Transportation on Vacation: Cruise Ships and their Impacts

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  • Transportation on Vacation:Cruise Ships and their Impacts

  • http://www.bluewaternetwork.org

    Click on image to download reportin PDF format

  • 360 m longBIG SHIPSWorld's biggest cruise ships: Royal Carribeans Oasis of the Seas (2009) Allure of the Seas (2010)3.6 Canadian football fields / 4.9 Thai football fields long6296 passengers

  • BIG SHIPSWorld's 2nd biggest cruise ship: Royal Carribeans "Freedom of the Seas 338.91 m / 3,634 passengers

  • BIG SHIPSWorld's 3rd largest cruise ship: Cunards Queen Mary 2345 m / 3056 passengers

  • THE BIGGEST SHIPSCruise ships keep getting bigger:Year Passengers Ship Cost ($US)1996 1,800 $400 million2006 3,600 $720 million 2010 6,296 $1.4 billion

    Royal Carribeans Oasis of the Seas 6,296 passengers 225,282 tonnes 360 metres (1,181 ft) long 47 m (154 ft) wide Cruising speed: 22.6 knots (41.9 km / hr)

  • BIG FLEETSTotal ships operating in U.S.1996: 1312006: 200 Number of new shipsnine or more new cruise ships added globally every year since 2001, all at 100,000GT or greater.

  • BIG GROWTH5 million 19 million 47%

    Number of passengers taking a cruise in 1996Number of passengers taking cruises in 2011Increase in cruise passengers 2001-2006

  • BIG GROWTHSource: UNWTO (2010): Cruise Tourism Current Situation and Trends

  • BIG GROWTHSource: UNWTO (2010): Cruise Tourism Current Situation and Trends

  • BIG BUSINESSThere are approximately 64 operational cruise lines registered worldwide in 2012

    A US $29.4 billion dollar industry in 2011

  • BIG BUSINESS Carnival and Royal Caribbean together control most cruise line brands and 80 percent of the market: Profits of > $US 3.0 billion in 2005

  • BILLION DOLLAR CRUISING

    88% of the worlds supply of cruise ship bed-places is controlled by three large groups:

    Carnival Corporation & PlcRoyal Caribbean Ltd. Star Cruisesvery close to an oligopolyThese three multi-brand groups encompass all market segments and operate very modern fleets (average age about 12 years).

  • BILLION DOLLAR CRUISING

    2005: $11 billion revenues $2.3 billion profit

    2004 $9.7 billion revenues $2.2 billion profit

    One of the largest and most profitable tourism companies in the world.

    Stayed profitable during and after 2009 economic meltdown

  • BILLION DOLLAR CRUISING

    2005 $4.9 billion revenues $716 million profit

    2004 $4.5 billion revenues $475 million profit

    Stayed profitable during and after 2009 economic meltdown

  • Additional costs of all-inclusive cruisesHidden costs and camouflaged price increases:port feestaxes (e.g., 50% of taxes returned to cruise company in Belize)fuel surcharges (not always justified) Optional onboard expenses / upselling:gratuitiesoverpriced shore excursions (100% markups typical)vertical integration (company store syndrome)controlled onshore shopping destinationscasinosphone and internet servicesalcoholic beveragescooking lessons, spa services, fitness classespremium restaurants

  • BIG INFLUENCERoyal Caribbeans lobbying costs 1997-2004Carnival Corporations lobbying costs, 1997-2004International Council of Cruise Lines lobbying costs, 1997-2004

    $900 million $2.5 million $1.6 million

  • BIG POLLUTION19 to 26 litres

    1.58 billion litres 4.8 km (3 miles) 0 kmSewage dumped per passenger per day

    Sewage dumped per year Distance from shore where raw sewage is dumped Distance from shore where treated sewage and raw graywater are dumped

  • BIG POLLUTIONSee online lists:Pollution and Environmental Violations and Fines, 1992 2012 (Only those reported in the media or public documents)http://www.cruisejunkie.com/envirofines.html

    Large Environmental Fines ($100,000 or more)http://www.cruisejunkie.com/largefines.html

  • US $25 million US $50 million

    Fines paid by cruise lines in U. S. for illegally dumping oily water and air pollution violations, 2000 - 2005 Fines paid for illegally dumping oily water and destroying coral reefs, 1995-1999

    BIG FINES

  • BIG FINES1998 and 1999. Royal Caribbean Cruises pleaded guilty to 30 charges and was fined $27 million for a fleetwide conspiracy to dump oily bilge wastewater into U.S. waters. Article:http:/www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2002/2002-11-08-cruise-dumping-side1.htmHow they did it:http://www.usatoday.com/travel/_graphics/gcruisedumping/flash.htm

