Moods and Emotions
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MOODS AND EMOTIONS
PRESENTED TO: Mr. AAMER NADEEM
GROUP NAME: RESPONSIBLE
GROUP LEADER: AKHTAR HUSSAIN CHUGHTAI
PRESENTED BY: ADNAN ASLAM KHAN
AKHTAR HUSSAIN CHUGHTAI
MUHAMMAD IHSAN UL HAQ
SUBJECT: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
SEMESTER: 3nd MBA (Morning)
January 01, 2011
This modest Endeavour is actually keened to the always uplifted hands of our
The hands ever praying for us
These hands may never fall down
“Well Wisher Mr. Aamer Nadeem”
“And which one of the favors of your Lord that you deny”
All acclamations and appreciations are for Almighty ALLAH, WHO bestowed
mankind with knowledge and wisdom, and granted him vicegerance on earth. All the respect
and honors to Hazart Muhammad (SALLALLA HO ALEHI WA’ALEHI WASLLAM)
a star brightening the path of faith and knowledge, and luminary to truth and justice who
enabled us to recognize our Creator and declared it to be obligatory duty of every Muslim to
We would like to thank our respected teacher Mr. Aamer Nadeem who has given us
this opportunity to explore our skills and made a Report on topic “Emotions & Moods”. He
has given us thorough knowledge and provides deep understanding about “Organizational
Behavior” because of that we are able to complete this report.
How can we overlook to articulate my admiration and unfathomable sagacity of
appreciation from core of our heart to our loving parents who always considered us in their
prayers and bestowed us with this blessing of higher education. Appreciation and thanks to
our brothers and sisters for their excellent co-operation and encouragement.
May ALLAH bestow strength and contentment to all these splendid celebrities (Aamin).
Emotions are the feelings experienced towards an object, person or event that create a
state of readiness. Emotions tend to last for much shorter periods. Emotions also tend to be
more extreme than moods and temperament, with higher highs and lower lows. We can
become very angry very quickly, though it is difficult to stay very angry and it may subside
into a irritable mood or be replaced by another completely different emotions. Some
examples of a human's common emotions include happiness, sadness, joy, depression, love,
anger, and so on. They can also be divided into positive and negative sub-categories. Moods
are shorter-term emotional states, typically lasting hours, although they can last for days or
longer. A mood dimension is consisted of Positive Emotions such as Excitement,
Cheerfulness at High End and Boredom, Tiredness at Low End. It consists Nervousness,
Stress, and Anxiety at higher end and Relaxation, Tranquility at the Low End. Affect is a
generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience and encompasses
both emotions and moods.. Emotions are caused by significant life events whereas moods
emerge from ill defined, often unknown, causes. There are different dimension of emotions
like variety, intensity, frequency and duration and biology of emotions. Ther are so many
functions of emotions and moods. Emotions communicate information to other people.
Emotions get us ready to act. Emotions deepen our experience of life. Emotions have
different resources. Personality predisposes people to experience certain moods and
emotions. Evidence suggests that whether has little effect on mood. Stress affects emotions
and moods. Sleep also effect emotions. Exercise enhances people’s positive mood. Age and
gender also influence emotions. External constraints like organizations and culture also have
effect on emotions and moods. A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally
desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Felt emotions are an individual’s actual
emotions. Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered
appropriate in a given job. AET demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things that
happen to them at work and that this influences their job performance and satisfaction.
Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions.
Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while
other claim it is an inborn characteristic. We are confining our discussion of emotions and
moods by considering their specific application to OB. Selections, leadership, decision
making, motivation, job attitudes and creativity are different fields in which emotions and
moods are applied.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GROUP NAME: RESPONSIBLE.......................................................................................................1
GROUP LEADER: AKHTAR HUSSAIN CHUGHTAI..............................................................................1
Positive and Negative Emotions........................................................................................................8
FUNCTIONS OF EMOTIONS.....................................................................................................13
Increasing Your Awareness of Your Emotions....................................................................14
Managing Your Emotions....................................................................................................14
AFFECTIVE EVENTS THEORY.........................................................................................................18
MYTH OF RATIONALITY
Organizations have been specifically designed with the objective of trying to control
emotions. A well-run organization was one that successfully eliminated frustration, fear,
anger, love, hate, joy, grief, and similar feelings.
EMOTIONS AND MOODS
“Feelings experienced towards an object, person or event that create a state of readiness”
Mood and emotion are experienced everyday by every individual. Emotions as
commonly experienced and discussed are different from moods and temperament in several
First, emotions tend to last for much shorter periods. The delight at being given a
birthday present may subside in minutes as it is replaced by disappointment about a useless
gift. Emotions thus tend to replace one another and it can be difficult to be both happy and
sad (although we may have a good go at it).
