire & Rescue, security event IFSEC, Safety& Health Expo, and The Facilities Show, alltaking place from 11/12-14 May 2009 at theNEC Birmingham, UK.

For more information please visitwww.internationalfirex.co.uk. Companiesinterested in exhibiting should contactPeter Poole on +44 (0) 20 7921 8342 oremail [email protected]

International Firex Preview

Industry LeadersAnnounce NewCAFS Innovation

Waterous Worldwide andElkhart Brass Collaborateon the Revolutionary ICSWATEROUS WORLDWIDE, in partnership withElkhart Brass Mfg. Co. Inc., is proud to announcethe new Intelligent CAF Selector (ICS) for use withWaterous CAFSystems equipped with Unibodyelectric valves. The ICS discharge valve controllerelevates CAFS operations and functionality to awhole new level.

With the ICS, pump operators have a simple,single control point for the discharge – providing “one touch” CAFS activation. Both valveposition and pressure are clearly displayed on the controller. A “CAF ON” button activatesthe CAF discharge air valve and precisely gates the water valve to a preset position. Asecond button, “CAF SELECT,” toggles between three user selectable air-foam solutionratios with clear language description of the selected mode.

The ICS was designed specifically for Waterous CAFsystems used in conjunction withUnibody electric valves. Geary Roberts, President – Waterous Arizona Operations, noted,“Waterous is always committed to creating products which maximize operationalefficiencies for fire scene personnel. Since Elkhart shares our customer-oriented focus,working together on the ICS presented the ideal opportunity for us to combine ourstrengths into a unique CAFS product.”

“In nearly every situation in which multiple CAF discharges are employed, the ability tocontrol the air-to-solution ratio independently at each discharge is mandatory for effectivefoam operations,” stated Don Sjolin, Vice President of Marketing and StrategicDevelopment for Elkhart Brass. “With an ICS-equipped Waterous CAFsystem, producingCAF is extremely simple yet the operator retains the flexibility to produce the right foam ateach discharge.”

For more information, please contact:Waterous Company. Tel: +1 651 450 5081 Website: www.waterousco.com

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MinimaxExperience,competenceandinnovation inthe fireprotectionalways inordinary of the customerMinimax vouches with its experience and competence of more than100 years in fire protection for:

– high quality fire prevention products which are continuously refinedand optimized according actual state of technology.

– customized needs and customized applications as well as co-ordinated services like fire protection consulting and fire brigadeinspection, maintenance and service plan plus training workshop.


In combination with products, systems andservices Minimax is the “One-Stop-Shop“ in fireprotection. As an unique provider of all-in

solutions combines our wide range product andservice portfolio all necessary steps for a custom-made fire protection solution.

Summarised: With Minimax Fire Protection isthe customer served in an optimal way – in consid-eration of his economic interests.

The result of long lasting research and develop-ment study are sophisticated, innovated products

which fulfil high-quality “Made in Germany“demands and assure at proper use a longevity of service. Permanent quality assurance andimprovement will take care that it keep being likethat!

The fire extinguisher series of Minimax areperfectly concerted.

As a result of their modular engineered design,we achieve a high efficiency during the pro-duction, the maintenance and the spare partlogistics – efficiency that directly are advantages ofour customers.

By area wide presence of staff and by closecollaboration between fire protection consultants,engineers and the mobile fire protection centres,Minimax is in the truest sense of the word“customer-oriented“ including high delivery andservice availability.

Minimax is as a full-line provider the best fireprotection partner for customized needs. APF

Head Office Contact Details:Minimax Mobile ServicesGmbH & Co. KGExport DepartmentMinimaxstr. 172574 Bad Urach/GermanyTel: 0049-7125-154-133Fax: 0049-7125-154-166Email:[email protected]

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Extinguishing the critical Assets


Much of the early thought was focused onhow to continue trading or providing a ser-vice following a fire, rather than preventing

the incident occurring in the first place. Attentionwas also directed at what might be described as“the big picture”, which led – commendably – tothe installation of ever more sophisticated fire alarmand detection systems and firefighting installationsaimed at safeguarding the entire facility. Thoseorganisations that have fully embraced the conceptof business continuity planning have though appre-ciated that, in reality, business survival is frequentlydependant upon the continued operation of certaincore business-critical assets, and that preventingtheir damage or destruction is what will make thedifference between the ability to continue tradingand the untimely demise of the company.

But, what are these “core business-criticalassets”? This, of course, varies from industry toindustry, and they are to be found particularlythroughout the manufacturing sector and acrossthe mass transit infrastructure in airports and railterminals. Typically they include electrical controlcabinets upon which an entire plant may depend,CNC and EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining)equipment that may feed entire production lines,

and IT server installations. They also include dustand mist extraction facilities, fume hoods and cab-inets, and engine test cells. The one factor that iscommon to them all – or at least the vast majority– is that these assets are enclosed in some form ofhousing; hence the term that is most commonlyused to describe them, “micro-environments”.

How has this changed the thinking about firesuppression systems? In essence, it has madebusinesses realise that key assets need to be givenadequate dedicated fire protection and that theresponse time between detection and extinguish-ing must be as close as possible to instantaneous.This has exposed the flaw in the thinking thatconventional facility-wide fire detection and alarmor firefighting systems are up to the task.

The “Micro-Environment” Fire SafetyChallengeThe challenge for these facility-wide systems isthat, even with the most sophisticated and inte-grated installations, by the time a ceiling-mountedsmoke, heat or flame sensor or a beam detectorhas been activated by a fire in, for example, anelectrical control cabinet, it is all but certain to beextensively damaged, if not destroyed. By their

FIRETRACE is available onlyvia Firetrace International’sglobal network of authoriseddistributors. These tradingpartners are skilled in hazardanalysis, agent and systemselection, installation,commissioning and support.They also use only genuineFIRETRACE components.Details of these authoriseddistributors are available bycontacting the FIRETRACEEMEA head office in the UKon +44 (0) 1293 780390, orfrom Firetrace Internationalheadquarters in Scottsdale,Arizona on +1 480 607 1218.The company’s website is atwww.firetrace.com

There has always been something of a lingering awareness that businesses needto ensure that they can continue to operate in the aftermath of a major fire.However, it is only comparatively recently that companies have shifted awayfrom devoting their entire attention on today’s issues and challenges towardsformalising their business continuity or disaster recovery plans to ensure theorganisation’s future prosperity.

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enclosed nature, micro environments are isolatedfrom the facility’s main fire detection and alarminstallation and firefighting facilities.

Again using the example of a cabinet contain-ing electrical equipment, a fire can break out forseveral reasons including cable fatigue, incorrectinstallation, overloaded circuits, equipment failureor any number of environmental factors. The onlyway to resolve the problem is to provide protectionprecisely where it is needed – inside the cabinet ormicro-environment. The same applies to CNCmachines, where a drop in oil level can easily resultin a fire as the coolant oil and oil vapour can, in aninstant, escalate a single spark into a major fire.Excessive heat can be generated by improperprogramming of the machine or a failed tool,causing a flash-fire as the cooling oil ignites.

Extinguishant optionsProviding dedicated fire protection to theseenvironments calls for a wide choice of extinguish-ing agents, as the threat posed by each hazard canbe significantly different. The solution thereforehas to be sufficiently versatile in terms of suppres-sion agent that it can be tailored to the precise firerisk. This, by necessity, has to include the latestclean agents such as 3M™ Novec™ 1230 FireSuppression Fluid and DuPont™ FM-200®, both ofwhich are effective in a wide range of applications,and particularly for protecting sensitive electricalequipment.

Other options include ABC dry chemical agents,BC dry chemical agents and D dry chemical agentsfor – as each prefix letter indicates – Class A firesthat involve freely burning materials such as woodand paper; Class B fires that involve petrol, dieseland other flammable liquids; Class C fires thatinvolve flammable gases; and Class D fires thatinvolve flammable metals. CO2 (carbon dioxide) isanother widely used extinguishant, although carehas to be taken to ensure that it is not used inapplications where there is a risk of thermal shockto delicate equipment. AFFF (Aqueous Film Form-ing Foam) three-percent concentrate is a furtheroption that needs to be in the arsenal if a trulycomprehensive solutions offering is being made.

Fast and effective responseAll of these extinguishing agents are battle-tested.However, they need fast delivery that is promptedby fast detection if the enclosure is to suffer mini-mum damage. And the installation has to beunerringly reliable.

FIRETRACE® is an automatic fire suppressionsystem that was developed specifically for theseapplications. It has proven to be so successful that,over the years, the system has attracted more thanits fair share of imitators and the FIRETRACE namehas been blatantly pirated to describe inferiorsystems. However it is the only system of its typethat can claim to be fully internationally accredited,that has more than 75,000 successful installationsworld-wide, and is alone in using components thatcan be relied upon to deliver the specifiedperformance.

ISO 9001-approved Firetrace International’sFIRETRACE is a “self-seeking”, stand-alonesolution that is entirely self-contained and doesnot require an external power source. The systemconsists of a cylinder that contains the chosenextinguishing agent, which is attached to pro-prietary Firetrace Detection Tubing via a custom-engineered valve. It is this small-bore polymertubing that distinguishes FIRETRACE from othersystems, being a linear pneumatic heat and flamedetector that was painstakingly developed to con-sistently deliver the desired temperature-sensitivedetection and delivery characteristics.

It detects along the entire length of the tube.So the FIRETRACE tubing immediately detects afire at its source, ruptures and automatically releasesthe suppression agent, extinguishing the fireprecisely where it starts and before it has had timeto take hold.

“The reliability of this rupturing at the righttime, place and temperature is the real point ofdifference between the FIRETRACE system andothers on the market,“ said Nick Grant, EMEAGeneral Manager of Firetrace International. “Agreat deal of development work went intogenuine Firetrace Detection Tubing and its per-formance has not been replicated, which is whythe system has been certified by UL (UnderwritersLaboratories), FM (Factory Mutual) and NFPA(National Fire Protection Association).”

There are two FIRETRACE systems from whichto choose. The Firetrace Direct System utilises theFiretrace Detection Tubing as both the detectiondevice and the suppressant delivery system,whereas the Firetrace Indirect System uses theFIRETRACE tube as a detection and systemactivation device, but not for the agent discharge.The rupturing of the tube results in a drop ofpressure causing the indirect valve to activate. Thisdiverts flow from the detection tube and the agentis discharged from the cylinder through diffusernozzles, flooding the entire enclosure. APF


e Risk to Business-


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Dafo Fomtec 7/3/09 10:28 am Page 1

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You’ve done the research. You’re convincedyour department is ready to embrace foamas part of your daily firefighting operations.

The right foam management system is a keyingredient to success, but how do you select a foam system that’s right for you and yourdepartment?

There’s no reason to feel frustrated or over-whelmed when purchasing the right foamproportioning system. By taking a look at theworkings of your department and researching thefunctional aspects of available systems, you’ll beable to purchase with confidence, and implementthe right foam system that suits your department’sneeds.

Know your department. Evaluate yourneedsIdentifying the types of fires you’ll fight using yournew foam proportioning system is essential, andevery department evaluating these types ofsystems must consider the primary mission orpurpose of the new apparatus to help determinethe specific system requirements later on.

Once the purpose is determined, departmentsmust then consider the local fire problems andidentify potential target hazards in the responsearea. Identifying the types of fire suppressionsituations that can arise will help distinguish the uses required of the foam proportioningsystem.

By Geary Roberts

President, Arizonaoperations, WaterousCompany

Evaluating FoamProportioningSystems WithConfidenceEssential Considerations for Selectingthe Right Foam Proportioner

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Ensure easy operationsUltimately, integrating new equipment into yourdepartment should be seamless. Therefore, thefoam proportioning system you purchase shouldbe specified and installed for optimum operatorsimplicity.

Activating the foam system when the pump isengaged is one functional element that can ensuresimple operations. Automatic foam systemactivation reduces the number of steps the pumpoperator needs to take as well as the amount oftime required to transport foam solution to thenozzle.

Use the right foam for the jobElectronic direct injection foam systems areseparated into two groups – those that aredesigned to inject Class A foam only and thosethat are designed to inject both Class A and ClassB foam concentrates.

A significant difference exists between thesetwo types of foams. Class B foam concentrates aretypically more viscous and are flowed in higherratios than Class A foam concentrates. Therefore,Class B operations require a proportioner capableof pumping the proper volume of these viscousconcentrates.

Along with Class A vs. Class B foam operationalconsiderations, your department must alsoevaluate wildland vs. interface vs. structural fires.Each of these different fire problems necessitatevarying foam capabilities, and the foam systemyou select must be suitable to fit those needs. Forexample, structural firefighting requires higherwater flow capabilities as compared to wildlandfirefighting; Class B foam operations requirehigher foam concentrate volume capabilities thanClass A foam operations.

When using Class B foam for example, thecapacity of the foam proportioner must be con-sidered due to the higher percentage requirementsof 3% and 6% concentrates, as the capacity willultimately limit the total foam solution flow.

When researching the appropriate foamproportioning system, fire departments shouldmake full use of the system manufacturer. Factory representatives have the experience and



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knowledge necessary to help you determine thecorrect capacity and configuration of the completefoam system, and are valuable resources duringthe decision-making process.

Never run the tank dry. Know yourfoam supply needsThe last thing a department wants to do is run out of foam during an incident. Evaluating anddetermining the right amount of foam to carry onyour engine is essential.

When selecting the appropriate storagecapacity for the foam cell, keep in mind thatflowing Class A with the foam proportioner set at.5% water flow, delivered at 200 GPM, will useapproximately one gallon of foam per minute.

A common mistake made by many departmentsis specifying a higher GPM foam proportioner than what is required by their fire problems. Forexample, a department may purchase a 10-12GPM foam proportioner and only specify a 20- 50-gallon foam tank. This discrepancy indicates thedepartment could either benefit from a smallerand cost-effective foam proportioner or a muchlarger foam tank.

Understand accuracy and reliabilityThe correct water-to-foam ratio and the reliabilityof a system to consistently create that ratio withaccuracy are important considerations whenevaluating a potential proportioning system. Thetruest method for testing a foam system’s accuracyis to dip a conductivity probe into the foamsolution produced by the system.

Testing a foam system’s accuracy using thismethod can be difficult, but many foam propor-tioning systems are available that automaticallytest for accuracy while operating in a flow state,such as conductivity-based systems.

Flow-based vs. conductivity-based.Know which system is best for youMost foam proportioning systems are flow-based,which means the proportioner injects a deter-mined amount of foam for an observed amount ofwater flowing through the proportioning unit.While this automated process eases operations,

the result is often an inaccurate mix of water andfoam. When flowing foam with an incorrectwater-to-foam ratio, departments often run therisk of wasting expensive foam concentrate orallowing insufficient concentrate into the firestream.

In contrast to flow-based systems, conductivity-based systems have the capability of monitoringthe water supply and foam solution, and adjustingfor deficiencies to consistently achieve the properwater-to-foam ratio. As a result, this type ofproportioning system can optimize foam produc-tion and prevent foam waste.

For maximum operating performance andefficiency for conductivity-based systems, foaminjection levels vary between Class A and Class Buse. In structural and wildland fire suppressionsituations, for example, Class A foam is normallyinjected at levels between .3% and 1%. Industrialfirefighting incidents on the other hand, requireClass B foam, which usually injects at 1%, 3%, or6%.

Be aware of flow ratio limits and pumpcapacityDepartments must be aware of the limitations ofany foam proportioner in terms of the rated GPM.Make sure to evaluate the overall GPM rating as itrelates to the desired percentage of foam flow inconjunction with the GPM water flow used tomake the foam solution.

For example, if a foam proportioner is ratedwith a 3 GPM pump and the department decides



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to flow Class A foam solution at .5%, themaximum water flow the foam proportioner couldsupport would be 600 GPM of water flow tomake the appropriate foam solution. The sameproportioner would support 300 GPM water flowat 1% of foam solution.

Identify the proper delivery systemDepending on the type of fire problems normallyfaced in your service area, a foam delivery systemthat offers dual selection between Class A andClass B foam may be beneficial to your depart-ment, especially if you fight fires using both typesof foam on a regular basis.

Many foam delivery systems allow operators totoggle back and forth as needed by using a switchlocated on the operator’s panel. When evaluatingdual activation options, make sure the system youselect provides zero cross contamination and pro-vides a clean water flush of the foam concentratepump and foam piping.

Above all, when evaluating foam deliverysystems make sure to remember the safety of yourfirefighters. Always specify a foam tank refillsystem that can automatically maintain the foamtank levels and prevent firefighters from climbingto the top of the truck with foam concentratecontainers.

Seek durable materialsDurability is an essential criterion for selecting theright foam proportioning system for your depart-ment. Make sure to pay attention to the materialsused to manufacture the system such as theoperator control panel, control buttons, waterwayflowmeters, foam pump body and internal parts aswell as other system components. The materialused to manufacture these components oftenhelps determine the overall durability of thesystem.

In order to cut costs, some foam system manu-facturers utilize plastic components in their controlpanels, flowmeter paddlewheels and controlswitches. Plastic material is more cost-effectivethan stainless steel, but rubber or plastic com-ponents generally wear out faster and have to bereplaced more frequently. Stainless steel hardware

on the other hand, wears out much slower, and isdesigned to withstand millions of cycles beforerequiring replacement.

Research after-market products andservicesAfter-market products and services are importantconsiderations to research thoroughly beforepurchasing a foam proportioning system. Alwaysmake sure to purchase after-market products orservices based on the needs of your department.

Warranties provide peace-of-mind with yourdepartment and are normally included with thepurchase of the system for a period of one year.Additional services packages and/or extended war-ranties may be purchased from the manufacturer.

Some manufacturers’ proportioning systemsfeature instant, accurate tech support via a laptop-installed product-specific software, or use anInternet-based service system for troubleshooting,diagnostic testing and repair.

Additional accessories or after-market productsoffered by manufacturers include auto-fill tanksystems. Auto-fill tank systems include a micro-controller device that identifies low tank levels andautomatically refills the tanks without overflowing.These systems make it easier, safer, cleaner andquicker to refill the tank by utilizing a hose andpick-up tube that is connected to the operator’spanel with a quick-coupler.

Specify operator educationThe biggest mistake a department can make isimplementing new equipment without properinstruction. Departments must specify firefightereducation with the purchase of their equipment inorder to ensure a smooth transition and firefighterbuy-in to compressed air foam use.

When integrating and learning new apparatus,bad first experiences are hard to overcome andimproper firefighting habits are hard to break, soit’s best to start fresh with proper productorentation. Hands-on and theoretical educationcan make your new proportioning system easier tolearn, and help alleviate any initial reluctance bypersonnel in accepting the new technology.

Normally, the manufacturer includes instructionwhen you purchase an entire compressed air foamsystem comprised of the pump, proportioner anddelivery system. If education courses are includedin the purchase of your system, make sure todiscuss the specifics with the manufacturer toensure you receive the experience is exactly whatyour department needs.

When researching education options from themanufacturer, make sure instruction will take placeat your fire department. Also specify that aqualified instructor – who is both a firefighter and an experienced compressed air foam user –facilitate the courses so your firefighters learn froma person who teaches from experience.

