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Organizational Behavior EMOTIONS AND MOODS 3-1

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Organizational BehaviorEMOTIONS AND MOODS

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Why Were Emotions Excluded from OB Study?

The “Myth of Rationality” Emotions were seen as irrational

Managers worked to make emotion-free environments

View of Emotionality Emotions were believed to be disruptive

Emotions interfered with productivity

Only negative emotions were observed

Now we know emotions can’t be separated from the workplace

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Affect, Emotions, and Moods

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Basic emotionsDozens of emotions including anger, contempt, enthusiasm,

envy, happiness, hate, hope, jealousy, joy, love, and sadness.

Researchers have tried to limit them to a fundamental set.

But some argue that it makes no sense to think in terms of

“basic” emotions.

Psychologists have tried to identify basic emotions by

studying facial expressions.

Many researchers agree on six essentially universal

emotions.

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Basic emotions

While not universally accepted, there appear to be six

basic emotions:

Anger

Fear

Sadness

Happiness

Disgust

Surprise

• May even be placed in a spectrum of emotion:

Happiness Surprise Fear Sadness Anger

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The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect

Positive emotions—such as joy and gratitude—express a

favorable evaluation or feeling. Negative emotions—such as

anger or guilt—express the opposite.

Emotions can’t be neutral. Being neutral is being non-

emotional.

When we group emotions into positive and negative

categories, they become mood states because we are now

looking at them more generally.

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The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect

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• Classifying Moods: Positive and Negative Affect

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The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative AffectPositive affect: a mood dimension consisting of positive

emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and

cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and

tiredness at the low end.

Negative affect: a mood dimension consisting of

nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and

relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end.

People recall negative experiences more readily than

positive ones.

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A link between emotions and decision making

The experience of Phineas Gage

An important link between emotions and rational thinking: Losing the ability to emote led to loss of the ability to reason.

Emotions provide valuable information that helps our thinking process.

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The Functions of Emotions

Research has shown that emotions are necessary for rational thinking.

They help us make better decisions and help us understand the world

around us.

If we are going to make decisions, we need to incorporate both

thinking and feeling.

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The Functions of Emotions

A growing body of research has begun to examine the relationship

between emotions and moral attitudes.

Most people who think about these situations do have at least some

sense of an emotional stirring that might prompt them to engage in

ethical actions like donating money to help others, apologizing and

attempting to make amends, or intervening on behalf of those who

have been mistreated.

People who are behaving ethically are at least partially making

decisions based on their emotions and feelings, and this emotional

reaction will often be a good thing.

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Blizzard’s efforts

Informal and physical increase positive moods.

Blizzard offers employees yoga classes,

a sand volleyball court, basketball

court, bike track, and fitness center.

Blizzard believes these activities result

in happier, healthier, and more

productive employees.

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Sources of Emotions and Moods

Personality: affect intensity

Bobby Knight and Bill Gates

The first is easily moved to anger, while the other is

relatively distant and unemotional.

Affectively intense people experience both positive and

negative emotions more deeply.

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When would you deliver bad news to your followers? Monday morning or Friday afternoon?

Day and Time of the Week

There is a common pattern for all of us

Happier in the midpoint of the daily awake period

Happier toward the end of the week

Sources of Emotions and Moods

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Our Moods Are Affected by the Day of the Week

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Our Moods Are Affected by the Time of Day

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Weather

Illusory correlation – no effect

Stress

Even low levels of constant stress can worsen moods

Social Activities

Physical, informal, and dining activities increase positive moods

Sources of Emotions and Moods

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Sleep

Poor sleep quality increases negative affect

Exercise

Does somewhat improve mood, especially for depressed people

Sources of Emotions and Moods

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Age

Older folks experience fewer negative emotions

Sex

Women tend to be more emotionally expressive, feel emotions more intensely, have longer-lasting moods, and express emotions more frequently than do men

Due more to socialization than to biology

Sources of Emotions and Moods

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High fives at Apple store

Jobs also require emotional labor.

Employees’ smiles and high fives are expressions of emotional labor that Apple requires

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Emotional Labor-An employee’s expression of

organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal

transactions at work.

Waitresses are supposed to be friendly and cheerful.

Emotional Dissonance:

Employees have to project one emotion while

simultaneously feeling another

Can be very damaging and lead to burnout

Impact emotional labor has on employees

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Types of Emotions:

Felt: the individual’s actual emotions

Displayed: required or appropriate emotions

Two levels of displayed emotions

Surface Acting: is hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules.

Deep Acting: is trying to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules.

Surface acting is more stressful to employees because it entails denying their true emotions.

Impact emotional labor has on employees

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In summary,

Emotions provide valuable insights about behavior

Emotions, and the minor events that cause them, should not be ignored at work; they accumulate

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Starbucks Barista

Hiring employees with high emotional intelligence is important.

Selects baristas who relate well to customers, connect with them, and uplift their lives.

Emotional intelligence plays an important role in job performance

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Emotional intelligence

A person’s ability to:

Be self-aware (to recognize his or her own emotions as experienced),

Detect emotions in others, and

Manage emotional cues and information.

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Emotional intelligence and job performanceModerately associated with high job performance

A study on U.S presidents

Successful presidents:

Unsuccessful presidents:

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Emotional Intelligence on Trial

The case for:

Intuitive appeal – it makes sense

EI predicts criteria that matter –positively correlated to high job performance

Study suggests that EI is neurologically based

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Emotional Intelligence on Trial

The case against:

EI is too vague a concept

EI can’t be measured

EI is so closely related to intelligence and personality that it is not unique when those factors are controlled

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Apply Emotions to OB Issues

Selection

EI should be a hiring factor, especially for social jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction

At L’Oreal, salespersons selected on EI scores outsold those hired using the company’s old selection procedure

Decision Making

Moods and emotions have important effects on decision making.

Positive emotions also enhance problem-solving skills, so positive people find better solutions to problems.

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Apply Emotions to OB Issues

Creativity

People experiencing positive moods or emotions are

more flexible and open in their thinking, which may

explain why they’re more creative.

Supervisors should actively try to keep employees

happy because doing so creates more good moods,

which in turn leads people to be more creative.

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Apply Emotions to OB Issues Motivation

The positive-mood people reported higher expectations

of being able to solve the puzzles, worked harder at

them, and solved more puzzles as a result.

Giving people performance feedback influences their

mood, which then influenced their motivation.

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Apply Emotions to OB IssuesLeadership

Effective leaders rely on emotional appeals to help convey

their messages.

The expression of emotions in speeches is often the

critical element that makes us accept or reject a leader’s

message.

By arousing emotions, increase the likelihood that

managers and employees alike will accept message.

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Apply Emotions to OB Issues

Customer Services Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which

affects customer relationships Employees’ emotions can transfer to the customer: Emotional

Contagion - “catching” emotions from others

Deviant Workplace Behaviors Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that

violate norms and threaten the organization). An envious employee could backstab another employee,

negatively distort others’ successes, and positively distort his own accomplishments.

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Apply Emotions to OB IssuesSafety and Injury at WorkDon’t do dangerous work when in a bad mood.

How Managers Can Influence Moods

Leaders who are in a good mood, use humor, and praise employees increase positive moods.

selecting positive team members can have a contagion effect because positive moods transmit from team member to team member.

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Global Implications

Does the degree to which people experience emotions vary across cultures?

Do people’s interpretations of emotions vary across cultures?

Do the norms for the expressions of emotions differ across cultures?

“YES” to all of the above!

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Keep in Mind…

Positive emotions can increase problem-solving skills

People with high EI may be more effective in their jobs

Managers need to know the emotional norms for each culture they do business with

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