Emotions also tend to be more extreme than moods and temperament, with higher
highs and lower lows. We can become very angry very quickly, though it is difficult to stay
very angry and it may subside into a irritable mood or be replaced by another completely
Emotions tend to be very specific, triggered by noticeable events and are immediate
reactions to these and which drive us to particular actions, for example running away from a
snarling dog or going to chat up an attractive other person.
Emotion is a mental state which makes us to feel and behave in a certain way. For
example when we experience the emotion of fear, we feel scared and we flee as a direct
result of it. Our body also responds to the emotions and our physiology changes according to
how we feel. For example we fall sick when we are deeply saddened or we glow radiantly
when we are extremely happy.
In fact, emotions are the most important aspect of our mental life which contributes
to the quality of our existence. Without our emotions, life is not worth living. It's also
important to us how the people whom we deal with feel. We look at each others faces to
judge the moods we are in. We use the expression of our emotion to let others know how we
feel. The true feelings of a human also can be judged by the tone of the voice, bodily posture
and body language.
Some examples of a human's common emotions include happiness, sadness, joy,
depression, love, anger, and so on.
Interestingly, over six hundred English words are used to define human emotions and
forty two facial muscles are used to express emotional states. Online communication can be
difficult without these words and physical indications; this is where emoticons come into
play. The right emoticon or smiley can convey the exact message that you would be sending
in face-to-face communication. We have a broad range of emoticons for this purpose, so feel
free to take your pick. The emoticons have been neatly organized into categories such as
Sad, Angry, Happy, etc so you can easily find the right smiley.
Positive and Negative Emotions
Emotions can be divided into two groups of simple and complex emotions. They can
also be divided into positive and negative sub-categories.
Positive emotions that lead one to feel good about one’s self will lead to an
emotionally happy and satisfied adult, whereas if one is always feeling dissatisfied and
unhappy due to feelings of depression, anger, fear or low self esteem will lead to behavioral
Love is a very basic and necessary emotion. If a child is nurtured in a loving family
where all members respect and love each other, he or she will develop into an adult who
behaves in a manner similar to the behavioral patterns that he or she learned as a child.
If love does not exist in a family and the family is dysfunctional, severe behavioral disorders
can develop in the children. There have been scientific studies done where animals have died
from lack of love and nurturing.
If the child is raised in an atmosphere of anger and hostility, that child will develop
into a very troubled adult who thinks that angry and hostile feelings are normal. As an adult,
he or she will have many difficulties in developing an intimate relationship with a partner
and will need to learn what love is and how to respond in a loving manner to a partner.
At that point, he or she will need to learn how to give the love and nurturing feelings
to one’s self before being able to give them to another.
Moods are shorter-term emotional states, typically lasting hours, although they can
last for days or longer. For example you may wake up feeling a bit down and stay that way
for most of the day.
We can be sent into a mood by an unexpected event, from the happiness of seeing an
old friend to the anger of discovering betrayal by a partner. We may also just fall into a
Medical conditions such as depression are not really moods and are typically caused
by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Moods can be caused by shorter-term chemical
imbalances, for example brought on by a poor diet.
Moods are less intense comparing to the simple emotions. Generally, when you are in
a positive emotional state you can say you are in a good mood, and to the contrary, when you
feel negative emotions, you would express yourself by saying that you are in bad mood.
MOODS: POSITIVE and NEGATIVE
A mood dimension is consisted of Positive Emotions such as Excitement,
Cheerfulness at High End and Boredom, Tiredness at Low End.
It consists Nervousness, Stress, and Anxiety at higher end and Relaxation,
Tranquility at the Low End. Positive and Negative Mood Affect our Perceptions and
Perception affect the Behavior.
e.g., an unhappy flight attendant
How people feel when they perform their jobs, are more transitory than values and
attitudes, changing from day to day, hour to hour, or minute to minute. Moods are
categorized as either positive or negative. Positive moods include feeling excited,
enthusiastic, active, strong, peppy, or elated. Negative moods include feeling distressed,
fearful, scornful, hostile, jittery, or nervous. Moods can also be less intense. A worker might
simply feel drowsy, sluggish, calm, placid, and relaxed.
Experiencing different moods depends on a worker’s personality and the situation.
Workers high on the trait of positive affectivity experience positive moods at work, whereas
those high on the trait of negative affectivity experience negative moods. Both major and
minor situational factors, such as receiving a promotion or coming to work in bad weather,
can influence a worker’s mood.