Purchase timeIf you’re just beginning to research foam propor-tioning systems, you’ve now armed yourself withvaluable knowledge on the available systems.Continuing to increase your understanding of foamproportioning systems and related compressed airfoam technology ensures you’ll evaluate andpurchase the right proportioning system withcomplete confidence and authority. APF



Geary Roberts has beenactive within the fire service

industry for decades. Aftermore than 15 years working

as a career firefighter andcaptain in Glendale, Ariz.,U.S., Roberts founded an

equipment and fire apparatusdealership in 1989, and then

went on to found Pneumax in1993. When Pneumax wasacquired by Waterous, the

world-leader in compressedair foam systems in 2000,

Roberts became president ofthe manufacturer’s Arizona


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• bodies in bronze orstainless steel

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P. 19 ads 13/3/09 12:12 pm Page 19

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Page 23: APF Issue 29

Pic courtesy of SuperVacuum Manufacturing Co., Inc.



PPV is also very helpful in ventilation operationsnot involving fire, including Hazardous materi-als and terrorist actions. Until now PPV was

mostly applicable in house or garage fires, but asfire fighters become familiarized with the tech-nique and started seeing the advantages, theyrealized that PPV could be helpful in ventilatinglarge structures, like warehouses, tunnels or highrise buildings. Especially in large structures smokecausing lack of oxygen, loss of direction, and heatare all critical factors contributing to the amountof causalities. PPV can help in reducing them.

For this need some manufacturers have devel-oped large (>1 Meter in diameter) fans. A large,powerful ventilator is able to displace hugeamounts of air. These large fans can be mounted

ether on a trailer or on a dedicated fire truck. Thefan is placed on a rotate-able head and able totake on the needed angle for optimum placement.By creating large volume of air moving at highspeed, firefighters can better control the environ-ment in large structures.

Using a fan to blow into a structure defies mostsound firefighting theory. But it was found thatthe air did not have a significant effect on firebehavior. It is important that an exit point for theair must be opened prior to starting any PPV oper-ation. It is also important in fire situations thathose lines are deployed simultaneously with orimmediately after the airflow to the seat of thefire. Similar to a typhoon, oxygenated air is drawnin low and heated combustion products are

By RogerWeinmeister

Super VacuumManufacturing Co., Inc.

PPV Technologyto VentilateLarge StructuresIt may be clear by now that Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) is one of the mostpowerful tools in any emergency department’s arsenal. Ventilation is essentialnot only for reducing property damage after the fire is extinguished, but evenmore importantly for improving life safety for both the firefighters and anyvictims of a blaze.

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expelled upward. The fan, if set right next to theseat of the fire would greatly increase combustion.But when air from the fan expands to fill the space,the wind speed is reduced. This causes the smokeand heat to be moved away from the fire sourcewithout significantly increasing the size of the fire.

When deploying a large fan, consider winddirection, and downstream safety prior to settingup the unit. Furthermore, always vent from theattack side, failure to coordinate the ventilationwith fire attack can have serious, negative conse-quences. Wind plays a big role in how effectivePPV technology is utilized. In general, PPV will bevery effective in wind speeds up to 20 kph. Inhigher wind speeds, it is best to use the wind toyour advantage. Just as wild land firefighting is not done from the downwind side and this is alsotrue for large structure ventilation in high wind. Aswind speed increases, it is best to make smaller exitopenings or to move air at angles to the winddirection. It is physically impossible to overcomehigh natural wind speeds with a large fan.

In large fire structures like tunnels, causalitiescan be reduced if smoke inhalation and loss ofdirection can be eliminated. Smoke and heat

created in a tunnel are diffi-cult to deal with, as theylimit the possibility of reach-ing the seat of the fire, asthey are billowing out ofthe tunnel. With a tool aslarge fans it is able to haveenough capacity to displaceso much air that smoke andheat can be solved, andmaking it relative easy toput water on the fire. Thefresh air that is blown intothe tunnel lowers thechance of smoke inhalationdramatically and loweringthe temperature allowscasualties to sustain longer.It also increases the sense ofdirection where fresh air is

coming from, allowing self rescue of victims thatare capable of moving. It is this ability to aid in selfrescue that significantly increases the fire depart-ments effectiveness in large scenarios. The effortand manpower required to search, locate, andremove victims is greatly reduced.

Large fans are also useful in high rise incidents.For high rise buildings the most important aspectsis to maintain the conditions of stairwells, which isideal application of PPV. Stairwells are the mainarteries of high rise buildings. They are the meansof egress for the occupants and the means ofingress for the rescue personnel. Many buildingshave pressurized stairwells built into them. The useof PPV can assist in this pressurization or performthe task for systems that are not functioning dueto fire conditions. While ordinary PPV fans are use-ful in buildings up to 3 stories, large fans are use-ful up past 30 stories.

The number and type of building that can besuccessfully ventilated with large fans is very high inmost areas. Large retail outlets and warehouses areusually protected with good sprinkler systems thatminimize heavy fire conditions. But many of us havebeen on responses to these buildings where the firewas effectively contained by the sprinkler system,but the building was filled with smoke. These coldsmoke (smoke that is not thermally stratified)conditions can be very difficult to ventilate withoutlarge fans. The use of large fans can allow businessowners to quickly get back to their business, whilefirefighters can be freed for the next incident.

The application of a large ventilator is not limitedto fires. In situations where a building is contami-nated due to hazardous material spills or terroristactions, PPV can be used to blow fresh air into abuilding. This type of dilution is the most effectivemethod to make the building safe for use. Largefans with water misting systems can be effective incertain situations where it is safer for the respon-ders and public to change the contamination fromairborne to waterborne. Hazardous materialssituations are most always difficult and timeconsuming, the ability to use a large fan can makethem easier and quicker to mitigate.

When specifying a large fan, it is wise to consultwith different people within your department.Many times the people on the High Rise Buildingteam are not the same as the people on the Haz-Mat team. However both groups could benefitfrom being able to dispatch a large ventilation unit


Pic courtesy of SuperVacuum Manufacturing Co., Inc.

Pic courtesy of SuperVacuum Manufacturing Co., Inc.


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to their scene. In some mid-sized departments, itmay work best to have a unit that is sharedbetween a number of departments within a mutualresponse zone. A large ventilation unit is like anaerial ladder; it is not something used or neededevery day. But when the situation arises, it is theonly truly effective way to handle the rescue.

Once you have decided what your departmentneeds are regarding the unit, it is time to specifywhat you would like to purchase. These large fanscan be mounted ether on a trailer, as part of amulti-purpose vehicle or on a dedicated fire truck.The fan can be placed on a rotate-able head andable to take on the needed angle for optimumplacement. These units are usually powered bypetrol, diesel or hydraulic motors in sizes rangingfrom 30 Hp, up to 500 Hp. Petrol units have theadvantage of being lighter in weight and thereforeeasier to lift and position. The disadvantage ofpetrol units is they require a separate fuel source.Diesel units have the advantage of being able touse the vehicle fuel source and common operationof most large fire vehicles. Diesel unit are generallyof a higher weight and cost than petrol units. Thishigher weight limits the ability to lift and positiondiesel units and prevents them being mountedbehind the rear axel on most fire vehicles.Hydraulic units are the lightest of the three optionsand can operate in any orientation (from straightdown, to straight up). They also can operate viathe power-take-off (PTO) from the vehicle engineand fuel system. The disadvantage is efficiency(engine to hydraulic motor is usually 50-60%efficient) and most PTO’s have a limit of 50 Hp.

Once a proper unit has been specified it is timeto train the trainers so they can instruct thefirefighters. There are many times, with changingpersonnel and priorities that departments do notfully utilizes the resources they have purchased.While the basic concept of a fan moving air is wellunderstood, the knowledge of how to successfullyuse a large fan to save victims in a variety of situa-tions is not as easy to understand. There are manygood sources for information. A very good place tostart is the NIST (National Institute of Standards andTechnology) site at www.fire.gov/PPV/index.htm.The NIST team, lead by Stephen Kerber, has beenstudying fire behavior and the effectiveness of PPVin an informative and balanced approach.Additionally, their work references many goodsources of information that can help with a solidoverall understanding of successful ventilationpractices. APF



Pic courtesy of Super Vacuum Manufacturing Co., Inc.

Pic courtesy of Super Vacuum Manufacturing Co., Inc.

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This drive to satisfy the market’s need for envi-ronmentally acceptable, clean suppressionagents has led to a number of new systems

coming onto the market since the banning ofHalon 1301 under the Montreal Protocol onSubstances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987.However, many of these potential replacementshave failed to live up to expectations in environ-mental terms, particularly since the 1997 KyotoProtocol on climate change established the goal ofreducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The criteria for a successful and sustainablesolution means excluding any of the greenhousegases identified by the Kyoto Protocol (or to give itits full title, the Kyoto Protocol to the UnitedNations Framework Convention on ClimateChange) that represent man-made interferencewith the global climate system. The acceptable

solution must have a negligible impact on theenvironment, insignificant global warmingpotential, zero ozone depleting potential and a low atmospheric lifetime. This is a dauntingchallenge that continues to elude many fire safetycompanies.

At the same time, organisations have becomeever more aware that their survival is dependanton the performance of business critical assets, sotheir protection from fire is high on the corporateagenda. So much so that business continuity, crisismanagement and disaster recovery planning areterms with which we are all becoming increasinglyfamiliar. At any one time, there seems to be amajor conference taking place somewhere aroundthe world addressing one key issue – how toensure that the business survives a major disaster.

While this has always been a concern for

By Alan Elder

EMEA Sales Director,Tyco Fire Suppression &Building Products

DemandIncreases forClean AgentsWhen selecting a fire suppression system, environmental considerations and theagent’s clean credentials are now major considerations, often ranked with equalimportance to the speed and efficiency with which the agent extinguishes a fire.So says Alan Elder, EMEA Sales Director for commercial suppression businessesfor Tyco Fire Suppression & Building Products.

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businesses, their increasing dependency oncommunication and computer technology hasshifted the fire protection attention away fromassets generally. Today the concern is verydefinitely focused on safeguarding those assetsthat have the potential to debilitate or possibly

destroy the business if it falls victim to fire. However, while the now-banned Halon 1301proved to be extremely effective as a businesscritical asset fire suppression agent, environmentalconcerns were enough to consign it to thefirefighting history books. It was followed by anumber of other suppressants that ultimately alsofailed to win over the environmental lobby.

Environmental agendaSeveral factors need to be considered when select-ing the most appropriate suppression system.These include the nature of the asset that is beingprotected; whether the location is occupied; andwhat space is available for suppressant storage.Increasingly nowadays, the company’s policyregarding environmental issues also has to beadded, as does its attitude to long-term sustain-ability. The overall picture though is that themarket now demands reliable, genuinely sustain-able, environmentally acceptable and long-termfire suppression solutions.

Essentially, and depending upon the applica-tion, there are three gaseous fire suppressionoptions that warrant detailed consideration. Theseare: inert gas systems; chemical suppressionsystems; and CO2.

The scientists’ initial response to the need foralternatives to ozone-depleting agents resulted in the unveiling of a number of often, as ittranspired, prematurely heralded options. TheseHalocarbon alternatives comprised Halon-likecompounds. Some proved effective and were



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P. 25-28 Clean Agents 13/3/09 12:18 pm Page 26

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adopted by the fire industry and building occu-piers, while others failed due to their inefficiencyor toxicity.

Inert gas optionAgainst this scenario, inert gas suppression hasgrown in popularity, as it answers the globalwarming challenge. Inert gas systems have preciselythe environmental credentials that the market isdemanding: zero ozone depletion potential, zeroatmospheric lifetime, and zero global warmingpotential. They are also a truly sustainable “clean”fire suppression technology. Inert gases are non-toxic, they will not harm sensitive electronicequipment, art treasures or documents, and aresafe to use in enclosed areas where people may beworking.

While some inert gas systems use a singlenaturally occurring gas, most are a non-conductiveand non-corrosive blend of naturally occurringgases, such as ANSUL® INERGEN®, which is amixture of Nitrogen, Argon and CO2, andHYGOOD® i3®, which is a 50:50 mixture ofNitrogen and Argon. They have a similar density toair, so the protected space retains its concentrationfar longer than was the case with Halon 1301.Inert gases work by lowering the oxygen contentof the protected area to a point that will notsupport combustion, but is sufficient to sustainhuman life. Their appeal for use in occupiedspaces is further enhanced, as the gases areinvisible and so do not obscure vision, which mightotherwise make panic more likely among the roomoccupants.

So, to organisations specifying that a non-chemical suppressant is of overriding importance,inert gas systems are an attractive option.Nevertheless, there is also a strong demand in themarket for an acceptable chemical fire extinguish-ing agent; one that combines the advantages ofthe early Halon-like alternatives with the environ-mental profile of the inert gas systems.

Chemical system solutionAn inevitable consequence of the signing of theMontreal Protocol was that Halon installationsaround the world had to be replaced with alter-native systems, and the desire for long-termsustainability became a key driver.

Undoubtedly, the most successful of the earlychemical replacements for Halon 1301 wasFM200®, which has gone on to be used in



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P. 25-28 Clean Agents 13/3/09 12:18 pm Page 27

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thousands of successful telecommunicationscentres and computer suite installations aroundthe world, and remains a very popular extinguis-hant. It fits the bill in several important respects: it is fast and causes no damage to sensitiveelectronic equipment; it also represents no risk tothe room’s occupants; it is free from any toxic sideeffects and has zero ozone depletion.

However, the latest way in which the need forenvironmental acceptability has been met is withthe introduction of fluid-based systems that usesustainable, long-term technology, such as theSAPPHIRE® system that uses 3M™ Novec™ 1230Fire Protection Fluid. This not only meets today’slegislative requirements, it also meets all of thosein the foreseeable future. It utilises new technologyand has several major advantages over otherHalon alternatives.

The high performance fire-extinguishing agenthas a negligible impact on the environment and isdesigned to protect essential and delicate telecom-munications and data processing equipment. Italso has applications within the cultural heritagesector protecting artefacts that would otherwisebe destroyed by water from traditional sprinklersystems. It has an insignificant global warmingpotential, lower than any of the halocarbonagents acceptable for use in occupied spaces.

When discharged, SAPPHIRE leaves nothingbehind to damage sensitive electronic equipmentor documents, and with no agent clean-uprequired, business critical installations can be backin operation in the shortest possible time. Similarly,priceless historic manuscripts do not have to besubjected to years of restoration work.

Carbon dioxideSurprisingly perhaps, there are those that, mistakenly, question the use of CO2 because of its connotation with global warming, the inter-national desire to reduce CO2 emissions, and itsinclusion in the Kyoto Protocol’s basket of gases.This misunderstands the difference between CO2that occurs naturally in the atmosphere, and the large quantities of undesirable CO2 emitted as a

by-product of many industrial processes.The CO2 used as a firefighting suppressant is

extracted from a number of natural CO2 pro-ducing processes, and is then stored until it isneeded.

However, CO2 is most certainly not suitable fortotal flooding applications in normally occupiedrooms or enclosures, as its discharge in fireextinguishing concentrations would be lethal toroom occupants. CO2 does however continue tobe a popular and versatile choice for total floodingof unoccupied enclosed special-hazard areas suchas power generation equipment, spray booths andturbines. An essential consideration though is toensure that the flooded areas are adequatelyventilated after discharge of the CO2 to preventthe accidental exposure of personnel to dangerouslevels of CO2 when investigating the cause of thedischarge.

One particularly attractive feature of CO2 is thatit can be compressed into a liquid state which,when maintained under pressure, requires asmaller storage footprint than many other gaseoussuppression agents. Additionally, as CO2 has somany other commercial uses, refills are readilyavailable throughout the world.

The new suppression paradigmThe contribution made by the discharge ofenvironmentally damaging gaseous fire sup-pression systems, is dismissed by some as beinginconsequential. After all, they argue, they areprimarily used to protect business critical assetsand are believed to account for little more thanthree percent of the market. While this may wellbe true, discussion around the use of environmen-tally questionable agents is unlikely to abate.

Additionally, following the demise of Halon1301 and the forced decommissioning of Halonsuppression systems, the business community ismore than ever focused on adopting sustainablesolutions. Such solutions are also rightly seen asperhaps the only way of more effectively manag-ing the world’s resources, reducing waste andsafeguarding the global environment. APF



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Smoke means an immediate alarm.SecuriRAS® ASD aspirating smoke detector with HD sensor

Securiton AG, Alarm and Security Systemswww.securiton.com, [email protected]

A company of the Swiss Securitas Group

P. 29 ads 13/3/09 12:40 pm Page 29

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Dräger PSS 7000

Drager Safety Asia Pte Ltd •Tel +65 6872 9288 •Fax +65 6773 2033 • E-mail : [email protected]

The Dräger PSS 7000 is the result of Dräger’s ongoing commitment to providing professionalfire fighters with a world class state-of-the-art breathing apparatus.

Key new features of the PSS 7000 is the harness that uses advanced materials and mouldingmethods to produce exceptional wear resistance and a high grip anti-slip surface to ensurethat the harness remains secure on the body.

With easier seamless integration and interface with the facemask, communication equipment,head protection and good ergonomic design to create a higher performance personal safetysystem, the Dräger PSS 7000 is a major leap forward in the evolution of breathing apparatusfor the professional fire fighter.

Developed by Professionals

For the Professionals

Dräger. Technology for Life®

A product developed for extreme conditions

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Draeger advert 12/3/09 10:41 am Page 1

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The ‘High Tech Fire Zone’ department ofChongqing Fire Brigade has partnered withDräger to develop its first, gas fuelled fire

training centre. This significant commitment tosearch, rescue and fire training is a clear demon-stration by the brigade in relation to its firefighters and communities.

Designed by the Dräger team, this multi-functional, high rise training centre enables a widerange of operational training disciplines. Theseinclude SCBA user, confined space, search andrescue, height safety, well rescue and modern firecompartment training. As with most Drägersystems, they are also capable of facilitating majorincident training, command and control trainingand counter terrorist scenarios also.

With a clear regard for the environment, everyeffort has been made to minimise the impact thatthis new facility will have on the surroundings. Assuch, all fires are fuelled with LPG Propane andcosmetic smoke generators remove the need toburn carbonaceous fuels. In addition, only the very

highest design and safety standards weredemanded from the Chongqing Fire Brigade; as aresult the Dräger team has closely followed theinternationally recognised, European Norms forfire training simulators.

The training facility The multilevel ‘ten storey’ training building, islocated on the same site as a newly developed firestation and administration centre. The trainingtower portion provides an ability to affect highlevel rescues using ladders and/or aerial ladderwhilst the lower, two storey portion houses theDräger systems. ● First floor: Dual fire training room inc. live fire

scenarios & control centre● Second floor: Training maze inc. smoke and

sound simulation● Well trainer: Travels from the ground floor to

the roof areaIn close consultation with the Fire Brigades

architects, Dräger engineers developed the interface

By Mat Lock

Dräger Safety Asia PteLtd

ChallengingTraining inChongqing . . .Chongqing is the largest and most populous of the People’s Republic of China’sfour provincial level municipalities and is home to the latest, state of the arttraining facility within Asia Pacific.

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details to ensure a seamless integration of theirsystems within the facility – this process was aidedby utilisation of their Beijing based Project Team.

The ‘Live Fire’ trainersAt the heart of the training centre are dualtraining rooms which incorporate a total of three;LPG Propane fuelled, computer controlled firescenarios:● Kitchen fire inc. cooker fire● Bedroom scenario inc. bed fire● Flashover simulation

These are aimed at fire compartment training ina residential environment and permit a broadspectrum of modern fire fighting techniques to beemployed by Brigade Instructors. Each of these firescenarios can be operated independently from thecentral control centre which also permits theoperator a clear view of the training environment.