  • BIG LOOPHOLES0 37Monitoring of cruise ship sewage dumping by U.S. Coast Guard in federal waters Number of years cruise ships have been exempted from discharge laws in the U.S. Clean Water Act of 1973

  • BIG LOOPHOLES0 10

    New national laws passed to control cruise ship dumping since 1973 Years without response from the U.S. EPA since Bluewater Network and 58 groups filed petition to control cruise ship pollution

  • LACK OF SPENDING ONAIR AND WATER QUALITY

    200 0

    Number of cruise ships dumping sewage in U.S. waters Number of cruise lines supporting no discharge zones in U. S. waters

  • LACK OF SPENDING ONAIR AND WATER QUALITY

    79 out of 80 20

    Number of sewage samples taken in Alaska that failed federal standards in 2005 Number of ships treating sewage to higher Alaska standards

  • LACK OF SPENDING ONAIR AND WATER QUALITYA cruise ship in Milford Sound, New Zealand, with stack exhaust gases constrained by an inversion layer

  • LACK OF SPENDING ONAIR AND WATER QUALITYPassenger excursion ship (1912 steamer TSS Earnslaw) on Lake Wakatipu, near Queenstown, New Zealand

  • LACK OF SPENDING ONAIR AND WATER QUALITY

    0 43

    Number of U. S. cruise ships with advanced air pollution controlsNumber of Swedish cruise ships, large ferries and ships with advanced air pollution controls

  • 2 6 3Number of cruise lines equipping ships to plug into shorepowerNumber of cruise ships equipped to plug into shorepowerNumber of U.S. ports equipped with shoreside power hook-ups for cruise ships

    LACK OF SPENDING ONAIR AND WATER QUALITY

  • LACK OF SPENDING ONAIR AND WATER QUALITY16 4 2 1

    Number of states where cruise ships call Number of states with cruise ship pollution lawsNumber of states with voluntary agreementsNumber of states that ban cruise ship dumping

  • U.S. FEDERAL LEGISLATION

    PROPOSED (AGAIN) 111th Congress (2009)

    History:111th Congress: H.R. 3888 Dead110th Congress: S. 2881Dead110th Congress: H.R. 6434Dead109th Congress: S. 793Dead109th Congress: H.R. 1636Dead108th Congress: S. 2271Dead108th Congress: H.R. 4101Dead

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSWaste discharges to water

    Liquid wastes:SewageGrey waterOilHazardous liquid wastes

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSWaste discharges to water

    Solid wastes:inorganicorganic (primarily food wastes)

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSWaste discharges to air

    Master and slave enginesMaster engines: used for propulsionSlave engines: used for electricity generation Marine engines generally burn cheap residual fuel oil of low quality (bunker oil, not standard diesel fuel).

  • Air QualityA cruise ships diesel engines can emit as much exhaust as 10,000 cars, even when idling in port.

  • Air QualityNew fuel formulations containing glycerol and surfactants have improved emissions, but cost more Science Daily, Aug. 2012

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSWaste discharges to air: Solid waste incinerator emissions:gaseous emissionsparticulate emissionsgreenhouse gases Annex VI of MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships) is concerned with the prevention of air pollution from ships.

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSSome progress:EPA's Clean Diesel Locomotive and Marine program

    Audio Soundbite: Stephen L. Johnson,EPA AdministratorListen to or download the audio file (MP3, 0:21 secs, 514 KB)

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSBiosecurity risks:

    Hull fouling by organismsOrganisms in ballast waterUndeclared food items, plants, and animals taken on or off shipsBio-stowaways (rats, vermin, etc.)

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSRisks from maritime accidents

    LeaksFuel spillsPhysical wreckageHazardous substancesSalvage operation impacts

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSEffects on wildlife

    Behavioural disturbancesAvoidance behaviourAdaptation to humansScavenging behaviourDirect safety threatsCollisions

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSIncreased Turbidity

    Sediment stirring and disturbance from propulsion and wakes of shipIncreased wave actionDirect discharge of solid matterCoastal / shoreline erosion

  • A plume of silt stirred up by a cruise ship in Key West stays in suspension and is carried by the tides to smother the only living coral reef in North America.

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSAnchor damage

    Mechanical damage to sea floorDragging damage

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSAntifouling chemicals

    Heavy metalsToxic compoundsHull paint flaking

  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CRUISE SHIPSImpacts on shore communities

    Water consumption and pollutionSewageEnergy and fuel useSouvenir and artifact production and sale Food consumption and distribution

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