Mood has importance consequences for organizational behavior. Research suggests
that positive moods promote creativity, result in helpfulness to coworkers and customers,
and increase the performance of subordinates. Negative moods result in more accurate
judgments (e.g., a performance appraisal). Both positive and negative moods influence
decision making. Because managers can do many things to promote positive moods, work
moods are receiving additional attention from researchers.
Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience
and encompasses both emotions and moods. One way to classify emotions is by whether
they are positive or negative. Positive affect is a mood dimension consisting of positive
emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end, and boredom,
sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end. Negative affect is a mood dimension consisting of
nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end, and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the
Angry Emoticons Sad Emoticons
Happy Emoticons Laughing Emoticons
EMOTIONS VS. MOODS
Emotions are caused by significant life events whereas moods emerge from ill defined, often
Emotions influence behaviors while mood influences cognitions.
Emotions are short lived events that last seconds or minutes. On the other hand, moods are
mental events that can last hours or days. In short, emotions are less enduring than moods.
Moods tend to be noted as either positive or negative whereas Ekman and Davidson's noted
six basic emotions; fear, anger, disgust, sadness, joy or happiness and interest. These six
basic emotions can also be noted as either positive or negative. Fear, anger, disgust and
sadness are negative emotions and joy/happiness and interest are positive emotions.
Mood is something a person may not express whereas emotions may be expressed.
Emotions are aroused in people by some specific objects or situations. On the other hand,
moods are not created in someone because of any specific object or any particular situation.
For example, if a person gets angry, he expresses that emotion towards someone. If a person
is in a sad mood, he cannot express it to others.
When compared to moods, emotions are more extreme.
MOODS VS. AFFECT
Mood also differs from affect. Mood is an overall state of being, normally referred to as
either positive or negative. Whereas affect is the experience of emotions.
Affect is more commonly seen than moods, normally through facial or vocal expressions or
EMOTIONS AND DIMENSIONS
There are many emotions. Six universal emotions have been identified: anger, fear,
sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise. Emotions are identified along a continuum from
positive to negative. The closer any two emotions are to each other on this continuum, the
more people are likely to confuse them.
People give different responses to identical emotion-provoking stimuli. Sometimes this
can be attributed to personality. People vary in their inherent ability to express intensity from
never showing feelings to displaying extreme happiness or sadness. Jobs make different
intensity demands in terms of emotional labor. For example, air traffic controllers must
remain calm even in stressful situations.
Frequency And Duration
Emotional labor that requires high frequency or long duration is more demanding and
requires more exertion by employees. Whether or not the employee can successfully meet
the emotional demands of a job depends on both the intensity of the emotions displayed and
for how long the effort has to be made.
Biology Of Emotions
Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system, the
neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant
mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain.
Defined as such, these emotional states are specific manifestations of non-verbally expressed
feelings of agreement, amusement, anger, certainty, control, disagreement, disgust, disliking,
embarrassment, fear, guilt, happiness, hate, interest, liking, love, sadness, shame, surprise,
More recent research has shown that some of these limbic structures are not as directly
related to emotion as others are, while some non-limbic structures have been found to be of
greater emotional relevance.
FUNCTIONS OF EMOTIONS
“The expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals”.
He said that Emotions are Useful because they motivate people to engage in actions
important for Survival.
Listed below are some of the very important things that emotions do for us.
Emotions Communicate Information to Other People
Our emotions tell other people how we are feeling. For example, the expression of anger
may tell someone that we should be left alone, or anxiety and sadness may tell someone that
we need help.
Emotions Provide Us with Information
Emotions give us information about our environment. For example, when we experience
anxiety, we are given information that we may be in danger. When we experience anger, we
might be provided with information that we do not have control or that someone has violated
our rights in some way. Our emotions are our bodies' way of communicating with us.
Emotions Get Us Ready to Act
Emotions allow us to respond quickly and motivate us to act in certain ways. Because our
emotions provide us with information about our environment, they also guide us in acting in
ways that are appropriate to the situation. For example, when you sense danger or threat, you
may respond by leaving the situation.
Emotions Deepen Our Experience of Life
Life would be very boring without emotions. We need both our positive (happiness,
excitement, joy) and negative (anger, anxiety, sadness) emotions. We may sometimes wish
that we could get rid of all of our negative emotions; however, the experience of negative
emotions is necessary to make positive emotions feel positive.
Increasing Your Awareness of Your Emotions
Our emotions are necessary and important. However, the only way we can learn from
our emotions is if we have awareness of them when they occur. Therefore, it can be
important to learn ways of increasing your awareness of your emotions. The more aware you
are of your emotions, the better able you will be in hearing what they have to say.