“Chongqing Fire Brigade now has a state of theart facility that will take the training of Officersand the Fire-fighters that serve the local communi-ties to another level” stated Damian Eggleston,Fire Fighter Instructor and Technical Trainer, Dräger.“As part of our ongoing commitment to partner-ships; a unique training program was developedfor the established instructors showing them thealmost limitless possibilities and variations availablethrough the use of the simulators. The fire simula-tors enable the instructors to set realistic andchallenging scenarios for all levels of experiencewith limited impact on the environment and withan extremely high level of safety”.

To ensure training diversity, each fire can variedin terms of height and intensity; depending on thechosen scenario, attack results and trainee skilllevel. At all times the instructor maintains controlof the fire(s) and is exposed to the same tempera-tures as the students.

In addition, powerful cosmetic smoke generatorsprovide obscurosity at the desired level to further

enhance the training scenarios. These smokegenerators use a mineral oil based solution toensure there is no impact for the environment,Brigade personnel or the surrounding residents.

Search and rescue capabilitiesDräger has installed a training maze for search andrescue training on the second floor. This can beaccessed either via the nearby staircase or inter-connecting well trainer. This system is used to trainthe Chongqing fire fighters in areas of confinedspace, stress management, improved orientation,team work, communication, self awareness andsharpening of reaction times.

Designed to operate in the most hostile trainingenvironments, the Dräger maze is manufacturedusing durable, welded mesh, special woodensubstructures and non reflective paint. It includes aleveling capability and permits the use of cosmeticsmoke without hindering the free passage of theventilation system. Such a design also permits theuse of IR and/or Thermal Imaging equipment.

At various intervals throughout the mazeDräger has inserted a series of obstacles. Theseinclude pipe restrictions, irregular restrictions,slopes and manhole entrances. Most of these canbe re-orientated by the instructors to ensure thatthe training environment can be altered. This is toensure that training diversity is facilitated for eachstudent.

“There are a huge range of operational scenariosmade possible through the inclusion of thistraining maze. During the training component ofthis contract we demonstrated the versatility ofthe system; team work and communication wereessential skills required to be used by the students.From confined space drills to rescuing an injuredfire fighter, the possible scenarios are almostinfinite” stated Mat Lock, Regional Manager,Dräger Safety Solutions – Asia Pacific. “TheChongqing fire fighters worked hard during the



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training and demonstrated their desire to optimisethese new systems”.

Dräger has incorporated a range of safetysystems within the maze design. Each student’sprogress can be monitored through the controlcentre using an innovative sensor technology – it iseven possible to monitor multiple students at onetime. Additionally, each of the training maze sec-tions can be easily removed to provide emergencyaccess/egress. Additionally, a series of IR camerasprovide the operating staff with a remote view ofthe training activities within the compartment.

The control centreThe entire facility is operated via a central centrewhich is located in the control room overlookingthe live fire compartments. Underpinned by anindustrially proven PLC hardware configuration,

the intuitive, Windows™ based operating systemprovides real-time information to the controller inEnglish, German or the local Chinese language.

The ease and simplicity of the operating systemis a testament to the Dräger design team andengineers. Not only does the system perform selfdiagnostic checks to ensure full and correct systemstatus prior to training but it also captures a widerange of data for use by the training and main-tenance teams post-training.

The trainingA unique ‘instructors’ training package was devel-oped and delivered by Dräger. This includedoperator training to ensure successful and safe useof the fire simulators together with an operational

segment to demonstrate the versatility of thesystem.

As each facility is developed in line with theclient’s needs, so the allied training that Drägerdelivers must also be personalized to meet localrequirements. It is common for each facility tohave an individually developed training packageincorporating local fire service instructor’sspending “one on one” time with Dräger techni-cians and a Dräger fire fighter instructor. This‘workshop’ approach allows the instructor to getsome ‘hands on’ time with the simulator andspend valuable time with Dräger’s experiencedteam who have developed and used systemsthroughout the world.

“There is no doubt, the modern training arenaremains a dynamic and exciting environmentwhich requires continual re-assessment in the

search for improved efficiencies and compliancemaintenance. The system supplied to Chongqingreflects the latest technology and training deliver-ables as would be expected by any professionalfire brigade around the world.” stated Mat Lock,“Critical to the success of these projects is Dräger’sability to offer a holistic service. From design tocommissioning, from fire fighter training tothrough life servicing; Dräger’s ability to harnessthe experience of its local and internationalresources ensure that each facility is honed tomeet the client’s requirements”.

The Chongqing Fire Brigade training facilityrepresents a modern and professional engineeredsolution of which the client and Dräger are rightlyproud. APF



For more information pleasecontact Dräger on the belowdetails:Mat LockDräger Safety Asia Pte LtdSingapore Email:[email protected]

Not only does the system perform self diagnostic checks to

ensure full and correct system status prior to training but it also

captures a wide range of data for use by the training and

maintenance teams post-training.

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Who’s the toughest member of your crew?

+852 3679 364 8/[email protected]

E2V APF28 3/12/08 11:28 PM Page 1

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Evaluators must select among several technolo-gies, a great number of features, and a wide range of service and support offerings. With

the increasing complexity of the market, many firedepartments are finding it difficult to determinewhich thermal imager and accessories they shouldpurchase. This article aims to provide a picture ofthe ideal evaluation process, which will result inyour department making the best purchasedecision.

Step One: team up and learnStart by selecting a team of people to manage theTI evaluation. It is important to include people ofdifferent ranks and specialties, including an officerwith decision authority as well as line firefighterswho will actually be using the TI. This varietyensures that the selected unit is the actual unitthat best meets the individual department’s needs.

If you have never purchased a thermal imager,

take the time to learn the basics of thermalimaging. How does the technology work? Whatare the uses and limitations of TIs? Evaluationteams should seek advice or instruction from localdepartments using TIs, attend large trade shows,training seminars and even visit TI manufacturers.Be sure to verify what you are learning from asmany independent sources as possible becausethere is conflicting and inaccurate information inthe field.

If you have owned TI’s in the past, take the timeto familiarize yourself with the features andbenefits of the latest technology. If you areexpanding your current ownership, consider thecapabilities of the equipment that you alreadyhave and look for consistency of operationbetween a new imager and imagers that youalready own. The technology in a TI improvesrapidly so you should always invest some time insurveying the market prior to any purchase.

By Brad Harvey

Bullard ThermalImaging ProductManager

EvaluatingThermal ImagersFive Steps to Selecting the Best TIfor Your DepartmentBecause thermal imagers (TIs) have quickly become a necessary tool for firedepartments, the number of suppliers and models has expanded, giving firedepartments (FDs) more choices than ever when it comes to choosing a TI.

During your evaluation,be sure to use thermalimagers in a variety ofeveryday tasks, includingsizeup and overhaul

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Step Two: do your homeworkInitiate the homework phase by gathering infor-mation from distributors and TI manufacturers,with the goal of identifying all of the currentproducts available. Next, get direct input fromother FDs currently using different TIs. Ask howwell the unit has handled the rigors of firefighting,the value of various features on the unit and thetype of service and support received from themanufacturer and/or local distributor. Ask the FDabout specific manufacturer claims on options orperformance to verify if the unit performs asadvertised. If you are new to thermal imagingtechnology, you will benefit from gleaninginformation and learning from the experiences ofa number of different FDs.

After researching what is available as well aswhat other FDs have found useful, develop aninitial outline specifying what you believe are thecritical features for a TI. Differentiate between“essential features” (such as heat and waterresistance) and “desirable features” (such as

2-hour battery life). Then review the units availableand determine if you can immediately eliminateany of them from your evaluation process. Youmay eliminate them because they lack a featureyou feel is critical, or because a unit received poorreviews from other FDs. Even if you can limit theinitial field to five or six TIs, the evaluation processcan demand a great deal of time and resources.

Step Three: the classroom testOnce you have narrowed the field to a manage-able number of potential units, it is time to gainmore detailed information and first-handexperience. Schedule a day for each manufactureror local representative (or several of them) to makea “classroom presentation.” In an effort to be fairto the sales people, plan on 30 minutes per TI.This gives the sales person time to show you thefeatures and benefits of his TIs while you gatherother information, including: ● Standard and optional features available on the

unit, which can include temperature measure-ment, telemetry, color display and others.

● Unit operating procedures, including unitactivation, battery changing and charging, anduse of additional features.

● Service issues, including length of warranty (be sure to clarify what it covers), availability of extended warranty as well as serviceturnaround.

● Performance characteristics, including durability,heat resistance, water resistance, telemetrypower, etc.

● The cost of the unit, including additionalfeatures, extended warranties, accessories andspare parts.

● Support offered as part of the overall package,including training (clarify the type of training:20 minutes of how to turn it on or two hoursof how TIs work?), web resources and ongoingeducation. Evaluating teams should always keep one key

note in mind: there is no recognized consensusstandard for TI performance. As a result, FDsshould ensure that the supplier proves every claim



Test features of eachunit under variousconditions andscenarios, includingstructural fire

Part of any successfulevaluation includesdetermining how easilyfirefighters can carry animager as well as theirnormal supply ofequipment

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he makes. If the supplier says his/her TIcan stay underwater for an hour, fill upthe kitchen sink and time how long itlasts. If the supplier says the TI can betossed across the room, then clear apath and let the tossing begin. Whilemost suppliers are honest and ethical,some may unfairly stretch the truth towin your business. To protect yourselfand your department’s purchase, do notaccept any claim or statement as factuntil the supplier proves it.

For convenience, attempt to scheduleall presentations on the same day or thesame week, with all evaluation commit-tee members present to ask questionsand document their impressions of eachmanufacturer. Ideally, committee mem-bers should use a checklist or table todocument their conclusions and to helpensure that a fair and equal comparisonis made between the TIs.

Step Four: the real world testThe real world test, or hands-on evalua-tion, is the most critical part of yourevaluation process. While one thermalimager may stand out in the classroom,the FD’s final decision could be differentafter firefighters get the opportunity touse thermal imagers under realisticconditions. In the evaluation, some TIswill show they look and act better in the classroomthan in a real fire. Some features seem great in theclassroom, but do not perform as expected oncethey venture into the real world of emergencyresponse. As with the classroom presentations,aim to evaluate all of the units on the same day. This will allow each unit to be compared side-by-side in real time, under similar conditions.

Careful planning and preparation are essentialto a successful hands-on evaluation. Before theevaluation, decide how you will test the featuresthat mean the most to your department, anddevelop a checklist to make sure that committeemembers are using the same criteria. Test eachfeature of the unit under various conditions andscenarios, such as live fire, simulated hazmatincidents, fire-alarm investigation and outdoorsearches. Crawl with each unit; look underobjects. Determine if the TI can be carried up aladder easily, or if a hose team can advance a linewhile carrying the TI. Always evaluate TI’s underreal fire conditions if possible. This is where theperformance of the TI is most critical and whereyou should spend some time evaluating.

Have each member write notes about each TIimmediately after they use it. To help quantify the evaluation process, members should beencouraged to rank specific factors using anumber scale. Develop the scale and factor sheetin advance, grading such aspects as ease of use,performance in a fire, ability to carry otherequipment, etc.

Step Five: the decisionFollowing the completion of the classroom andhands-on evaluations, it is time to decide whichthermal imager best meets the department’sneeds. Compare the written notes and total thescored rankings. If there are specific features that

are more valuable, you may want to considerweighing them more heavily. Remember to includenon-tangible issues such as service and support,which will not only help you get your units intooperation, but will also assist you in keeping themin service for years to come. Consider exactly howrepairs are handled and the overall support youwill receive. Do not forget the information yougathered from other FDs about their experienceswith TIs. Your neighbor may be the best proof ofwhat happens after you sign the purchase order.

Once you have determined which TI you willpurchase, place your order or formulate the tenderdocuments. The distributor or manufacturer canhelp you write appropriate tender specifications.

ConclusionDespite the wider acceptance of TIs in the fireservice, there is still much misinformation andmisunderstanding about the technology. The realityis that TIs are still expensive tools. As a result,potential buyers must perform the proper amountof preparation and evaluation to ensure that theypurchase the best overall value possible. Remem-ber that value is not just price. Purchasing cheaperTIs may seem like a bargain, until those TIs arerepeatedly out of service or sitting in com-partments because the line firefighters find themawkward or unusable. Like any other capitalexpenditure, FDs should expect their units toprovide years of reliable service. To do thissuccessfully means selecting the TI with the bestdesign and features, best record of accomplish-ment in real world performance and best possibleservice and support. It is not easy to make aproper selection effort, but time well spent on theprocess will ensure that the FD and the public itserves will reap long-term benefits from thesevaluable tools. APF


The real world test is themost critical part of yourthermal imagerevaluation


Brad Harvey is the ThermalImaging Product Manager atBullard. He is a veteran ofpublic safety as a firefighter,police officer and paramedicand is certified through theLaw EnforcementThermographers’ Association(LETA) as a thermal imaginginstructor. Harvey has workedas a high-angle rescueinstructor and is a certifiedrescue technician and fireinstructor. If you havequestions about thermalimaging, you may e-mail himat [email protected]

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Follow the virtual leaders.Our airpor t crash tenders of the series IMPACT and DRAGON are an overall outstanding class “Ground Staff ”. With highest mobility chassis, powerful high-torque IVECO engines, extinguishing agents of up to 14,000 litres, powerful pumps and monitors as well as aluminium modular body and equipment compar tments system you’ll drive it sovereign ahead by every call out. Interested? Then follow us to: www.iveco-magirus.net

Iveco MagIrus Brandschutztechnik gmbHD-89079 [email protected]

Iveco MagIrus Brandschutztechnik gmbH a-8301 Kainbach / [email protected]

Iveco s.P.a. stabilimento Mezzi specialiI-25127 [email protected]

Iveco MagIrusFire Fighting camiva F-73230 [email protected]

Page 41: APF Issue 29

Ultra Performance Environmentally responsi-ble, COLET K/30 Jaguar w/EE optionpackage; ULEV Ultra low emissions all wheeldrive ARFF (Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting)vehicle.● 3000-gallon (11,300 liter) water capacity.● Available with water capacities of 10,000

liter to 16,000 liter (2,500 to 4,000gallon).

● Acceleration 0-50 mph (80 kph) fullyloaded under 17 seconds.

● Chassis is a COLET supermonocoquestainless steel, COLET Active ChassisControl suspension

● Provides unequalled stability and controlas well as the lowest center of gravity.

● Side slope of over 40 degrees as a mini-mum provides rollover protection notafforded by 30º trucks. Suspension allowsdriver or computer control of vehicleangles as well as ground clearances.

● Twin Electronic Diesel Drive Power.● Upgraded hydrostatic pumping systems

available with customer selectablecapacities.

● Braking distances are the shortestpossible, half of other trucks.

● Rapid Transport option for aircraft. C-130option. Provided with hydraulic chassislocks for rapid securing to aircraft.This truck weighs in at less than half of

most 3,000 gallon trucks out there.That provides superior safety through han-

dling, braking/deceleration and acceleration.This is FACT. This ultra performance truck also is the

cleanest to the environment. Using motorsw/ cooled EGR to meet the 2.5-gram NOX aswell as the .1 PM emissions standards closestto Euro4 ON ROAD CITY or USEPA On-high-way emissions. For CITY and urban ultraclean standards.

Also, 15 other models custom built for the

ultimate life saving performance.This one is optioned/custom built for Artic

Operations 60 degrees below zero as well as120ºF for Desert operations.

For more information, please contact:Colet Special Vehicle Design6550 Redeker PlaceNewarkCA 94560USATel: +1 510 494 5304Fax: +1 510 494 5308Email: [email protected]: www.coletsvd.com



Colet Special Vehicle DesignK/30 Jaguar

The protective fire safety on airports isgenerally considered to be one of the mostcomplex and greatest challenges for the fireservices – and thus also for all manufacturersof fire fighting vehicles. IVECO MAGIRUSoffers a world-wide unique product range forholistically covering all potential hazards thatmust be met on airports.

For the protection of buildings and facili-ties, IVECO MAGIRUS offers a wide rangefrom command vehicles via first-intervention

vehicles, light and special fire fightingvehicles to various different turntable laddersand aerial telescopic platforms with a rescueheight of up to 54 m. Rescue vehicles andequipment carriers as well as swap bodyvehicles with a large roll-off containerprogram complete the range.

With the airport crash tender rangeDRAGON x4, x6 and x8, IVECO MAGIRUSoffers three variants in this “top of therange“ category, that will meet even the

most specific requirements. Real powerhousesin the form of currently unrivalled high-performing IVECO 1.024 hp or 1.500 hpengines with last generation common-railinjection technology do not only provide foran enormous acceleration but also for an enormous fire fighting power. Up to10,000 l/min pump capacity, 14,000 litres firefighting agents in a combination of water,powder, and foam as well as precise monitorswith long throw ranges guarantees a fastand effective fire fighting operation.

The excellent cross-country capabilities ofthese vehicles provide for an unrestrictedmobility and ensure that fire fighting can alsobe effected away from the runway withoutany loss of time.

Best example: the delivery of 3 DRAGONx6 to AENA (Aeropuertos Espanoles yNavegacion Aerea). The vehicles possess a1,024 HP IVECO-V8 engine with directinjection system already mentioned above, anAllison-automatic-gearbox with 6 forwardand 2 reverse speeds as well as 6 self-ventilated disc brakes with ABS sensor ateach tyre. The maximum speed is approx.120 km/ h; it accelerates the DRAGON’s 35 tonnes from 0 to 80 km/h in a veryimpressive 23 seconds.

The DRAGON x6’s driver’s cab and crew

The IVECO MAGIRUS Airport Reception Committee

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cab (1+3 places) are flexibly mounted ontothe chassis frame and are made of aluminiumalloy resistant to all types of corrosion. Easyaccess to the engine is possible by a hydraulicsystem enabling folding-open of the rearmounted engine cover, also made ofaluminium alloy.

The vehicle’s technical fire fighting equip-ment includes a GRP water tank with 10,000litres capacity as well as a GRP foam tank ofapprox. 1,200 litres. The Magirus pumpdelivers 7,500 litres/minute at 10 bars, theroof monitor 5,000 litres/minute and thefront-monitor 1,500 litres/minute. The addi-tional available dry powder system has acapacity of 250 kg.

Furthermore the DRAGON x6 for AENA isprovided with a driver’s cab self-protectionsystem with integrated water-spray nozzleswhich are mounted at the front as well as leftand right above the cab. An additional floor-spraying system with four spray nozzlesdistributes water or water and foam.

Like all DRAGONS also this vehicle disposesof state-of-the-art CAN-Bus-Technology guar-

anteeing the fastest data-transfer betweeneach of the aggregate’s modules.

The IMPACT series, with the variants x4and x6, is the ideal completion to theDRAGON range or even a cost-effectivealternative, e.g. for smaller airports. Based onhighly cross-country capable, single tyreIVECO four-wheel-drive chassis, these vehi-cles are extremely mobile but neverthelessequipped with an impressive fire fightingpower: depending on vehicle type up to12.000 litres of fire fighting agent can becarried on board. This concept has been verymuch proven in practice as is shown by themore than 150 IMPACT vehicles that arecurrently in world-wide operational use atairport fire service departments.

An IMPACT x6 (TLF 30/57-7-360) on anIVECO Trakker was delivered to the Adolph-Wuerth-Airport in Schwäbisch-Hall (SouthernGermany). The vehicle features tanks for5,700 l water and 750 l of foam compoundas well as capacity for 360 kg of CO2. Thepowerful MAGIRUS pump delivers an outputof 3,000 l/min at 10 bars. 440 HP engine

power enables speed on the runway; all-wheel drive and single tyres allow it to beextremely capable off-road. Furthermore alighting mast mounted on the rear of thevehicle with 2 x 1,000 W and a 13.5 kVAelectric generator belongs to the vehicleequipment.

For the Spanish Dragon x6 and theSchwäbisch Hall pump water tanker TLF aswith all other IVECO MAGIRUS vehiclescontinuous operational preparedness is guar-anteed: A network of Service stations inalmost 150 countries around the globe isavailable round the clock.

For more information, please contact:Iveco Magirus Brandschutztechnik GmbHGraf-Arco-Straße 3089079 UlmGermanyTel. +49 731 408 2564Fax +49 731 408 2410Email: [email protected]: www.iveco-magirus.net



Morita CorporationModel MJ-12F MJ-10F MJ-6F

GVW(Approx.) 41,000kg 34,000kg 23,000kg

DRIVE 8x8 6x6 4x4

Tire size 24.00R21XZL 24.00R21XZL 24.00R21XZL

Top speed 115Km/H or more 115Km/H or more 115Km/H or more

Acceleration 0 to Max. 25sec. at 40ton Max. 23sec. 25sec. Max. 25sec. at 22ton80 km/h at 36ton

Engine Max. output 753/1,800 to 2,100 753/1,800 to 2,100 395/2,100(kW/rpm)

Cabin and Body GRP, Stainless, GRP, Stainless, GRP, Stainless,Material Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum

Water tank capacity Max. 14,000L Max. 12,500L Max. 6,000L

Fire Pump 7,600L at 14 bar 7,600L at 14 bar 4,500L at 14bar

Pump Drive Auxiliary Engine or Auxiliary Engine or Power DividerPower Divider Power Divider

Foam Proportioner Around the pump Around the pump 3% Around the pump 3% 3% and 6% and 6% and 6%

Roof Monitor 6,000L/min and 5,000L/min and 3,000L/min and (Dual Output) 3,000L/min @ 14bar 2,500L/min @ 14bar 1,500L/min @14bar

Under Truck Nozzle 6 pcs, 60L/min 6 pcs, 60L/min 6 pcs, 60L/min

Bumper Monitor 1,150L/min @ 14bar 1,150L/min @ 14bar 750L/min @14bar

Optional Equipment First Attack Hose Reel First Attack Hose Reel First Attack Hose ReelDry Powder Capacity Dry Powder Capacity Dry Powder CapacityDry Powder Hose Reel Dry Powder Hose Reel Dry Powder Hose Reel

Owing to ongoing product development and improvement these specifications are subject tochange without prior notice.

In addition to the above standard sizes, custom configurations are also available to suitspecific requirements.

MJ-12F not only conforms to ICAO standardand recommendations, but also passesstringent testing requirements of MORITA’stechnical division. A history of 101 years ofserving Japanese market with unwaveringreputation and 63.9% share of JapaneseARFF market are testimonies of reliance ofMorita Standard at all major airports ofJapan, MJ-12F with its heavy-duty body andhigh stability, enables safe and speedy rescueand fire fighting operations in airportemergencies.

For more information, please contact:Morita Corporation25-31, 3 ChomeNishishinbashiMinato-KuTokyo 105-0003JapanTel: +81 3 5777 5078Fax: +81 3 3435 7386Website: www.morita119.com

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Exclusive PulseDelivery andQuadAgent systemsdeliver best-in-classperformanceOSHKOSH AIRPORT PRODUCTS, a division ofOshkosh Corporation, recently introducedthe new Stinger Q4™ rapid interventionvehicle (RIV). Co-developed by Oshkosh andsister company Pierce Manufacturing, theStinger RIV features exclusive Pulse Delivery®

and QuadAgent® systems to meet any air-port’s rapid intervention vehicle requirements.

“The Stinger Q4 rapid intervention vehicleis a fast response vehicle that is ideally suitedfor smaller airports, yet is also a tremendousasset at larger facilities,” said Tim Raupp,Oshkosh Corporation Airport Products presi-dent. “With its exclusive Pulse Delivery andQuadAgent technologies, the Stinger vehiclecan meet a variety of challenges, and togetherwith the Oshkosh Striker offer customers afull-line of high performance ARFF vehicles.”

The Stinger Q4 meets Class I and II prod-uct index ratings, and is engineered to deliverbest-in-class performance for aircraft rescue,firefighting, hazmat and emergency responseat airports of all sizes. With its smaller sizeand greater maneuverability, it is ideallysuited for a wide range of incidents either onor around the airfield.

The Stinger Q4 is built on the Ford SuperDuty F-550 chassis in either Class I or Class IIconfigurations. Depending on the versionselected, the Stinger Q4 RIV can carry 120 gal. (454 L) or 300 gal. (1136 L) of waterand 200 lbs. (91 kg) or 500 lbs. (227 kg) of dry chemical agent and 120 lbs. (54 kg) ofASME clean agent.

“Using new systems such as QuadAgentand Pulse Delivery are the result of listeningto our customers’ needs for innovativefirefighting technologies with enhancedknockdown power from a greater distance,”said Raupp. “The Stinger Q4 rapid interven-tion vehicle is a tremendous example ofOshkosh and Pierce engineering and perfor-mance in action.”

The new Pulse Delivery technology allowsfirefighters to deliver dry chemical powderlong distances in a truly “dry” form by pro-ducing small packets of powder within thenozzle and propelling them forward atspeeds of up to mach 1. Combined with thenozzle velocity, the packets have enoughforce to allow the operator to cast drychemical powder over 90 feet (27m), more

than three times the current capability. Notbeing entrained in the water stream, the drychemical can begin suppression the momentit arrives at the source of combustion.

The new QuadAgent technology canattack almost all types of fire with immediatefire suppression and ultimately, termination.QuadAgent allows firefighters to easily andquickly select any combination of fouragents: water/foam, CAFS, dry chemical andclean agent to affect the best fire fightingsolution right from the nozzle. TheQuadAgent system allows for deployment ofall agents to over 90 feet (27m), increasingstandoff and keeping firefighters a safedistance from the fire.

This unprecedented combination of innov-ative firefighting technologies in a uniquelymaneuverable rapid intervention vehicle

means airport firefighters can respond morequickly and with more power. Because thePulse Delivery technology delivers truly drychemicals long distance, it is among the mostsignificant advances in firefighting agentssince the introduction of foam.

For more information, please contact:Oshkosh Truck CorporationP.O. Box 2566OshkoshWI 54903 2566USATel: +1 920 235 9150Website: www.oshkoshtruck.com

†Pulse Delivery® and QuadAgent® systemsare registered trademarks of Advanced FireControl Technologies, Centennial, Colo.



Oshkosh Airport ProductsGroup Introduces Stinger Q4Rapid Intervention Vehicle

ROSENBAUER serves the Airport Fire Servicesaround the world with innovative and pro-fessionally designed quality PANTHER ARFFVehicles. Chassis, superstructure and firefighting systems are fully integrated,designed and manufactured within theROSENBAUER Group.

In September, the PANTHER ARFF, whichhas already captured numerous accolades,was awarded the IDEA (International DesignExcellence Award) in gold. This distinction isone of the world’s most well-known and only35 of the 1,517 projects submitted wererewarded with a first prize.

The PANTHER 8x8, which has eight

powered wheels, an operational weight ofup to 52 tonnes, 19,000 litres of extinguish-ing agents and a top speed of 140 kph, iscurrently the leading ARFF vehicle on themarket and meets the demands of aircraft ofthe size of the Airbus A380.

South Africa receives nineROSENBAUER ARFF vehiclesThe ROSENBAUER Group, a leadingmanufacturer of special airport fire fightingvehicles, recently handed over nine ARFFs tothe South African airport operator, ACSA(Airports Company South Africa). Theconsignment consisted of six BUFFALO series

Panther ARFF VehiclesReady to Serve

The new Stinger Q4™ from Oshkosh and Pierce features QuadAgent® and PulseDelivery® systems for unmatched firefighting performance

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ALBERT ZIEGLER GmbH & Co. KGin Giengen/Germany is one of theleading companies worldwide inthe fire service market.

It was founded it 1891 andproduces fire hoses, fire pumps,monitors, foam admixing systems,and as its main product line themost modern fire fighting vehiclesfor all kinds of fire fighting.

Well advanced research, devel-opment and design, based onmany years of experience, highqualified staff and solid work-manship guarantee a high quality and a longlife of all products.

The adjustment to special requirements aswell as the continuous intensive dialoguewith our customers results in economicsolutions which are easily put into practice.

The permanent increase of civil aviationchallenges the airport fire departments allover the world to meet the internationalrequirements.

The increasing amount of aircrafts withimmense passenger capacities asks for acontinuous optimization of tactics and thesupply of powerful fire fighting vehicles.

Today the modern technology of chassisand superstructures allow the combination of fast trucks with excellent off-roadcapabilities, carrying a considerable amountof extinguishants.

ZIEGLER have produced the first airportfire fighting truck of the type Z8 more than15 years ago, specially designed for theneeds of airport fire departments. Meanwhilethis series is an indispensable component for

the safety concept on many national andinternational airports.

Recent deliveries were for various interna-tional airports in Turkey, for Zagreb, Brussels,Altenburg, Munich, Hamburg, Nuermberg,Luxembourg. More Z8s will be delivered toGdansk, Baku, and Turkey in 2009 and 2010.

With the new 8x8 chassis configuration in2005 and the patented ZIEGLER superstruc-ture in ALPAS technology ZIEGLER hasbecome market leader in this class in Europe.

The basis of the Z8 which by far exceedsthe recommendations of ICAO is a MAN 8x8chassis with single tyres, powered by a V12diesel engine with a performance of 735 kW(1000 HP) in EURO 3.

The truck with a maximum weight of43,000 kg is able to master extreme off roadconditions and has a high driving perfor-mance with a maximum speed of around140 km/h and acceleration from 0-80 km/hwithin 25 seconds.

The high performance ZIEGLER pump isdriven by a separate diesel engine with

360 kW (480 HP) and enables to perform10,000 l/min at 10 bar.

The main components are the water tankwith 12,000 – 12,500 l, 2 foam tanks with750 l each and a dry chemical unit with 500– 1,000 kg. The roof monitor can put out6,000 l/min with a reach of up to 90 m, thebumper monitor 2,200 l/min, and it goeswithout saying that the trucks have anefficient body/ground protection.

A major option is an articulated telescopicboom with a piercing unit.

The superstructure consists of four sepa-rate modules: driver/crew cab, water/foamtank, pump bay and equipment locker, all ofthem are independently mounted on thechassis to prevent distortion.

The patented ALPAS segments areadditionally anodised and offer an optimumprotection against corrosion. At the sametime this system allows highest flexibility forcustomized installations.

The spacious driver/crew cab for maximum1+3 offers highest visibility with ergonomicallyarranged seats, joysticks, and operatinginstruments. Every action is electronicallycontrolled by an integrated CAN-Bus systemand shown on coloured graphic displays. Thusthe crew can fully concentrate on their mainjob of rescuing, fire fighting, and protecting infull accordance with ZIEGLER’s promise:


For more information, please contact:ALBERT ZIEGLER GmbH & Co. KGFeuerwehrgeratefabrik undSchlauchweberei, Postfach 16 80D-89531 Giengen/Brenz, GermanyTel: +49 73 22 9 510Fax: +49 73 22 9 51 211Email: [email protected]: www.ziegler.de



Albert Ziegler Z8

vehicles and three newly designedPANTHER 8x8s on MAN chassis.These modern vehicles are to bestationed at South Africa’s largestairports and are part of a long-term ACSA purchasing program,which has the aim of bringing itsinfrastructure and safety systemsup to the highest standard in timefor the World Football Cham-pionships in 2010.

PANTHER – the ARFF topmodelThe three PANTHER 8x8s suppliedwere also built on and MAN chassis. They arepowered by a 1,000 hp diesel engine withautomatic Allison transmission. The vehiclescan accelerate from 0-80 kph in under 25seconds.

The PANTHERS have two separate enginesfor the chassis and the extinguishing pump,which facilitate simultaneous, full extinguish-ing performance in tandem with maximumspeed. In combination with the ROSENBAUERN100 normal pressure pump, the DEUTZpump engine provides extinguishingperformance of up to 9,000 l/min at 10 bar,whereby the extinguishing agent payload,consisting of 11,000 l of water and 1,500 l of

foam concentrate, can be sprayed for up to90m in around 75 seconds. Two of the SouthAfrican PANTHERS are equipped with a HRET(High Reach Extendable Turret) and one withthe electronically controlled RM60E monitor.

Six Supreme BUFFALO ARFFsThe Supreme BUFFALO are built on a 630 hp,6x6 all-wheel drive MAN chassis. A top speedof around 130 kph is available and the vehiclesaccelerate from 0-80 kph in 25 seconds.

In addition to attack times, the mostimportant requirement for every ARFF ispump and roll operation. ROSENBAUERprovides this feature by means of a Chelsea

852 auxiliary engine. The extin-guishing agent pump (R600) withan output of 6,000 l/min at 10 baris powered by the main engine andthrough this system, the availableengine power is split betweendriving and extinguishing.

The decisive factors in thecapture of this ARFF order includedthe comprehensive training of the crews, to enable them tooperate these sophisticated vehi-cles in an optimum manner. Inaddition to familiarization withmodern ROSENBAUER technology,

this training also covered intensive andcomprehensive instruction in the use of theextinguishing systems and driving techniques.

For further information, please contact:Rosenbauer International AGPaschinger Strasse 904060 LeondingAustriaTel: +43 732 6794 0Fax: +43 732 6794 89 Email: [email protected]: www.rosenbauer.com

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New ARFF-Fleet at Hamburg International Airport: ZIEGLER Z 8

ZIEGLER Z 8 is based on the most modern technology and offers tailor-made solutions for all kinds of airports. New: total height with embedded 20 m Snozzle telescopic boom now only 3.800 mm.

Hamburg International Airport is presently reorganizing its ARFF-Fleet and the decision was to use ZIEGLER Z 8s. The first unit of four is now in service.


P. O. Box 16 80 • 89531 Giengen • GermanyMemminger Str. 28 • 89537 Giengen • GermanyPhone: +49 7322 951 0 • Fax +49 7322 951 464E-Mail: [email protected] provide safety

Anz_Z8_HH_RS_210x297.indd 1 04.07.2008 9:13:19 Uhr

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Entrapment can be physical, mechanical orboth. In other words, either the victim isentrapped by his injuries (physical) or by the

fact that the vehicle has crumpled in such a waythat it is not possible to get out of the wreckage(mechanical). Regardless of whether there is aphysical or mechanical entrapment, there is verylikely to be significant internal injury after a high-speed impact. It is this internal injury that can beworsened due to inappropriate handling and lackof good medical care during the extrication rescueprocess.

Combining technical extrication skills &advanced medical careThe specialized discipline of extrication rescue isperformed with varying degrees of efficiencyacross the globe. To reduce the negative effectsfrom moving an entrapped victim (their conditiongets worse due to their already fragile injuries)specialized tools and techniques are needed. Withrescuers in more and more countries being aware

of this, the overall demand for these specialisedtools and techniques has increased over the years.What makes the overall discipline of extricationrescue so successful is that it combines technicalextrication skills with advanced medical care of thepatient.

From the second a crash occurs the medicalwellbeing of a trapped patient will begin toworsen. Approximately 50% of road traffic deathsoccur at the crash scene. As we all know, the needfor that patient to get to a hospital as soon aspossible is essential in increasing the chance ofsurvival. To this end, we tend to invest much timeand money developing well-run ambulanceservices that can carry the patient to a hospitalsafely and efficiently. What is often forgottenhowever is the importance of ensuring that we donot harm the patient any further when freeing himfrom his position in the vehicle.

Extrication rescue should not only be usedwhen it is physically impossible to remove apatient. It should also be routinely used to make

By Brendon Morris

Holmatro RescueEquipment b.v.

Medical Care inExtricationRescueWithin the context of vehicle extrication rescue the need for an advanced levelof care for entrapped patients is needed more than ever before. After a vehiclecollision of significant force – as in the case of high-speed impact – it is likelythat the occupants of the car, particularly the driver and front seat passenger,will be entrapped.

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sure that the patient is not moved or handled in away that could further compromise his alreadydelicate medical condition. Techniques such as aside and roof removal help to ensure that thepatient can be removed from the vehicle in an in-line movement to protect him against aggrava-tion of potentially dangerous spinal injuries. Thistechnique is just one example of how simpleprocedures can significantly increase the possibilityof full recovery from a motor vehicle collision.

ResearchResearch in the field of extrication rescue, as withpre-hospital care, is extremely limited due toethical and practical issues. Extrication rescueefforts are even more problematic to prove. Whathas been shown is that, of the high percentagesof deaths occurring in the pre-hospital stage,many can be avoided. Over and above this, manycomplications resulting in disability in the pre-hospital phase could also be avoided. Unfor-tunately, we can see a large difference betweenthe likelihood of surviving the pre-hospital stage inmore developed countries as opposed to low andmiddle income countries. Perhaps this can beattributed not only to the lack of emergencymedical services in these countries, but also to thelack of expertise and equipment for the extricationof victims from their damaged vehicles.

Another important consideration is the adventof new stronger vehicle constructions on the roadstoday. To deal with these, rescue tool manufac-turers constantly have to develop stronger tools(especially cutters). New Car Technology oftenintroduces the paradox of safety vs. accessibility. Inother words, the very construction that makes itpossible for a driver of a car to survive the impactmay well be the reason why it is impossible for arescuer to free the victim when working with old,out of date rescue tools.

Basic first-aid training is not enoughIn low and middle-income countries, patienttransport by ambulance from the crash scene israre, with most patients being transported bycommercial vehicles having been “rescued” by thegeneral public. Some programs are being devel-oped to provide basic first-aid training to the publicwho would be most likely to come across vehiclecollisions. Hopefully this will positively affectmortality. In this regard, it may be worth furtherinvestigating whether or not providing more extrica-tion skills to those responsible for the rescue ofpatients from their damaged vehicles may positivelyaffect mortality. Only providing first aid skills mayeven prove to be harmful where there is no formalsystem that can control the extrication process.

Working together as a teamThe scene of a motor vehicle collision is not thecontrolled environment of an operating or consul-tation room. The rescue scene has many dangersand risks associated with it and these have to becontrolled. Extrication rescue does not only pro-vide the knowledge to rescuers on how to safelyextricate patients, it also equips them with theknow-how to ensure that they do not becomeinjured themselves during the rescue. Extricationrescue techniques also include the various activitiesthat have to be done to ensure that all peoplewho are involved in the rescue scene are workingin a safe environment. A perfect example of this isthe importance of ensuring that the vehicles bat-tery is disconnected in order to remove the chanceof an electrical short circuit starting a fire. In termsof safety the other matter to consider is the factthat many different services have to work togetheron a rescue scene. The only way to ensure safetyfor all involved, is for the services to work togetheras one team, each knowing exactly what theirresponsibilities are. APF


To prevent furtherinjuries variousextrication techniquescan be applied such asside removal and dashboard lift


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Rescue Tools

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The VFR2000, certifi cated according to the UNI EN 433 norms,

conforms to safety requirements greater than those required

by the law.

All the constituent componentsof the VFR2000 have been studied to permit the maximum protection

from blows and radiant heat combined with practicality

and comfort.