Managing Your Emotions
Now, just because emotions serve an important function does not mean that they
aren't stressful at times. Emotions, especially very intense ones, can be overwhelming.
Therefore, it can be helpful to learn ways to bring down the intensity of emotions so you can
better approach it and learn from it. There are a number of healthy ways of managing your
emotions that can help make your emotions feel less unpredictable and uncontrollable.
Even though emotions may sometimes feel unpleasant, they are all working for us in some
way. By listening to our emotions, we can get some important information about our
environment and ourselves.
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS
Personality predisposes people to experience certain moods and emotions. Some
people feel guilt and anger more readily than others do. Some people may feel calm and
relaxed no matter whatever the situation is. Microsoft CEO Bill Gates is known for his
relatively distant, unemotional, analytical nature. He rarely displays Anger. Emotions differ
in their Intensity, but people also differ in how predisposed they are to experience emotions
Day Of The Week And Time Of The Day
People tend to be in worst moods (Highest negative mood and lowest positive mood)
early in the weekdays and
in their best moods late in the week, especially on the weekends. People are generally in low
spirits early in the morning. During the course of the day our moods tend to improve and
then decline in the evening. Levels of positive mood tend to peak around the halfway point
between Waking and Sleeping
Evidence suggests that whether has little effect on mood.
Stress affects emotions and moods.
They increase positive mood and have little effect on negative mood. They also have
Long-term health benefits.
Sleep quality affects mood.
Less and Poor Sleep quality, puts people
in a bad mood is because it impairs
decision making and makes it difficult to
control emotions. It also impairs people’s job satisfaction the next day mostly because
people feel fatigued, irritable and Less Alert.
Exercise enhances people’s positive mood. While exercise is not, on its own, a
treatment for clinical depression; studies show that exercise can help improve mood
temporarily in depressed individuals. In fact, for people with mild or moderate depression,
30 minutes of intense exercise can be as effective as medication for improving mood. People
who do not respond to depression medications may show improvement in mood when they
Emotional experience tends to improve with Ages
that as we get older, we experience fewer negative
Women show greater emotional expression than men and
experience emotions more intensely. Women are better at reading nonverbal cues than
the men. Men and Women are socialized in different ways Women have innate ability to
read others and
present their emotions than do men because Women have a greater need for social approval.
Can show greater emotional expression.
Experience emotions more intensely.
Display emotions more frequently.
Are more comfortable in expressing emotions.
Are better at reading others’ emotions.
Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image.
Are innately less able to read and to identify with others’ emotions.
Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions.
EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON EMOTIONS
Every organization defines boundaries that identify what emotions are acceptable and
the degree to which they can be expressed. The same applies in different cultures.
There is no single emotional “set” sought by all organizations.
In the United States, there is a bias against negative and intense emotions. Expressions of
negative emotions such as fear, anxiety, and anger tend to be unacceptable except under
fairly specific conditions.
Consistent with the myth of rationality, well-managed organizations are expected to be
Cultural norms in the United States dictate that employees in service organizations should
smile and act friendly when interacting with customers. But this norm does not apply
Cultures differ in terms of the interpretation they give to emotions. There tends to be high
agreement on what emotions mean within cultures but not between cultures. For example,
smiling is often seen as an expression of happiness by Americans. However, in Israel,
smiling by cashiers is seen as being inexperienced.
Studies indicate that some cultures lack words for such standard emotions as anxiety,
depression, or guilt.
A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during
Emotional labor creates dilemmas for employees when their job requires them to
exhibit emotions incongruous with their actual feelings. It is a frequent occurrence. For
example, when there are people that you have to work with whom you find it very difficult
to be friendly toward. You are forced to feign friendliness.
Another example, if you are a customer service representative, the 50 th person
asking the same question must be answered as thoroughly as you served the first person.
Otherwise, you are not doing your job of providing customer service because that 50 th
person has no idea that you’ve answered the same question 50 times. They just need an
Felt versus Displayed Emotions
Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions.
Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate
in a given job. They are learned.
AFFECTIVE EVENTS THEORY
Understanding emotions at work has been significantly helped by a model called
affective events theory (AET). AET demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things
that happen to them at work and that this influences their job performance and satisfaction.
The theory begins by recognizing that emotions are a response to an event in the
individual work environment. The work environment includes everything surrounding the
job characteristics of the job such as the variety of tasks and degree of autonomy, job
demands, and requirements for expressing emotional labor. This environment created work
events that can be hassles, uplifts, or both.