Available in different colours.The helmet is set up and

certifi cated to be used with the following optional accessories:

• Standard type devices to protect the breathing

• Devices to protect the neck and shoulders

• Illumination devices consisting of lamp and support

• Radio communication systems• Refracting bands

You can ask for detailled informative materials.

Adjustmentand quick release


SICOR SpA - 20016 Pero MI - Italy - Via Pisacane, 23/A - Tel. +39 02 3539041 - Fax +39 02 3539060

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Outer shell in composite materials


Technological evolutionwith levels of performance above

the European safety standardsRefractingbands

A4_VFR2000_Inglese.indd 1A4_VFR2000_Inglese.indd 1 10-02-2006 7:54:5710-02-2006 7:54:57

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Alot of focus has traditionally been placed ongarment selection, but more and moreattention is now being given to how all the

parts of the ensemble – particularly helmets,gloves, footwear, and hoods – work together toprovide the necessary level of protection.

In addition, firefighters are increasingly calledon to perform a range of duties that includes morethan just fighting structural fires. Firefighters aremore likely to be involved in providing medical aid,technical rescue activities and other emergenciesthat do not involve the same set of hazardsencountered in combating high heat and flames.Moreover, firefighters are generally the firstresponders for any kind of event, including terror-ist actions that can include chemical or biologicalagents.

Despite these facts, few firefighters have theluxury of different clothing outfits for respondingto varying types of emergencies, with the excep-tion of those on specialized teams. Manufacturershave realized that in order for clothing to beversatile enough to adjust for changing missions, itmust be lighter, more comfortable and, mostimportantly, work together with other parts of theensemble to provide complete protection underchanging circumstances.

This article addresses considerations for select-ing each element of the firefighter protectiveensemble.

GarmentsThe protective coat and pants worn by fire fightersrepresents one of the more complicated choicesfor firefighters given the wide range of industrychoices and customization of the clothing that ispossible. Each clothing manufacturer provides aseries of designs aimed at providing the firefighterthe greatest amount of mobility and comfort with-out sacrificing protection. The insulative nature ofclothing makes clothing design a challenge asmultilayered clothing must be used to provideuniform protection of the firefighter against

thermal, liquid, and physical hazards, and unlessproperly fitting, the clothing inhibits ease of move-ment and creates stress. The clothing must furtherinclude reinforcements, pockets and other featuresto meet certain functional needs. Lastly, there area variety of different materials for each layer –outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal barrier –and each component used on the construction ofthis gear (reinforcements, reflective trim, hard-ware, interlinings). These materials offer varioustradeoffs between protection and other character-istics, such weight and flexibility. Choosing amongthe different designs, features, and materials is adaunting task. There are important considerationsthat help make this task more manageable.1 All clothing must meet the latest edition of the

relevant standard in their region. For example, inNorth America, the principal standard is NFPA1971, Standard on Protective Ensembles forStructural and Proximity Fire Fighting. Many ofthese standards, though voluntary, represent theminimum industry prerequisite for any regionalcompliance. Moreover, the standards oftenrequire third party testing or certification andensure a higher level confidence whencompliance is demonstrated.

2 The fire department should conduct a hazardassessment to determine the types and frequencyof hazards that its firefighters regularlyencounter. This assessment should account forthe department’s past experience in respondingto different kinds of emergencies, prior fatalitiesand injuries, the relative durability and servicelife of current gear, and specific operational pro-cedures. From the hazard assessment, thedepartment can determine the relative risk forcertain types of hazard and use this informationto weigh tradeoffs for certain performanceproperties associated with the clothing.

3 Fire departments should strive to choose pro-tective clothing that is based on three-layermaterial composites (outer shell, moisturebarrier, and thermal barrier), which offer the

By Jeffrey O. andGrace G. Stull

President and VicePresident, InternationalPersonnel Protection, Inc.

Considerationsfor SelectingFirefighterProtectiveEnsemblesAll of the protective clothing and equipment worn by firefighters makes up anensemble in which the items must work together to provide overall protectionfrom fireground and other emergency hazards.

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best combination of thermal protection andbreathability. The department should choosecomposites that are lightweight and have lowbulk but still provide acceptable thermal insula-tion. Clothing items create physiological stresson firefighters and an appropriate balancebetween comfort and insulation should besought. Other considerations are the relativeruggedness or durability of each material layerfor continued use and laundering.

4 The selection of protective garments shouldestablish specific features related to the safetyand operation of the department’s firefighters.For example, if firefighters are equipped with aportable radio, a radio pocket should be placedon the coat in a location where it can be readilyaccessed and not interfere with firefighter tasks.In addition, if experience has shown that thefirefighters in a particular department experi-ence burns in a particular area of their bodiesthen reinforcing materials should be used inthose areas.

5 Garment selection should consider care andmaintenance issues, such as how the garmentswill be inspected, cleaned, repaired, and stored.Some manufacturers offer different programs tosupport these department needs for ensuringand extending the service life of garments.

Any garment selection should be based on fieldtesting whenever practical. Field tests should sup-port the development of garment specifications.Field testing should be performed to assesswhether the clothing will perform as expected andintegrate with the other elements of the firefighterprotective ensemble. .

HelmetsPerhaps the most recognizable piece of firefightinggear is the helmet. The distinctive shape of firehelmets readily identifies firefighters when they’rein public view. It is also a perfect example of bothhow modern technology has worked to provideimproved protection and how resistant the fireservice is to change.

In the past, helmets were made from leather (infact, some still are). The vertical ribs along thesides of the leather helmet are actually reinforcedseams, which protrude to permit the individualleather pieces to come together. In its time, thishelmet was robust and protected firefighters fromfalling debris and elevated temperatures, whichcould be expected in higher portions of a roomengulfed in flame and heat. Obviously, there havebeen new designs that make use of high tech-nology composite materials that are lighter andstronger. But even these modern helmets oftentake on the classic firefighter helmet shape.

As personal protective equipment, helmetsmust be designed to meet a variety of protectionneeds: resistance to impact from falling objects,contact with electrical wire, high heat, and flameexposure – all while remaining light to preventundue stress on the firefighter.

The required features of the helmet are: a shell,an energy absorbing system (for impact), and aretention system (controlling how the helmet fitsto the firefighter’s head). Some regions furtherrequire retro-reflective/fluorescent trim, ear coversand either a faceshield or goggles (or both).Today’s helmet shells are made of thermoset resincomposites or thermoplastics. Thermoset resincomposites are special high temperature resins tobind the glass and aramid or other fibers together.Thermoplastic helmet shells provide greater impactand penetration resistance compared to fiberglass,and they will hold up through repeated thermalexposures. In contrast, fiberglass helmet shells canbetter resist chemical exposure and tend to bemore stable at high temperatures.

Different approaches are used for absorbingenergy. Some manufacturers use foam inside thehelmet in combination with the helmet’s suspen-sion (the straps forming the head cradle inside thehelmet). Other manufacturers have been able toprovide sufficient energy absorption through the

suspension system alone. The helmet suspensionconsists of a headband that fits into the helmetshell through sockets, pins and other hardware incombination with webbing materials to fit thewearer’s head. The headband must be adjustablethrough a ratchet or other means to fit thefirefighter’s head and interface correctly with theSCBA facepiece and protective hood. Some manu-facturer helmets now provide effective interfaceswith the SCBA facepiece.

The helmet is secured on the firefighter’s headthrough a retention system that consists of a chinstrap, webbing and sometimes a nape device thatgoes to the back of the head; both are attached tothe helmet and provide adjustment throughbuckles, slide mechanisms, and hook and loopclosure. The trim is often placed on the outer shelloffers enhanced visibility, which together withreflective trim on garments allows firefighters tobe distinguished in poor visibility situations. Whenpresent, ear covers extend down from the helmeton the sides and back to provide additionalthermal protection to the firefighter head andneck. These covers generally consist of similarmaterials to those used in the construction offirefighter garments.

In some regions, helmets are equipped withgoggles or faceshields as a form of eye and faceprotection for those circumstances where the



The insulative nature of clothing makes clothing design a

challenge as multilayered clothing must be used to

provide uniform protection of the firefighter against

thermal, liquid, and physical hazards, and unless

properly fitting, the clothing inhibits ease of

movement and creates stress.

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SCBA facepiece is not worn. In some cases,faceshields are used to provide supplemental faceprotection. However, end users must be carefulthat these items are also flame and heat resistantif worn on the fireground. In addition, it is impor-tant to determine whether the selected item doesindeed provide primary eye protection when theSCBA facepiece is not worn.

HoodsProtective hoods have become an integral part ofthe firefighting ensemble. Minimum performancespecifications for hoods are established in someregional standard, sometimes separately or inother cases as part of the garment standard.Intended as an interface item of protective cloth-ing, separate hoods are typically constructed ofknitted material with a face opening to fit aroundthe breathing apparatus mask and extensions ofthe material to remain tucked under the firefighter’scoat. Protective hoods generally have a lowerthermal insulation requirement than garments, butstill have to meet all of the flame and heatresistance criteria typically associated with garmentmaterials. Owing to their knit constructions, hoodsare typically “one size fits all” but must be carefullyselected to fit properly with the other equipment,primarily the SCBA facepiece. Because hoods arerepeatedly stretched over the facepiece and thewearer’s head, some hoods quickly lose their shapeand can fail to properly protect the firefighter. -Features for hoods are relatively simple. Theseusually consist of: the type of face opening (somehoods are designed to accommodate specificrespirator facepieces); the length of the sides,front, and back (sometimes referred to as “bibs”);and ventilation areas. Some heavyweight hoodmaterials use mesh materials in the ear region topermit easier communication, but this feature alsoreduces protection. One style of hood uses meshon the top of the hood (sitting underneath thehelmet) to provide a means for heat to escape.

When hoods are integrated as part of thegarment, the hood can take on the same materiallayering as provided in the garment, or may usefewer layers given the required interface with theSCBA facepiece and hood. These hoods generallyoffer more protection than standalone hoods, butthe additional bulk can create more stress on thefirefighter.

GlovesSince the hands are one of the more difficult areasof the body to insulate, hand burns occur muchtoo frequently in the fire service around the world.It is difficult to achieve the similar insulation ingloves as garments because the when relativelybulky materials are used, hand function is severelyimpaired. Glove manufacturers generally have torely on glove designs that permit maximumdexterity and hand function. The majority of fireservice gloves are made with leather outer shellmaterials. When properly treated, leather providesa rugged, durable external layer with adequateflexibility. Several newer gloves use relativelystrong aramid and other materials that are gener-ally much lighter than leather but may not offerthe same levels of insulation. Many gloves are alsooutfitted with moisture barrier layers that functionthe same way as the moisture barrier in garments.However, this layer is generally created as an insert


Please visit our website for full details of all

product and services or contact us directly.

Bristol Uniforms Ltd,

Bristol, United Kingdom. BS16 5LL

Telephone +44 (0) 117 956 3101

[email protected]


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to fit inside the glove with minimum extra materialto minimize glove bulk, particularly as many ofthese materials do not have elastic properties.Gloves further include linings for additionalthermal insulation and hand comfort. These liningsmay absorb sweat, but more important theyfunction to limit heat transfer to the hand. It isimportant that thermally stable materials be usedbecause under extreme circumstances, melting ofthe lining material can cause severe injuries to thehand. Additional layers may be used inside or onthe exterior of gloves. These materials serve asphysical reinforcements to high wear areas or addinsulation in vulnerable areas (such as on the backof the gloves). Gloves are further outfitted with agauntlet or knit cuff. In either case, the gloveshould be designed to minimize the potential ofembers or other debris from entering the glove.

In choosing gloves, fire departments shouldconsider the relative protection features of thegloves versus the impact for firefighter undertak-ing required tasks. Overly insulated gloves, whilebeing very protective, may create other hazardswhen the firefighter is unable to operate a radio or

use equipment effectively. Gloves should be offeredin a wide range of sizes to permit firefightersselecting the specific size that will provide the bestfit. Gloves that are too tight result in less insulationand may fail in use. Gloves that fit too loosely maycause hand function problems. Like any of theensemble items, gloves should meet availableregional standards, but additional criteria may benecessary to guarantee the level of needed protec-tion. It is important that gloves demonstrate thenecessary durability and in particular that the linerstays in place through the glove’s service life.Gloves should maintain their liquid protectionperformance over their expected life as well.

FootwearFirefighter preferences for the type of footwearworn will vary with their experience and theirexpectations for footwear. Generally, the feet areone the best protected areas of the firefighterensemble. Yet, improperly fitting footwear orfootwear without the appropriate features canlead to serious injuries. The two main types offootwear are leather and rubber. Leather bootstend to be designed like regular work boots andmay be supplied with laces and other devices thatmake this type of footwear indistinguishable fromstandard industrial boots. Yet these boots like theirglove counterparts must be constructed of materi-als that are flame and heat resistance with thecombination of layers offering appropriate levelsof thermal insulation. In order to gain the liquidholdout properties deemed highly desirable in thefire service, these boots must be constructed with

an internal moisture barrier to provide a liquidtight envelope around the wearer’s foot. In con-trast, rubber footwear is either molded or made bygluing. This material must also consist of flameand heat resistant material, but has the advantageof being liquid proof on its exterior. Whetherleather or rubber is used as the outer material,there are several other layers or features that mustbe incorporated as part of firefighter footwear. Alining is provided to create insulation. These liningsmay comprise several layers or be based on asingle layer of relatively thick material. Linings haveto be comfortable to the skin and should wickmoisture away from the feet. The outer sole isoften a separate molded part of the footwear. Itsdesign has to account for traction, abrasion resis-tance, and puncture resistance. Some footwearuses a metal plate above the outer sole to preventnail punctures. Other footwear hardware includesmetal or composite toe caps and metal tarsalguards. These features serve to limit footwearinjuries due to impact and compression fromfalling objects. Footwear may also include differenttypes of inner soles added mainly for comfort.

Many firefighters debate the merits of leatherand rubber footwear. Firefighters that like rubberfootwear point to its ruggedness and certainty ofliquidproof performance. Those in the fire servicethat prefer leather footwear indicate that overall fitof leather, particularly in providing ankle support.As with other firefighter ensemble items, footwearshould be chosen on the basis of its relative perfor-mance, durability, and comfort. Look to specificneeds identified in your assessment of the hazardsto rank or rate specific qualities or features that willbe important to your department.

Overall SelectionCertainly the time required to adequately selectand purchase fire fighting protective ensemblescan stretch the resources of any department, largeor small. Use of a selection committee can help tospread responsibilities. Another method, especiallyfor smaller departments is to pool resources withadjoining or neighboring departments. Not onlydoes this approach reduce the required time for anindividual department, it increases purchasingpower because a larger order will get a betterresponse from industry compared to a relativelysmall order. It’s also a good idea to checkreferences as you would with any major purchaseto see how other departments have fared withdifferent PPE items, materials and designs. Don’tlimit this reference check to references provided bythe manufacturer. Ultimately, your firefighting pro-tective ensemble must reflect your department’sneeds to provide high levels of protection, mobilityand comfort. APF



It is important that gloves demonstrate the necessary

durability and in particular that the liner stays in

place through the glove’s service life. Gloves should

maintain their liquid protection performance over

their expected life as well.Jeffrey O. Stull and

Grace G. Stull are Presidentand Vice President of

International PersonnelProtection, Inc., which

provides expertise on thedesign, evaluation, selection

and use of personnelprotective clothing,

equipment and relatedproducts to end users and

manufacturers. InternationalPersonnel Protection, Inc. hasconducted numerous studies

for effectiveness andperformance of protective

clothing and equipment. Mr.and Mrs. Stull are currently

members of several NFPATechnical Committees for Fire

and Emergency ServicesProtective Clothing and

Equipment and other groupsfor protective clothing and

equipment. Both Mr. andMrs. Stull participate in thegovernment’s Interagency

Board for EquipmentStandardization and

Interoperability. InternationalPersonnel Protection, Inc. is

considered one of the leadingsources of expertise in the

field of personal protectiveequipment.

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The report describes how the ongoing NewDimension programme, set up in the wake ofthe 9/11 US terror attacks, includes a remit to

extend the capacity of Fire and Rescue Services(FRS) in England to deal with the consequences ofterrorist use of weaponised chemical or radio-logical materials by provision of such as IncidentResponse Unit vehicles for transporting new massdecontamination modules. The considerableachievements made in progressing towards thisend have included the delivery of 17 dedicatedDetection, Identification and Monitoring (DIM)vehicles, but the spectrum of specialist DIMdevices carried aboard present a difficulty in their

own right, which is replicated down through thewider provision of the more basic detectors acrossthe FRS., and is alluded to in the NAO reportwhere it notes that “sufficient firefighters havebeen trained for all equipment types except theDetection, Identification and Monitoring capability.”The FRS in England are not alone in facing thisissue.

At the heart of the training dilemma is the factthat the increasing numbers of DIM instrumenttypes being deployed around the world all share acommon feature: they are designed to respond tospecific and highly dangerous substances andmaterials that are unacceptable for use in many

By John Saunders

Argon Electronics

DIM InstrumentTraining– the Achille’s heel in fire serviceCBRN response?In October 2008 the UK National Audit Office (NAO) published a documenttitled “New Dimension – Enhancing the Fire and Rescue Services’ capacity torespond to terrorist and other large scale incidents”.

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training environments, and they are designed toexclude, as far as is possible, any alternativestimuli. A simple chemical detector may be able todetermine the presence of a nerve agent, andmore advanced technologies may be able toidentify that substance as, for example, Sarin.Similarly a radiation dosimeter or survey metermay detect the presence of harmful radiation atthe scene of an incident, and a more advancedspectrometer may be able to provide the name ofthe radionuclide responsible for the emission, butin either instance you would not necessarily wishto expose trainees and the environment to suchhazards. So how then to learn the correct use ofDIM equipment in both a realistic and safemanner?

The first issue to resolve is how to remove thehazardous substances defined by the threatscenario from the setting for the training, andreplace them with something that will closelyimitate the dynamic characteristics and materialproperties of the agents of concern, whilst at thesame time eliminating all risk of harm or damageto trainees, their equipment, and the widerpopulation and environment.

For FRS instructors the use of an encoded ultra-sound transmitter could provide the first part ofthe solution. Compact and power-efficienttransponders can be pre-programmed by aninstructor to represent, for example, a specificchemical weapon agent (CWA) such as Sarin, ageneric class of CWA such as a ‘nerve’ agent, atoxic industrial chemical or even a chemical that

might, as an ‘interferrent’,cause a real chemical detec-tor to display a ‘false positive’response. With a range ofdigitally controlled variableemissions the ‘concentration’of the simulated chemicalsource may be adjusted tovary the strength of thedetectable signal fromaround 1 to 30 meters, andjust as with a real chemicalvapour, the surrounding envi-ronment may be brought intoplay in replicating the desiredcharacteristics of a gas inresponse to, for example, aclosed door or a strong wind.

Similarly, these ultrasounddevices can also be used torepresent gamma radiationemitters, either as a directedenergy source or, by use of a‘spreader’ on the transpon-der, as a 360° hotspotrelease. The consistent signalemission enables teaching ofsuch as inverse square law,whilst the programmabledesign of the units also per-mits simulation of specificisotopes.

Whether used to simulateeither a chemical or radio-active hazard, overlappingdeployment of multiple‘sources’ programmed withthe same code enables repre-

sentation of weapons effect over larger areas, andcould also be used, for example, to ‘mask’ asecondary and alternatively programmed simula-tion source. The sources can be used to representa multitude of different CBRN scenarios, fromcontamination of vehicles that have driventhrough ‘hot’ zones by concealment of theultrasound unit in a wheel arch, to their conceal-ment in debris in creation of the aftermath of aradioactive dispersal device (RDD; a ‘dirty bomb’)detonation, and furthermore, they can be usedinside buildings or outside in any weather orclimatic conditions without variation in theirperformance over repeated exercises.

For training in the detection of either weakerchemical point sources or short range radioactivealpha and beta emitters permanent electro-magnetic pouch sources provide a second meansof replacing the real threat materials with a safesimulation alternative. Supplied in a range ofstrengths to suit the particular parameters of therequired scenario, they can be discretely concealedon personnel for decontamination training or usedto familiarise students with close proximity searchtechniques.

Finally, a third technology is used for specialistradiological contamination, cross-contaminationand decontamination training where solid andliquid radioactive materials are imitated using asafe fluorescent simulant.

The selection of the most appropriate type ofsimulation technology from those described abovewill of course depend on the type of DIM task that


Simulated vehiclecontamination duringFRS detection trainingusing ultrasound


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is to be taught, and the form of the simulationdetector will correspondingly be determined bythe type of DIM instrument that is employed inresponse to specific tasks and individual circum-stances. Simulation instruments fall into two basicdesign categories (the first being where a detectoris wholly substituted by a simulator, and thesecond where a component probe is simulatedwhich can be used with the real primary detectioninstrument), but for the fire fighter responsible forthe instruction of CBRN responders, the advan-tages of using such systems will not so much beappreciated for the differentiation between systemsand sources, but for their commonality, as will beseen below.

Argon simulation instruments are well knownfor the degree of fidelity they provide in terms ofreplicating the functions and features of specificDIM instruments, and for the level of equipmentspecific competency engendered by their use.Instructors have also come to understand thevalue of being able to teach remedial action inresponse to the simulated instrument faults andfailures they are able to remotely create during atraining session, and the ability to provide com-prehensive analysis of a user’s operation of aninstrument during after action review of studenterrors has enabled the assurance of auditable con-sistency to standards of instruction. However, oneof the increasingly appreciated features of thesesystems is their inter-operability.

As already noted, there is an increasing relianceon technology in the response to CBRN attack,and the range and complexity of DIM equipmentpresents a growing burden on the trainingresources of fire service organisations, not leastwhen multiple individual DIM instruments are usedin conjunction with each other to provide acomprehensive series of procedural initiators.

A clear example of this can be seen in the useof a range of DIM instruments for the detectionand identification of potential CWA’s. Whereas, indays gone by, a front line fire service respondermight be grateful to possess even a single type of instrument, it is increasingly the case that he orshe will have a number of technologies at theirdisposal at the site of a terrorist inspired chemicalrelease. An ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) baseddevice, such as the Smiths Detection LCD3.2elightweight chemical detector, might provide initialwarning of the presence of a generic class ofpotentially lethal gas. Another IMS-based device,such as a Bruker RAID-M100, might then be usedto provide agent identification of the threat athand, and, in order to provide the confirmatoryassurance of a secondary technology, a ProenginAP4C detector might be simultaneously deployedin reflection of its employment of flame photo-metry (FP) as its analytical mechanism. Once thehazard has been assessed to be of sufficientlyconvincing concern, detailed analysis of the agentof concern would typically be sought, and in this the Inficon HAPSITE® family of gaschromatograph/mass spectrometer systems is atypical example of equipment employed by anumber of fire services around the world. So far,so good, and all good practice. However, thedifficulties that might potentially reduce or evennullify the combined benefits of such a completeDIM equipment suite begin with the operator who has not been sufficiently trained in the

complementary use of his tools.Having determined that, for reasons of safety

and cost alone, ‘live agent’ training is not a viablemeans of providing DIM instrument training forthe increasing numbers of FRS personnel nowrequired to be proficient in CBRN response, acommon reaction is to turn to use of a chemicalstimulant in conjunction with use of real chemicaldetectors and identifiers. Such chemicals carryintrinsic risks in their own right, but, in terms ofmulti-instrument DIM training, the most seriousdrawback is that there is no guarantee that theywill create a realistically consistent response acrossthe range of the deployed devices. For users ofArgon simulation systems these concerns havebeen removed.

By appropriate programming of the ultrasoundsimulation sources described above, and, using thesame example for the DIM equipment, by substitu-tion of a LCD-SIM, RAID-M100-SIM, AP4C-SIMand HAPSIM-P (a simulation probe that works withthe real HAPSITE® instrument) that all respond tothe same common technology platform, instruc-tors are able to recreate the exact responses ofeach of the individual real instruments as would beexperienced in the context of their co-ordinateduse.

In addition to enjoying the benefits of enhancedcontrol over individual instruments during a train-ing session, and being able to objectively recordand report on the operational skills of individualoperators, approved training scenarios can berepeated with unwavering accuracy, or rapidlyadjusted to meet changing priorities. For thoseholding the purse strings benefits will include aremoval of the expense of consumables, recali-bration, and the eventual early replacementassociated with running real instruments, and,most importantly, for those FRS responders whosetask it will be to risk their lives in the protection ofthe public following a CBRN attack, they will beable to concentrate on the task at hand with aconfidence in their equipment that is born ofexperience. APF


Simulated CBRN casualtycontamination usingelectromagnetic sources


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For industrial applications indoorsor outdoors where fire can spread out rapidly due to the presence of

highly inflammable materials,and where vast premises need an optical

detector with a great sensitivityand large field of view.


the fastest and most effective fire alarm devicefor industrial applications

BETTER TO KNOW IT BEFOREEye is faster than nose.

In the event of live fire the IR FLAME DETECTOR

responds immediately

Also forRS485 two-wire serial line

Sparks flyat high speed.

They travel at a hundred kilometresper hour along the ducts of the dustcollection system and reach the silo

in less than three seconds


is faster thanthe sparks themselves.

It detects them with its highlysensitive infrared sensor,

intercepts and extinguishesthem in a flash.

It needs no periodic inspection.

The CONTROL LOGIC system is designed for “total supervision”.

It verifies that sparks have been extinguished, gives prompt warning of

any malfunction and, if needed, cuts off the duct and stops the fan.

CONTROL LOGICSparkdetector

designed fordust collectionsystemsto protectstorage silosfrom the riskof fire.

20137 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - ItalyTel.: + 39 02 5410 0818 - Fax + 39 02 5410 0764E-mail: [email protected] - Web: www.controllogic.it CONTROL LOGIC s.r.l.

ISO 9001

20137 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - ItalyTel.: + 39 02 5410 0818 - Fax + 39 02 5410 0764E-mail: [email protected] - Web: www.controllogic.it CONTROL LOGIC s.r.l.

ISO 9001


For industrial applications indoorsor outdoors where is a risk of explosionand where the explosionproof protection is required.One detector can monitor a vast areaand responds immediately to the fire, yet of small size.

Control Logic w/p 6/3/06 3:51 pm Page 1

Page 61: APF Issue 29

Pic courtesy of 3MTechnologies (Singapore) Pte Ltd


NOVEC 1230

For many years, halon was the fire extinguish-ing agent of choice in a wide variety ofapplications and particularly those where it

was important to minimize damage to valuableassets (e.g. electrical and computer equipment,museum artefacts, ships engines etc). However, inthe 1980s, it started to become clear that halonhad enormous potential for harming the Earth’sozone layer. In fact, it not only has one of the highest ozone-depletion potentials of anychemical in use but has a high global warmingpotential, as well.

As a result, the production of halon was phasedout in the early 1990s under the terms of theMontreal Protocol. Also, for the first time, environ-mental regulators were direct participants asmembers of committees dealing with fire protec-tion codes and standards development. The initialeffect of this move in most countries was that

existing halon installations could only be rechargedusing recycled halon. However, in many parts ofthe world including for example, the EU, the use ofhalon-based fire protection systems is now illegalexcept in very specialized, critical applications.

For the fire protection industry and, indeed, forspecifiers and users of fire protection, the phase-out of halon created a problem, as it was a veryconvenient and effective agent. Clearly, a replace-ment had to be found, and this resulted in thedevelopment of hydrofluorocarbon agents (HFCs).

There’s no doubt that, in environmental terms,HFCs were a step forward. Their ozone depletionpotential is zero but, unfortunately, ozone deple-tion is not the only item on today’s environmentalagenda – global warming is an equally importantissue.

The global warming potential of Halon 1301 isan astonishing 7,140 times that of CO2, the most

By Kurt Werner

for Electronic MarketsMaterial Division,3M Technologies(Singapore) Pte Ltd

Protection thatRespects theEnvironmentClean extinguishing agents used in modern fire protection systems are moreenvironmentally responsible than those in use a decade or so ago, but some arestill causing concern. Kurt Werner, Environmental Affairs Manager at 3MCompany, examines their limitations and introduces a new agent that representsan environmentally sustainable technology.

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common greenhouse gas, while that of the HFCmost commonly used in fire protection is 3,220(2007 IPCC assessment for HFC-227ea). Further,the atmospheric lifetime of halon 1301 is 65 years,and that of HFCs used in fire protection about 30 years. So, with HFCs, the negative footprint onthe environment is still substantial.

In fact, the high global warming potential andatmospheric persistence of HFCs are already

leading to concerns about whether their use willcontinue to be permitted. It is entirely possible thatHFCs may follow halons in being restricted, oreven banned, in the not-so-distant future.

The first steps toward this can already be seenin the F-Gas Regulations that have recently beenintroduced in Europe. While these regulations stopshort of banning the use of HFCs, they do imposerequirements specific to HFCs for technician

training, inspections, testing, and reporting. Theseregulations are based on a technical assessmentcarried out in 2001, which is due to be updated inthe near future. It is possible that, based on theavailability of new alternatives since 2001, thisupdate will tighten the restrictions on HFCs in fireprotection.

Measures addressing the use of HFCs are also being drafted in the USA. An early action

identified under the California Global WarmingSolutions Act of 2006 includes a considerationthat, from 2012, all new fire protections systemsin California must use an agent with a GWP belowa minimum threshold level. A proposal from theCalifornia Air Resources Board (CARB) reflects theregulator’s concern that, while emissions from thissector are currently low, they are growing quicklyand the emission potential of an ever growing


Pic courtesy of 3MTechnologies(Singapore) Pte Ltd

NOVEC 1230

With environmental characteristics as desirable as

this, the prospect of Novec 1230 fluid being restricted

in use is negligible. Nevertheless, for specifiers who

desire reassurance, 3M backs its technology with its

unique Blue SkySM Warranty.

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installed base represents a significant futureliability. The only means to limit this future liabilityis to reduce the use of HFCs.

These concerns create two big issues for thosewho are currently specifying or purchasing fireprotection installations.

The first is that most principled organisationshave strong environmental policies and are unlikelyto specify fire protection agents that have poorenvironmental credentials. Indeed, in countrieswhere regulatory requirements are currently lessstringent, such policies will likely be the biggestdriving factor for the adoption of environmentallysustainable fire protection.

The second issue, or risk, is that future bans orrestrictions may mean that an HFC system installedtoday would need to be replaced long before ithas reached the normal end of its useful life. Thecosts of carrying out this replacement work couldbe substantial. California’s proposal also includes aprovision to enhance inspections of, or replacetotal flooding fire suppressant systems that con-tain an agent with a GWP above a specifiedthreshold.

The shortcomings of HFCs led 3M to search fora fire protection agent with environmentalcharacteristics superior to those of any agentpreviously available. The result is the introductionof 3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire Protection Fluid,which has been developed with the clear objectiveof providing a technology that offers a viable long-term solution for special hazards fire protection.

In order to assess how well this objective hasbeen met, let’s start by looking at the environmentalproperties of Novec 1230 fluid. Like HFCs, Novec1230 fluid has zero ozone depletion potential, but its key differentiating attribute is its globalwarming potential of just one, a dramatic reduc-tion from 3220 for the most common HFC. Inaddition, Novec 1230 fluid’s atmospheric lifetimeis only five days, in contrast to a period of about30 years for HFCs.

With environmental characteristics as desirableas this, the prospect of Novec 1230 fluid beingrestricted in use is negligible. Nevertheless, forspecifiers who desire reassurance, 3M backs itstechnology with its unique Blue SkySM Warranty.Under the terms of this warranty, if Novec 1230fluid is banned from or restricted in use as a fireprotection agent because of its ozone depletion orglobal warming potential, 3M will refund the priceof the fluid. The warranty is valid for 20 years.

Novec 1230 fluid offers a very wide margin ofsafety and, therefore, can be used in staffed areas.For most applications, it is typically used at aconcentration of between 4% and 6%, but its noobserved adverse effects level is 10%. Therefore,its safety margin is between 67% and 150% – thewidest margin of safety of any viable chemicalreplacement for halon.

Unlike most other extinguishing agents, Novec1230 fluid is not stored as a pressurized gas but asa liquid, which instantly dissipates to form a gaswhen it is discharged from a properly designedsystem. Storage in liquid form has many benefits;Novec 1230 fluid can be easily transported in bulk– even by air. Further, refilling a system afterdischarge is much simpler than working with bulkpressurized gas supplies and much more con-venient than sending the cylinders off site. Finally,cylinders containing Novec 1230 fluid occupy

significantly less space than cylinders of CO2 or inert gas systems. All of these benefits areparticularly significant when the product is used inoffshore applications.

With less impact on the environment, favorablehandling characteristics, and excellent extinguish-ing properties, Novec 1230 fluid is unmatched. It is suitable for delivery by flooding, and its non-corrosive, non-conductive properties allow it to be used to protect sensitive equipment such astelecommunications and computer installations.

Novec 1230 fluid is a clean extinguishing agent.It evaporates immediately and, unlike foams and

powders, it leaves no residues. This means time-consuming clean up operations are eliminated,minimizing the delay before the system can bereturned to service.

With concerns over HFCs growing rapidly,specifiers need an environmentally sustainablealternative that will not only help address the riskof an installation’s early demise under regulatorypressure, but which will also complement the pro-gressive environmental policies of their businesses.That alternative is Novec 1230 fluid, which hasalready demonstrated its value around the worldin applications as diverse as shipboard installations,data centres and oil rigs.

Leading OEMs that offer systems incorporatingNovec 1230 fluid include Kidde, a division of UTCFire & Security; Siemens Building Technologies;Tyco Safety Products, a division of Tyco Fire &Security and SEVO Systems. APF


Pic courtesy of 3MTechnologies(Singapore) Pte Ltd


For more information about3M™ Novec™ 1230 FireProtection Fluid visitwww.3M.com/novec1230fluid

Unlike most other

extinguishing agents, Novec

1230 fluid is not stored as a

pressurized gas but as a

liquid, which instantly

dissipates to form a gas

when it is discharged from a

properly designed system.

P. 59-61 Protection that resp. 13/3/09 12:45 pm Page 61

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Don’t forget to attend the fi re industry’s leading event

International Firex offers you the solution to all your fi re prevention and protection needs when it returns to the NEC Birmingham from 11-14 May. The show is awash with features including the latest products from leading manufacturers, free seminars and major new highlights such as The FIA Learning Zone and the LPCB Red Book Pavilion.

So let’s start talking fi re protection today, register free at www.internationalfi rex.co.uk

11 - 14 May 2009. Hall 3. NEC Birmingham

Organised by:In association with:

Firex full page 3/3/09 4:05 pm Page 1

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Traditionally though, the message to the afore-mentioned stakeholders has been, “no; onesize does not fit all!” and that sprinkler

systems must be designed according to the manyfacility-specific conditions present at the time of itsdesign. In addition, to ensure they remain capableof adequately protecting a facility during its life-time, periodic assessments are needed to assessthe impact of any changes to the types of goodspresent and the way in which they are stored.When a sprinkler system needs to be adapted tosuch changes, the resulting modifications andreinforcements can result in significant costs anddisruption to a warehouse’s day-to-day operations.

This article examines the recent and possible

future developments in sprinkler technology whichare helping to make fire protection in storage facil-ities a far easier and less-costly proposition. And,whilst these changes don’t mean we’ve achievedthe utopian “one size fits all” sprinkler system, thegreater flexibility, ease-of-design, and lower coststhat these advances allow certainly representmajor progress towards this ideal.

The challenging pastImagine a garden-furniture manufacturing companywho teams up with several business partners, suchas a chain of DIY stores, a logistics firm and aproperty developer, to build a warehouse inEurope to store its products which will supply a

By BrendanMacGrath

Manager, InternationalStandards Group, FM Global

ProtectingWarehouses –One SprinklerSize Fits All?A sprinkler pipe dream?A truly flexible, one-size-fits-all, warehouse sprinkler system that’s cheaper toinstall and provides better protection? A “pipe dream”? Well, for those whodesign, construct, own, lease and operate storage facilities, it’s certainly a veryattractive proposition.

Suppression Mode(“ESFR”) SprinklerHeads: since 1988, it hasmade sprinklerprotection forwarehouses moreversatile and effective.© 2009 FM Global.Reprinted withpermission. All rightsreserved

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developing market with great potential. Theparties involved take a strategic decision to protectthis important facility, key to achieving their busi-ness goals, with a fire sprinkler system. Now letsalso imagine this were twenty years ago. Chancesare the goods would be mostly metal or woodenproducts stored in cardboard packaging. Data onthe many variables needed to specify the system isgathered: ceiling height, the storage arrange-ments, aisle widths and the combustibility of themultiple products stored. Ultimately, the propertyinsurance carrier and design consultant putforward a design based on a ceiling-only sprinklersystem. Agreement and approval by all the stake-holders, including the local authorities, is obtainedand the protection is installed. The warehouse isbuilt and starts to operate successfully.

Five years later though, a new product line hasbeen developed. Built from more fragile com-ponents such as glass, it requires the use of minoramounts of foamed-plastic protective packaging. Inconcert with the insurance company, it has beendetermined that this change renders the existingsprinkler system inadequate, thus placing the facilityat significant risk. At appreciable cost, in-racksprinklers are installed on the understanding thatthis new product line can now only be placed inthese specially adapted racks. Another five yearslater and a new all-plastic weatherproof range ofgoods is launched. In order to ensure that the prod-uct can get to market, the sprinkler system needs tobe upgraded once more, requiring more racks to beprovided with a line of in-rack sprinklers. A furtherfive years passes and, driven by environmentally-friendly market expectations, the cardboard pack-aging is replaced by recyclable plastic containers.Once again, the sprinkler system which was origi-nally designed to protect metal and wood productsin cardboard on wood pallets (a “Class III” product),needs to be upgraded to protect the higher com-modity hazard of exposed unexpanded plastics. Thisis certainly not a happy story for anyone concerned– the inflexibility, the delays in product launches,the cost, the time etc. Without doubt, many of thestakeholders involved will have developed a

negative perception of fire sprinkler systems. Somemight understandably and rhetorically ask, “weren’tthese sprinklers supposed to support my businessgoals by protecting my premises against the firehazard, not hamper them?”