Examples of events that employees frequently see as hassles are colleagues who
refuse to carry their share of work, conflicting directions by different by different mangers,
and excessive time pressures. Examples of uplifting events include meeting a goal, getting
support from a colleague and receiving recognition for an accomplishment.
Implications of The Theory
In addition, tests of the theory suggest that,
An emotional episode is actually a series of emotional experiences precipitated by a single
event. It reflects elements of both emotions and mood cycles;
Job satisfaction is influenced by current emotions at any given time along with the history of
emotions surrounding the event;
Since moods and emotions fluctuate over time, their effect on performances also fluctuates;
Emotion driven behaviors are typically short in duration and of high variability;
Because emotions tend to be incompatible with behaviors required to do a job, they typically
have a negative influence on job performance (even for positive emotions like happiness and
Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate
emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and
strengthened, while other claim it is an inborn characteristic.
Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on
emotional intelligence. In their influential article “Emotional Intelligence,” they defined
emotional intelligence as, “the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to
monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use
this information to guide one's thinking and actions” (1990).
Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of
emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the
ability to understand emotion, and the ability to manage emotions.
According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are, "arranged
from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated
processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of
perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the
conscious, reflective regulation of emotion" (1997).
Self-awareness. Being aware of what you are feeling.
Self-management. The ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses.
Self-motivation. The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures.
Empathy. The ability to sense how others are feeling.
Social skills. The ability to handle the emotions of others.
OB APPLICATIONS OF UNDERSTANDING EMOTIONS
We are confining our discussion of emotions and moods by considering their specific
application to OB. we assess how an understanding of emotions and moods can improve our
ability to explain and predict the selection process in organizations, decision making,
creativity motivation, leadership, interpersonal conflict, negotiation, customer service, job
attitudes and deviant workplace behaviors. We also look at how managers can influence our
Ability and Selection
Emotions affect employee effectiveness. Ability and Selection: People who know their own
emotions and are good at reading others’ emotions may be more effective in their jobs.
Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations.
Traditional approaches to the study of decision making in organizations have emphasized
rationality. That approach is probably naïve. People use emotions as well as rational and
intuitive processes in making decisions.
Negative emotions can result in a limited search for new alternatives and a less vigilant use
Positive emotions can increase problem solving and facilitate the integration of information.
Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked.
Motivation theories basically propose that individuals “are motivated to the extent that their
behavior is expected to lead to desired outcomes.”
The image is that of rational exchange. People’s perceptions and calculations of situations
are filled with emotional content that significantly influences how much effort they exert.
Not everyone is emotionally engaged in their work, but many are.
Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.
The ability to lead others is a fundamental quality sought by organizations.
Effective leaders almost all rely on the expression of feelings to help convey their messages
and is often the critical element that results in individuals accepting or rejecting a leader’s
When effective leaders want to implement significant changes, they rely on “the evocation,
framing, and mobilization of emotions.’’
Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined.
Whenever conflicts arise, you can be fairly certain that emotions are also surfacing.
A manager’s success in trying to resolve conflicts, in fact, are often largely due to his or her
ability to identify the emotional elements in the conflict and to get the conflicting parties to
work through their emotions.
Deviant Workplace Behaviors
Negative emotions can lead to employee deviance in the form of actions that violate
established norms and threaten the organization and its members.
Property theft and destruction
Ever hear the advice “Never take your work home with you, meaning that people should
forget about their work once they go home? As it turns out, that’s easier said than done.
Several studies have shown that people who had a good day at work tend to be in a better
mood at home that evening. And people who had a bad day tend to be a bad mood once
they’re at home. Evidence also suggests that people who have a stressful day at work have
trouble relaxing once they get off work.
People who are in good moods are more creative than people in bad moods, say some
researchers. They produce more ideas, others think their ideas are original, and they tend to
identify more creative options to problems.
It seems that people who are experiencing positive moods or emotions are more flexible
and open in their thinking, which may explain why they’re more creative. Supervisors should
actively try to keep employees happy because this will create more good moods. Employees
like their leaders to encourage them and provide positive feedback on a job well done, which
in turn leads people to be more creative.
Some researchers, however, do not believe that a positive mood makes people more
creative. They argue that when people are in positive, moods, they may relax. If in a good
mood, things must be going OK, and must not need to think of new ideas and not engage in
the critical thinking necessary for some forms of creativity. However, this view is
controversial. Until there are more studies on the subject, we can safely conclude that for
many tasks, positive moods increase our creativity.
Schinnerer, J.L. (2007), Guide to Self: The Beginner's Guide to Managing Emotion and
Gratz, K.L. (2009). An Acceptance-Based Emotion Regulation Group Therapy for
Linehan, M.M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder.
New York, NY: Guilford Press.