Why so complicated?So why did stories like this one happen? Basically,when rack storage systems were first developed inthe 1960s, the only fire sprinklers available toresearchers and those who developed standards,were smaller orifice size sprinklers. While suchsprinklers had proven track records in manufactur-ing properties, their application to the far greaterfire challenges posed by storage was anothermatter. Instead of the relatively low water pressuresrequired to protect say, a textile mill, these samesprinklers were now required to operate at farhigher pressures in order to protect high-piledstorage of more combustible products. As a conse-quence, private water supplies consisting of apump and tank were required, and/or the installa-tion of in-rack sprinkler systems, all of which camewith a very significant price tag. There was, there-fore, a strong economic argument and incentivefor designing a sprinkler system which required aslow a pressure as possible in order to keep its costto a minimum. This led to the development ofdesign standards which required the considerationof multiple variables; eight classes of products,each representing an incrementally higher fire haz-ard, which in turn requires increased water pressureand therefore, greater cost. This resulted in complexdesign standards (FM Global’s Storage ProtectionData Sheet 8-9 contained approximately 37,000individual protection options), which, as illustratedin the earlier example, can result in inflexibility andits costly consequences for a facility, even whenundergoing relatively minor operational changes.

Simpler, cheaper and more versatileIn order to make fire sprinkler systems more cost-effective for the owner and versatile for theend-user, FM Global has made significant effortsto simplify the protection options contained in its


In-rack sprinklers:superior protection, butat a cost and reductionin flexibility.© 2009 FM Global.Reprinted withpermission. All rightsreserved


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Data Sheet 8-9 “Storage Of Class 1, 2, 3, 4 andPlastic Commodities”. The changes made includesimpler and cheaper in-rack systems, the elimina-tion of interpolation and adjustments, theelimination of steel column protection and asimpler choice for the sprinkler temperature rating.FM Global’s efforts don’t stop here, however; infuture editions of this standard we aim to seesimpler design criteria which mostly only dependon the sprinkler type, the ceiling height and abroader range of commodity hazards. The previ-ously mentioned 37,000 permutations couldpotentially be reduced by up to 90%.

Central to achieving these significant advanceshas been the research carried out by industry andthe resulting development of innovative firesprinkler products. These new types of sprinklershave greatly simplified the design and reduced thecost of fire protection. The introduction of EarlySuppression Fast Response (ESFR) sprinklers in the1990s (referred to nowadays by FM Global as Sup-pression Mode (SM) sprinklers) hailed the advent ofthis simplification and constituted a major stepforward in the development towards a far moreversatile and cost-effective sprinkler system. In onefell swoop, a SM sprinkler system design couldprotect all eight commodity classes, and in mostcases without requiring in-rack sprinklers. Com-pared to the more traditional sprinkler options,water duration and fire hose demands were halvedproducing significant savings. Nevertheless, flowand pressure requirements were not insignificant,typically requiring substantial pumping capacityand the associated large diameter pipe work.

Now twenty years later in 2008, several newsprinkler heads have been launched which help tofurther reduce the cost and increase the flexibility offire protection. These new products also providejustification for significant simplification of designstandards. These new options, low-pressure pendentstorage sprinklers, can protect commodities fromclasses I through IV combustibles such as cartonedplastics, at pressures up to 70% lower, thus reducingthe piping and water supply size. The overall costsavings could be as much as 20%. As these sprink-lers can protect higher combustibility commoditiesat low pressures (e.g. as low as the sprinkler’sminimum end head operating pressure), there is nolonger any incentive to sub-divide the commodityclasses to achieve lower operating pressures, as wasrequired with the traditional sprinkler types.

Now let’s imagine the garden furniturewarehouse story is a current-day situation in anemerging-economy country where the indigenousmarket is experiencing an increasing demand forthis kind of commodity. The fire sprinkler protec-tion options available now include sprinklers which

can provide adequate protection for the full rangeof commodities stored, and at a lower cost. Thisnew facility has essentially been able to “leap-frog” from a position of no available options perlocal standards, directly to the latest R&D basedtechnology, hence gaining very significant benefitsfrom both a flexibility and cost standpoint.

Furthermore, the company elects to establishmanufacturing operations in the region in order tosupply both its local and international markets,and benefit from lower costs. These productionand storage facilities, stretched and scatteredacross borders and time zones, form a global sup-ply chain which needs to be highly resilient. Now,thanks to the advances in sprinkler technologywhich allow cheaper, more flexible and versatilefire protection, the provision of sprinkler protec-tion in order to protect the company’s future fromthe risk of fire, is a far more palatable option.

If we now translate these advantages toindustry in general, they help to significantlyreduce the cost of providing sprinkler protection.This decreased burden makes for a stronger cost-benefit case for their installation, which couldultimately have a bearing on building regulations.Fire sprinkler systems can now be installed for aslittle as 1% of the overall cost of a new industrialestablishment and at far less than the price ofother building components e.g. carpeting. Firesprinkler systems serve to protect the value whichsuch facilities create, both for the enterprise andfor society as a whole. Installing sprinklers canprevent the potentially catastrophic and headline-making fire incidents, such as the fire in a toyfactory in Thailand in the 1990s which resulted in188 fatalities and several hundred injured workers,and which can negatively impact a country orregion’s reputation as a safe, trustworthy andreliable place to do business.

In summary, in response to the need forsolutions to the challenges faced by both businessand those in the regulatory environment, the firesprinkler industry continues to develop new andinnovative products and standards which providefar more flexible and cheaper solutions. Solutionswhich make protecting a facility and the value itcreates against the hazard of fire, an ever moreattractive, viable and logical proposition. APF


The Next Generation:Low-pressure, PendentStorage Sprinkler heads.Launched in 2008, thesesprinklers makewarehouse protectioneven more versatile andcost-effective.Reprinted withpermission of VikingCorporation


FM Global is a leadingcommercial and industrialproperty insurance companyand risk managementspecialist. If you havecomments or questions onthis article, please contactthe author, BrendanMacGrath, Manager,International StandardsGroup at email:[email protected] or Tel: +

The fire sprinkler protection

options available now include

sprinklers which can provide

adequate protection for the

full range of commodities

stored, and at a lower cost.

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PACIFIC HELMETS AUSTRALIA PTY LTD Abn 60 088 233 783, Unit 1/28 Burnside Road Hallmarc Business Park, Yatala Qld 4207 Contact: Keith Ward Tel: 1300 73 1800 Fax: 07 3441 7177 Email: [email protected] Website: www.pacifichelmetsaust.comDealer/Distributor


MANIK BROTHERSHai Mansion (3rd Floor)9/3 Motijheel Circular RoadDhaka – 1000, BangladeshContact: Mr A K BhowmickTel: +880 2 7100 589Fax: +880 2 7100 386Email: [email protected]/Distributor


DASAPREM (M) SDN BHD10 & 12 Jalan Muara 8/940000 Shah AlamSelangor, Darul Ehsan, MalaysiaContact: Mr Prem R MurthyTel: +603 550 9060Fax: +603 550 4486Email: [email protected]: www.dasaprem.comDealer/Distributor


SHENZHEN RUFN INDUSTRIAL CO LTDRM-701, 7/F Leaser Tower1st Fuhua RdShenzhen, ChinaContact: Amy JinTel: +86 755 8399 9581Fax: +86 755 8399 9548Email: [email protected]/Distributor


PHILLIPS & SMITH LIMITED10 Akatea RoadGlendeneAucklandNew ZealandContact: Mr S HamptonTel: +649 818 8048Fax: +649 818 4484Email: [email protected]: www.firemaster.co.nzDealer/Distributor


CHUBB HONG KONG LIMITED3 Hok Yuen Street EastHung HomKowloonHong KongContact: Mr Simon TsangTel: +852 2746 9628Fax: +852 2785 0849Email: simonsft.chubb.com.hkWebsite: www.chubb.com.hkDealer/Distributor


FOREMOST MARKETING PVT LTDM-1 Green Park Extn, New Delhi 110016, IndiaContact: Mr Vinay KhannaTel: +91 11 261 969 82Fax: +91 11 261 669 61Email: [email protected]: www.foremostsafety.comDealer/Distributor


ABLE-YAMAUCHI CO LTDYokohama Nishiguchi, SIA Building, 10-36Kitasaiwai, 2-Chome Nishi-KuYokohama 220-0004, Japan Contact: S. Yamauchi Tel: +81 45 312 1130Fax: +81 45 312 1350Email: [email protected]: www.able.yamauchi.co.jpDealer/Distributor


DASAPREM (M) SDN BHD10 & 12 Jalan Muara 8/9, 40000 Shah AlamSelangor Darul Ehsan, MalaysiaContact: Mr Prem R MurthyTel: +603 550 9060Fax: +603 550 4486Email: [email protected]: www.dasaprem.comDealer/Distributor


PHILLIPS & SMITH LIMITED10 Akatea Road, GlendeneAuckland, New ZealandContact: Mr S HamptonTel: +649 818 8048Fax: +649 818 4484Email: [email protected]: www.firemaster.co.nzDealer/Distributor


YEN LEE FIREWELD PTE LIMITED18 Penhas Road, 208182, Singapore Tel: + 65 62909890Fax: + 65 62961444Email: [email protected]: www.fireweld.com.sg Dealer/Distributor


FIRETECH (PRIVATE) LIMITED34 Walter Gunesekara MawathaNawala, Sri Lanka Contact: Leon DanielsTel: +94 11 4410588Fax: +94 11 2806666Email: [email protected]/Distributor


SHENG-TAI FIRE PROTECTIONINDUSTRIAL CO LTDNo 222-2 Sec2, Cheng Tai RdWu-Ku Shiang, Taipei, Hsien, TaiwanContact: Liu Yuan HungTel: +886 22292 1751Fax: +886 22291 1984Email: [email protected]: www.shengtai.com.twDealer/Distributor


TRAN VU TRADING CO LTD 61 Ban Co Street, District 3Hochiminh City, Viet Nam Contact: Tran Vu HongTel: +84 88325101Fax: +84 88309586Email: [email protected]: www.tranvufire.comDealer/Distributor


DRAEGER SAFETY PACIFICAxxess Corporate ParkUnit 99, 45 Gilby RoadMount Waverley, Victoria 3149 Contact: Klaus SchroeterTel: +61 3 9265 5000Fax: +61 3 9265 5097Email: [email protected] Office


BEIJING FORTUNE DRAEGER SAFETYEQUIPMENT CO LTDYu An Lu 22, B AreaBeijing Tianzhu Airport Industrial ZoneShunyi District, Beijing, 101300Tel: +86 10 8049 8000Fax: +86 10 8049 8005Email: [email protected] Office


JOSEPH LESLIE DRAEGER MFG PVT LTDLeslico House, Dadar (W)Mumbai – 400 028, IndiaContact: Prof. V.S Agashe MargTel: +91 22 2422 7587/1880Fax: +91 22 2430 3705Email: [email protected] Office


PT DRAEGERINDO JAYAJl. Pangeran Antasari No. 67Cilandak Barat Unit L, Jakarta, Selatan 12430Tel: +6221 751 3289Fax: +6221 751 2052Email: [email protected] Office


DRAEGER SAFETY JAPAN LTD3-8-1 Tokyo, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135 0016Tel: +81 3 44 615111Fax: +81 3 44 615100Email: [email protected] Office


DRAEGER SAFETY ASIADaejong Bld. #1106Bang-I-dong, Songpa gu, Seoul, KoreaTel: +82 2 6415 8222Fax: +82 2 6415 8223Email: [email protected] Office


Distributor and Representative Offices

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DRAEGER SAFETY ASIA PTE LTD14 Jalan PJS 11/18Sunway Technology Park46150 Petaling, JayaSelangorTel: +60 3 5635 6460Fax: +60 3 5635 4171Email: [email protected] Office


DRAEGER SAFETY PACIFIC PTE LTDUnit O, No. 150Harris Road, East TamakiAucklandTel: +649 273 3160Fax: +649 273 3159Email: [email protected] Office


DRAEGER SAFETY ASIA PTE LTD67 Ayer Rajah Crescent #06-03Singapore 139950Tel: +65 6872 9281Fax: +65 6773 2033Email: [email protected]: www.draeger.com.sgRegional Head Office


DRAEGER SAFETY TAIWAN CO LTD12/F, Kuohwa Building868-5 Chungcheng RdChungho CityTaipei county 235Tel: +886 (02) 2223-6388Fax: +886 (02) 2223-2258Email: [email protected] Office


DRAEGER SAFETY (THAILAND) LTD123/20, Nonsi RoadKwaeng ChongnonsiKhet YannawaBangkok 10120Tel: +662 6811 781 (4 lines)Fax: +662 6811 780Email: [email protected] Office


DRAEGER SAFETY ASIA PTE LTD No.5A2 Nguyen Khanh Toan Str. Cau Giay DistrictHanoi, Vietnam Tel : +84 4 281 3463 Fax :+84 4 281 3461 Email: [email protected] Office


ARGUS E2V11/F Onfem Tower29 Wyndham StreetCentral Hong KongTel: +852 3679 364 8/9Fax: +852 3583 1084Email: [email protected] Office


FOREMOST MARKETING PVT LTD M-1, Green Park ExtnNew Delhi 1100016, India Tel: 00 91-11-261-96982Fax: 00 91-11-261-66961Email: [email protected]: www.foremostsafety.comDealer/Distributor


CORNES DODWELL LTD (OSAKA) 13-40 Nishihonmachi, 1-chome, Nishi-kuOsaka 550-0005, JapanTel: +81-6-6532-1012Fax: +81-6-6532-7749 Email: [email protected]: www.cornes-dodwell.co.jpDealer/Distributor


GODO ENGINEERING CO LTD 1FL. 142-5, Yeonhee-2 Dong Soedaemun-Gu, SeoulKorea, 120-112 Tel: 822-3141-1236Fax: 822-3141-1270 Email: [email protected]: www.godoeng.comDealer/Distributor


FIRE PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIESPTY LTDUnit 1442-44 Garden Blvd, DingleyVictoria 3712, AustraliaTel: +61 3 9558 0715Fax: +61 3 9558 0725Email: [email protected]: www.fire-protection.com.auDealer/Distributor


NAVANA INTERLINKS LTD205-207 Tejgaon I/A Dhaka-1208, BangladeshTel: +88 02 -9892911Fax: +88 02 -9895252Email: [email protected]/Distributor


THE JARDINE ENGINEERINGCORPORATION LTD13/F Somerset HouseTaikoo Place, 979 King’s RoadHong KongTel: +852 2807 4562Fax: +852 2503 4210Email: [email protected]: www.jec.comDealer/Distributor


NEWAGE INDUSTRIESChampaklal Ugyog BhavanUnit No. 7, Sion (East)Mumbai 100 022, IndiaTel: +91 22 2407 7421Fax: +91 22 2407 4229Email: [email protected]: www.newage-india.comDealer/Distributor


KARYA LESTARI MAKMUR PTJl. Pangeran Jayakarta85AK, Jakarta 10730, IndonesiaTel: +62 21 628 1933Fax: +62 21 628 1976Email: [email protected]/Distributor


PARADISE INDUSTRY CO LTD#683-116 Hannam-DongYongsan-KuSeoulSouth KoreaTel: +82 2 3780 8770Fax: +82 2 3780 8772Email: [email protected]: www.paradise-ind.co.krDealer/Distributor


FIKE ASIA PACIFIC SDN BHD18B Jalan Astaka L U8/LBukit Jelutong40150 Shah AlamSelangor, MalaysiaTel: +60 3 7859 1462Fax: +60 3 7859 1461Email: [email protected]: www.fike.comRepresentative Office

SUKIADA ENGINEERING SDN BHDNo. 20 Jalan Astaka L U8/LBukit Jelutong40150 Shah AlamSelangorMalaysiaTel: +60 3 7845 2008Fax: +60 3 7845 6008Email: [email protected]: www.sukiada.com.myDealer/Distributor


MGH ENGINEERING AND CONTROLPVT LTD H. # 20 St. #5/A Kot ShahabdinShahdrahLahore 54950, Pakistan Tel: +92 - 42 - 7913064 Fax: +92 - 42 - 7913064 Email: [email protected] Website: www.mgheng.com Dealer/Distributor


FIRE SOLUTIONS INCRoom 401 CBT Condominium60 West AvenueQuezon City 1104, PhilippinesTel: +63 2 371 9774Fax: +63 2 374 3041Email: [email protected]/Distributor


FICON PTE LTD11, Toh Guan Road East# 05-01, Singapore 608603Tel: +65 6895 8820Fax: +65 6425 5972Email: [email protected]/Distributor



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BUILDING SERVICES (M&E) ENGINEER INTERNATIONAL PVT LTD122 Dawson StreetColombo-02, Sri LankaTel: +94 11 471 7500Fax: +94 11 245 4653Email: [email protected]/Distributor


SUNMORN INC7F.-2, 76Nan Jing W. RoadTaipei 103, TaiwanTel: +886 2 2550 3500Fax: +886 2 2550 5350Email: [email protected]: www.sunmoreinc.comDealer/Distributor


ANTI-FIRE CO LTD316-316/1 Sukhumvit 22 Road, KlongtoeyBangkok 10110ThailandTel: +66 2 260 4565 9Fax: +66 2 258 2422Email: [email protected]: www.antifire.comDealer/Distributor


AMPAC INDUSTRIES PTY LTD97 Walters DriveOsbourne ParkWestern Australia 6017 Tel: +61 892 423 333Fax: +61 892 423 334Website: www.ampac.com.au Dealer/Distributor


KHAYBER TRADING COMPANY W.L.LP.O. Box No. 1976Cr.No. 40189-01Manama, Bahrain Email: FX ABB 50 Dealer/Distributor


M.T. PIPERARIS TRADING LTDNafpactou 19aLemesos 3051Cyprus Tel: +357 5 737311Fax: +357 5 737310Dealer/Distributor


HLK SERVICES LTDRoom 1111, Tower BHung Hom Commerc’l Centre39 Ma Tau Wai RoadHung Hom, KowloonHong KongTel: +852 23303083Fax: +852 23656128Dealer/Distributor


NITIN FIRE PROTECTIONIndustries Ltd501, Delta Technology St.Hirananandani GardensPowai, Mumbai -400 076, IndiaTel: +91 22 25700392Fax: +91 22 25701110Dealer/Distributor


AAP TECHNOLOGY LTD84, Ben-Tzvi RoadPanarama House61364 Tel-Aviv, IsraelTel: +972 3518 1444Fax: +972 3518 1445Dealer/Distributor

TELEFIRE FIRE & GASDetectors LtdP.O.B 7036Petach-Tikva 49250, IsraelTel: +972 3 9211955Fax: +972 3 9211816Dealer/Distributor


NAR KOOB IRANApt 7, 3rd FloorNo 32, Varavini St. Amir AtabakSt. Ostad Motahari Ave.Tehran – IranTel: +98 21 88842649Fax: +98 21 88307405Dealer/Distributor


HI MAX CO LTDSicox Tower 115-Ho 513-14Sangdaewon-DongJungwon-GuSungnam-City, Kyungki DoKoreaTel: +82 31 769 7698Email: [email protected]/Distributor


FITTERS ENG SERVS SDN BHDNo.1 Block CJalan Dataran, Sd1 Pju 952200 Bandar SriDamansaraKuala Lumpar, MalaysiaTel: +60 3 62767155Fax: +60 3 62758712Dealer/Distributor


AMPAC INDUSTRIES LIMITEDP.O. Box 100-149North Shore Mail CentreGlenfieldAuckland Tel: +64 94438072Fax: +64 94438073Dealer/Distributor


AL SHAIBEH ESTABLISHMENTP.O. Box 3975Doha, Qatar Tel: +974 4322140Fax: +974 4416650Dealer/Distributor


ACCLAIM SYSTEMS PTE LTDBlk 104, Boon Keng Road05-01 Singapore 339775Tel: +656 2990 798Fax: +656 299 3735Dealer/Distributor

ALARM SUPPLY PTE LTD63 Jalan Pemimpin03-07, Pemimpin Industrial BldgSingapore 577219 Tel: 00 656 258 3445Fax: 00 656 258 6428Dealer/Distributor


FIRETECH (PVT) LTD34, Walter GunasekaraMawatha, NawalaSri LankaTel: +94 1 806613Fax: +94 1 806666Dealer/Distributor


ESS COMPANYP.O. Box 35478DamascusSyriaDealer/Distributor


HORING LIH IND CO LTD4f No 18 Lane 327Chung Shan RoadSec 2 Chung-Ho-CityTaipei Hsien, TaiwanTel: +886 2224 87599Fax: +886 2224 07752Dealer/Distributor


F.B. (THAILAND) LTD75 Soi RubiaSukhumvit 42 RoadBangkok 10110ThailandTel: +66 2 3902445Fax: +66 2 3811197Dealer/Distributor

TEEYA MASTER SYSTS CO LTD100/101-102 VongvanjiBuilding B30th Flr, Rama 9 RoadHuaykhwangBangkok 10320ThailandTel: +662 2 6451130Fax: +662 2 2488540Dealer/Distributor


BAHRI & MAZROEI TRADING COP.O. Box 1247Deira – Dubai, U.A.ETel: +971 42691610Fax: +971 42664627Dealer/Distributor

NAFFCOP.O. Box 17014Jebel Ali Free Zone AreaDubai, U.A.ETel: +971 4 881 5653Fax: +971 4 881 6229Email: [email protected] Dealer/Distributor



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TELECTRONP.O. Box 2946, Al Salam StreetBldg. No.5, Abu Dhabi, U.A.ETel: +971 26795333Fax: +971 26794609Dealer/Distributor


CHUBB FIRE SAFETY LTD120, Silverwater Road, Silverwater, NSW 2128Locked Bag 102, Silverwater 1811Contact: Andrew LoftusTel: 1300 369 309Fax: 02 8748 7450Email: [email protected]: www.chubb.com.auDealer/Distributor


HOLMATRO CHINAUNIT 14/D – 9 JOY TOWER9 Zhen Ning Road Shanghai 200050, P. R. China Contact: Floris EversTel: +86 21 5238 7330Fax: +86 21 5238 7320Email: [email protected]: www.holmatro-china.comRepresentative Office


ABLESLINK CO LTDUnit B4, 2/F., Block BSheung Shui Plaza, 3 Ka Fu CloseSheung Shui, N.T., Hong KongContact: Mr. Randy HauTel: +852-2466 4568Fax: +852-2466 4569Email: [email protected]/Distributor


PT ESA KARYA MANDIRIJL.SUNTER PARADISETimur Raya, F21 No.C42, Jakarta 14350Contact: Ir.Benny N LiemTel: 062-21-6412936/65303502Fax: 062-21-6412937Email: [email protected]/Distributor


AKAO & CO LTD4-13-1 Shinmachi Nishi-ku Osaka, Japan 550-0013Contact: Masaya SagaTel: +81-6-6532-6256Fax: +81-6-6532-3095Email: [email protected]: www.akao-co-co.jpDealer/Distributor


KEO WHA HITEC CO LTDRm-1Fl, Jiwoo Bldg376-12, Seogyo-dongMapo-gu, Seoul, KoreaContact: Mr. Kenneth ZyungTel: 82-(02)-336-0145-7Fax: 82-(02)-336-0180Email: [email protected]: www.kh-hitec.comDealer/Distributor


PANDAN NIAGA SDN BHDNo. 81A, Jalan Tabla 33/21 Shah Alam Technology Park Section 33, 40400 Shah AlamSelangor Darul Ehsan, MalaysiaContact: Mohd Rashdi Abd RahmanTel: +603 5122 1310Fax: +603 5122 1279Email: [email protected]/Distributor


CHUBB FIRE & SAFETY3 Fisher Crescent, Mt Wellington, AucklandContact: Steve KirkTel: +64 9 270 7441Fax: +64 9 270 7235Email: [email protected]: www.chubb.co.nzDealer/Distributor


WALLGREEN INDUSTRIAL VENTURESCORP62 West Avenue, Quezon CityPhilippines 1104Contact: Francisco C. DizonTel: +6 32 411 0818 Mobile: +6 32 0917 820 1947Fax: +6 32 411 0818Email: [email protected]/Distributor


PARKSON TRADING CO LTD10F, No. 32, Wen-Jung RoadGuo-Shan Dist., Kaohsiung City80464 Taiwan, R.O.C.Contact: Mr. Johnson PengTel: +886-7-552-1650Fax: +886-7-552-7999Email: [email protected]/Distributor


ELLIOTT AUSTRALIA PTY LTD PO Box 509, 23 Vauxhaul Street Virginia, QLD 4014 Tel: (617) 3265 2944 Fax: (617) 3265 2903 Website: www.elliottaustralia.com Dealer/Distributor

LION APPAREL ASIA PACIFIC Unit 13, 15 Dunstan RoadWingfield, South Australia 5013, Australia Tel: +61 8 8139 7777 Fax: +61 3 8139 7788 Email: [email protected] Website: www.lionapparel.com Representative Office

MELBA INDUSTRIES PO Box 466Thomastown, VIC 3074, Australia Tel: +61 3 9474 3072 Fax: +61 3 9464 4114 Email: [email protected] Website: www.melbaind.com.au Dealer/Distributor

PACIFIC HELMETS (AUSTRALIA) –BRISTOLUnit 128 Burnside RoadHallmarc Business Park, YatalaQLD 4207(PO Box 356 Ormeau, QLD 4208)Contact: Keith WardTel: 1300 73 1800 (in Australia)Tel: (61) 7 3441 7100Email: [email protected]/Distributor

STEWART & HEATON CLOTHING COPTY LTD 150 Francisco StreetBelmont, WA 6104AustraliaTel: +61 8 9277 5555Fax: +61 8 9277 5455 Email: [email protected] Website: www.shcc.com.au Dealer/Distributor


WAH TAI ENTERPRISES LTD PO Box No. 10303General Post OfficeHong Kong, ChinaContact: Johnny HoTel: (852) 2771 6360 Work 02808-1172 Home Fax: 852-2782-0718Email: [email protected]: www.wtyf.comDealer/Distributor


INVERSYS CORPORATION SDN BHD COSALT Fire apparel No. 2-3-1, Jalain 5/101C Cheras Business CenterTaman Cheras 56100 Kuala LumpurMalaysia Zaini Bin Zainal Tel: 603-91329227/603-91318761 Fax: 603-91327685 Email: [email protected]


GDW-BROCOO Pneumatic Technique Co. Ltd. No B-705 of Triumphal Arch PlazPlaza Xudong Road CN-430066 WuhanP.R. China Tel: +0086 27 86828060 Fax: +0086 27 86728946 Email: [email protected] Dealer/Distributor


GAS ENGG. P LTD C408, Shiv SagarPlot No 79, Gorai II, Borivali WestIND-400 091 MumbaiIndia Tel: 0091 9820035452 Email: [email protected] Dealer/Distributor



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NARAYANI AGENCIES J. B. Business Centre, Room No. 18, Fifth Floor 506116 Park Lane S.D. Road IN-500003 SECUNDERABADIndonesia Email: [email protected] Dealer/Distributor


SECURITON (M) SDN BHDNo. 19A, Lorong Rahim Kajai 13Taman Tun Dr. IsmailMY-60000 Kuala LumpurMalaysiaContact: Mr Lewis ChongTel: +60 3 7725 1699Fax: +60 3 7725 1677Email: [email protected]: www.securiton.euRepresentative Office


AUSTRALIAN FIRE ENTERPRISES (AFE)P.O. Box 7027, Mannering ParkNSW 2259, AustraliaContact: Mr Mike Donegan/Mr Brett GordanTel: 61 2 43 592 244Fax: 61 2 43 593 301Email: [email protected]/[email protected]/Distributor


BEIJING RUIHENGDA SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LTDB106, Hua Zhan International ApartmentNo, 12 Yumin RoadChao Yang DistrictBeijing 100029Contact: Mr Sun WeiTel: 86 10 8225 3488Fax: 86 10 8225 3237Email: [email protected]: www.fireprotec.net Dealer/Distributor

BEIJING Z-N MECHANICAL &ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT CO LTD1# B910, Lingdi OfficeNo.13 Beiyuan LuChaoyang District BeijingChina 100012Contact: Ms Sarah ZhangTel: 86 10 5207 3836Fax: 86 10 5207 3839Email: [email protected]/[email protected]/Distributor


SHANGHAI ZHENYE INDUSTRY COLTDNo, 3 221, Cao Bao LShanghai, 200233Contact: Mr Jack ShenTel: 86 21 6451 2922/2933Fax: 86 21 6451 9955Email: [email protected]: www.shzhenye.com Dealer/Distributor


SHENZHEN YAOHUAJI CHINA CO LTDRM.F, 20th Floor Yong – Hui BuildingGuo-Qi Building, ShenzhenContact: Mr Raymond Ng/Ms ShiTel: +86 755 8212 9831Fax: +86 755 8212 9909Email: [email protected]: www.ywk.com.hkDealer/Distributor


YIU WAH (KOGARAH) CO LTDRoom 901, 9th FloorNo 113 Argyle Street, MongkokKowloon, Hong KongContact: Mr Raymond NgTel: +852 2781 1384Fax: +852 2782 6652Email: [email protected]: www.ywk.com.hkDealer/Distributor


HSE ENGINEERS PVT LTD2, Durgas Niwas1st Floor, Bhawani Tower CompoundBehind Bhawani Petrol PumpIIT PowaiMumbai 400076, IndiaContact: Mrs Sapna PrajapatiTel: +91 22 2578 7014 / 7015Fax: +91 22 2578 7016Email: [email protected]: www.hseengineers.comDealer/Distributor

VIMAL FIRE CONTROLS PVT LTD19/20 Vardhaman ServiceIndustrial Estate, L.B.S. Marg.IN-400083 Vikhroii (West) MumbaiIndiaContact: Mr Vijay Doshi/Mr Nalin DoshiTel: +91 22 2578 3335Fax: +91 22 2578 3338Email: [email protected]/[email protected]: www.vimalfire.comDealer/Distributor


ROYAL INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGYCORPORATIONRoyal Building, 3rd Floor840-5 Yeoksam-Dong, Kangnam-KuSeoul 135080, KoreaContact: Mr E.S. Kim/Mr J.K.ChungTel: +82 22 009 1800Fax: +82 2 567 8831Email: [email protected]/[email protected]: www.ritco.co.krDealer/Distributor


FITTERS SDN BHDNo, 1, Jalan Tembaga SD5/2, Sri Damansara52200 Kuala LumpurContact: Dato’ Richard WongTel: +60 3 6276 7155Fax: +60 3 6175 2780Email: [email protected]/[email protected]: www.fittersgroup.comDealer/Distributor

SYARIKAT LETRIK CHEN GUAN SDNBHDLot 1178, Jalan Subang 3Taman Industri, Sg. Penaga47610 Subang Jaya, Selangor, MalaysiaContact: Mr Choong Yew LimTel: +603 5634 1436Fax: +603 5634 2349Email: [email protected]/Distributor


EVERGREEN DEVELOPMENTCORPORATIONSuite # 514, 5th FloorClifton Centre, Block 5 KehkashanClifton, Karachi 75600, PakistanContact: Mr Munawar AfridiTel: 92 21 5873 448Fax: 92 21 5870 080Email: [email protected]: www.edcpl.comDealer/Distributor


ATLAS TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION22F, No 1 Bausheng RoadYunghe City, Taipei, Taiwan 234, R.O.C.Contact: Mr David LiuTel: +886 2 223 20 556Fax: +886 2 223 16 657Email: [email protected]/[email protected]: www.atlasgroup.com.twDealer/Distributor

KGIC TECHNOLOGY CO LTD No. 49 Goang Shi RoadKaohsiung 806, Taiwan R.O.C.Contact: Mr Franco LeeTel: +886 7 715 4285Fax: +886 7 715 4401Email: [email protected]: www.gictec.com.twDealer/Distributor

UNIVERSAL PATHS DEVELOPMENTCORPORATION (UPDC)Mr Terry Chung/Ms Ellie Chou9F-1, 306, Sec. 1, NeiHu RoadTaipei 114, Taiwan R.O.C.Tel: +886 2 8751 6055Fax: +886 2 8751 6053Email: [email protected]: www.updc.com.twDealer/Distributor


SWISS SECURITAS ASIA PTE LTD20, Jalan Lekar, Singapore 698931Contact: Mr Michael Boon Tel: 65 6767 1455Fax: 65 6767 0560Email: [email protected]: www.securitas.sgDealer/Distributor


SCOTT HEALTH & SAFETY –AUSTRALIA/NEW ZEALAND137 McCredie RoadGuildford, NSW 2161, AustraliaEmail: [email protected] Office



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SCOTT HEALTH & SAFETY –AUSTRALIA/NEW ZEALANDUnit 4, Deakin StreetBrendale, QLD 4500, AustraliaTel: +61 7 3804 6814Fax: +61 7 3204 3807Email: [email protected]: www.scotthealthsafety.comRepresentative Office


SHANGHAI EAGLE SAFETYEQUIPMENT LTD No. 1, Lane 955, Jinhai RdPudongShanghai Tel: +86 (0) 21 6163 3376Fax: +86 (0) 21 6163 3372 Website: www.eagle-sh.comDealer/Distributor


SCOTT HEALTH & SAFETYNo. 2 Serangoon North Avenue 5#07-01Singapore 554911Contact: Tom BarrettTel: +(65) 9823-5700Fax: +(65) 6245-6718Email: [email protected] Office


SOLBERG ASIA PACIFIC PTY LTD P.O. Box 182 Kingswood NSW 2747Australia Contact: Ted SchaeferTechnical Manager Tel: 61 2 9673 5300 Email: [email protected] Website: www.solbergfoams.com Representative Office


RHINOSHIELD INDUSTRIES(M) SDNBHD H-0-5 Ground Floor Plaza DamasNo. 60 Jalan Sri Hartamas 1 Sri Hartamas50480 Kuala LumpurMalaysia Contact: C. K. LimGeneral Manager Tel: +603 62033850 Fax: +603 62032245 Email: [email protected]/Distributor


GAAM EMERGENCY PRODUCTS29 Temple Dr., P.O. Box 211Thomastown, Victoria 3074AustraliaTel: +61 3 9466 1244Fax: 61 3 9466 4743Email: [email protected]: www.gaam.com.auDealer/Distributor


SHANGHAI JINDE INDUSTRYDEVELOPMENT CO LTDRoom 610, 1 Lane 50Xin Cun Road, Shanghai, 200065, ChinaTel: +86 21-360-50599Fax: +86 21-360-55599Email: [email protected]/Distributor


ROTTER INTERNATIONAL LIMITEDUnit A G/F. Hung To Road, 6-8 Hung To RoadKowloon, Hong KongTel: 85227517770Fax: 85227562051Email: [email protected]/Distributor


FOREMOST TECHNICO PVT LIMITEDM-1, Green Park ExtensionNew Delhi 110016, IndiaTel: +91 (11) 2619 6997Fax: +91 (11) 2616 6961Dealer/Distributor

Mumbai Resi./Office: 803, 8th FloorBldg. No. 23 COpp., Jalvayu ViharHiranandani Gardens, PowaiMumbai – 400 076Email: [email protected]: www.tca.co.in


PT PALMAS ENTRACOJl. Krekot 85, Jakarta-PusatIndonesiaTel: +62 (21) 384 1681Fax: +62 (21) 380 2660Email: [email protected]/Distributor


YONE CORPORATION23, Nishinakaai-ChoNishinokyoNakagyo-Ku, Kyoto 604, JapanTel: +81 (7) 582-11185Fax: +81 (7) 580-12263Email: [email protected]: www.yone-co.co.jpDealer/Distributor


SHILLA FIRE CO LTD433-11 Non Hon-DongNam Dong-Gu, Inchon City 405-300South KoreaTel: +82-02-3665 9011Fax: +82-02-3663 9113Email: [email protected]: www.firekorea.comDealer/Distributor


CME EDARAN SDN BHDLot 19, Jalan Delima 1/1Subang Hi-Tech industrial ParkBatu Tiga, 4000 Shah AlamSelangor Darul Ehsan, MalaysiaTel: +60 (3) 56331188Fax: +60 (3) 56343838Email: [email protected]/Distributor


FIRESTOP PVT LIMITED6/B, 1st Floor, Dinar ChambersP.O. Box # 5786 West Wharf RoadKarachi-74000 Pakistan Tel: 9221-2315675, 2313065 Fax: 9221-2310457, 5831015 Email: [email protected] Website: www.firestopaids.comDealer/Distributor


ALLIANCE INDUSTRIAL SALESUnit 4Finlandia Town Homes# 1700 Diancor. Finlandia StreetBrgy, San Isidro1234 Makati CityPhilippines Tel: +63 21 7546 1749 Fax: +63 2 887 7173 Email: [email protected]/Distributor


S.K. FIRE PTE LTD8 Tuas Drive 2Singapore 638643SingaporeTel: +65 6862 3155Fax: +65 6862 0273Email: [email protected]: www.skfire.comDealer/Distributor


YONE CORPORATION23, Nishinakaai-ChoNishinokyoNakagyo-KuKyoto 604JapanTel: +81 (7) 582-11185Fax: +81 (7) 580-12263Email: [email protected]: www.yone-co.co.jpDealer/Distributor


ANTI-FIRE, CO LTD316-316/1, Sukhumvit 22 RdKlongtoey KlongtoeyBangkok10110 ThailandTel: 6622596898Fax: 6622582422Email: [email protected]: www.antifire.comDealer/Distributor


SAFETY EQUIPMENT AUSTRALIA PTYLTD35/1 Jubilee AvenueWarriewoodNSW 2102 AustraliaTel: +61 2 9910 7500Fax: +61 2 9979 5364Email: [email protected]: www.sea.com.auRepresentative Office



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An MDM PUBLICATIONIssue 29 – March 2009


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Albany Engineering 19

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Bristol Uniforms Ltd. 51

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P. 72 Subs/Ad. index 13/3/09 12:49 pm Page 72

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www.scotthealthsafety.comFor further information call Customer Services on: +44 (0) 1695 711711 quoting reference FT0309 or email [email protected]

Don't get left in the darkSee the light

The new Eagle 320 Thermal Imaging Camera features a large 10 cm screen with up to 4 x zoom and a variety of temperature indicators to ensure you have the information you need

l Maximum Temperature Indicatorl Large LCD Display with 4x Zooml Over 4.5 hour Battery Life l Ergonomic Multi Positioned Handle

Scott Health and Safety 10/3/09 3:51 pm Page 1

Page 76: APF Issue 29

Tells A Story.Every Picture

9800 Southern Pine Blvd Suite D // Charlotte, NC 28273 USA // T 704-554-3378 // F 704-554-3101 www.pbiproducts.com // E-mail: [email protected]

Galgenbergstrasse 2b // Im Posthof // D -93053 Regensburg, GermanyT +49 (0) 941 70 54 370 // F +49 (0) 941 70 54 110 // E-mail: [email protected]

© 2009. PBI Gold, PBI Matrix, Matrix and PBI TriGuard are registered trademarks of PBI Performance Products, Inc.

When it comes to firefighting, reliable protection that stands tough against heat and flame, and remains service worthy, is what

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09048_IntlMosaic_APF_0309.pdf 2/27/09 3:15:34 PM