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  • First Steps Second Edition is the result of over a decade of reflection by practising teachers. It draws upon contemporary research and developments in the field of literacy learning that have occurred since the release of the original First Steps materials. First Steps Second Edition makes practical connections between assessment, teaching and learning and caters for diverse needs within a classroom.

    The texts and professional development courses provide a strategic whole-school approach to improving students literacy outcomes. Each strand of First Steps Second Edition consists of two texts and a CD-ROM.

    The Maps of Development enable teachers to assess the development of students and to link appropriate instruction to phases of development. A comprehensive range of practical teaching and learning experiences is provided at each phase.

    A Resource Book for each strand offers concise theory and practical ideas for enhancing teaching practice.

    CD-ROMs in each Map of Development Book, provide teachers with recording sheets, a range of assessment teaching and learning formats and ideas to help parents support their childs literacy development.

    The Linking Assessment, Teaching and Learning Book is a companion to all texts within the First Steps resource and includes information applicable to all strands of literacy, together with practical support and ideas to help teachers link assessment, teaching and learning.

    ISBN 978-1-921321-15-3

    9

    781921 321153

    First Steps Secon

    d Ed

    ition Speaking and Listening Resource Book

    Addressing Current Literacy Challenges

    Speaking and Listening Resource Book

    Speaking and Listening Resource Book

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    FIRST005 | Speaking and listening resource book Department of Education WA 2013Reviewed August 2013

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

  • Acknowledgments

    The authors and publisher would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce the copyright material in this book.For photographs: Bill Thomas/Imagen pps.3, 27, 46, 86, 92, 100, 108, 136; Getty Images p.105; Jason Edwards Photography pps.1, 19, 55, 63, 80, 84, 93, 97, 99, 128, 182, 185.

    Thanks to Hillsmeade Primary School and Bentleigh Secondary College.

    Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. The publisher would welcome any information from people who believe they own copyright to material in this book.

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    First steps. Speaking and listening resource book Department of Education WA 2013ISBN: 978-0-7307-4515-0SCIS: 1600407

    Reviewed August 2013 Department of Education WA 2013 FIRST005 | Speaking and listening resource book

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

  • Authors Acknowledgements

    The First Steps writing team acknowledges everyone who contributed to the development of this resource. We give our grateful thanks to the following people:

    All teachers and students who were involved in the preparation of units of work, trialling the materials and offering feedback.

    Those students and teachers who provided us with great work samples and transcripts to enhance the text. Special thanks to Vicki Brockhoff for her work in the creation and collection of many of these work samples.

    The contribution made to the development of these materials by the research into oral language published by Professor Rhonda Oliver and Dr Yvonne Haig from Edith Cowan University, and Dr Judith Rochecouste from the University of Melbourne.

    The authors of the original First Steps edition, developed by the Department of Education of Western Australia, and the efforts of the many individuals who contributed to that resource.

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    FIRST005 | Speaking and listening resource book Department of Education WA 2013 Reviewed August 2013

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

  • ContentsIntroduction 1The Explicit Teaching of Speaking and Listening 2

    Chapter 1Use of TextsOverview 3Section 1: Procedures for Teaching Speaking

    and Listening 5 Using a Range of Instructional Procedures 5 What Are Procedures for Teaching Speaking

    and Listening? 5 Modelled Speaking and Listening 8 Language in Action 10 Substantive Conversations 13 Exploratory Talk 16 Investigating Language in a Communicative

    Environment 20 Scaffolding 24 Small-Group Inquiry 28 Embedding Speaking and Listening within

    the Classroom 33

    Section 2: The Functions of Oral Language 41 Developing Communicative Competence in

    the Functions of Language 45 Discussions 46 Extended Conversations 53 Partner and Small-Group Work 56 Oral Reports 64 Questioning and Inquiry 67 Interviews 76 Meetings 82 Arguments and Informal Debates 85 Interest Talks 90 Storytelling and Anecdotes 94

    Chapter 2Contextual Understanding 100Overview 100Section 1: Developing Contextual

    Understanding for Speaking and Listening 101

    Situational Context 101 Socio-cultural Context 102 What Students Need to Know 102 Developing Critical Awareness 118 Embedding Speaking and Listening within

    the Classroom 119

    Chapter 3Conventions 128Overview 128Section 1: Effective Teaching of Conventions 129 Analyse a Context 130 Select a Focus 130

    Section 2: Developing Understanding of Conventions 132

    Conventions of Social Interaction 132 Formulaic Speaking and Listening 134 Vocabulary 137 Developing Grammar 141 Features of Spoken Language 143 Embedding the Conventions of Speaking

    and Listening within the Classroom 147

    Chapter 4Processes and Strategies 151Overview 151Section 1: Speaking and Listening Processes

    and Strategies 152 Developing Metalinguistic Awareness 152 What Are the Speaking and Listening

    Strategies? 153 What Are the Speaking and Listening

    Processes? 158 Teaching the Speaking and Listening

    Processes and Strategies 159 Developing Metacognitive Awareness 164 Speaking Process: Overview 165 Speaking Process: Planning and Preparing 166 Speaking Process: Managing Speaking 184 Speaking Process: Reflecting, Reviewing

    and Refining 186

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    FIRST005 | Speaking and listening resource book Department of Education WA 2013 Reviewed August 2013

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  • Listening Process: Overview 187 Listening Process: Planning and Preparing 189 Listening Process: Managing Listening 194 After Listening: Reflecting, Reviewing and

    Refining 201

    Glossary 202Bibliography 204

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    FIRST005 | Speaking and listening resource book Department of Education WA 2013 Reviewed August 2013

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  • Introduction builds on the original First Steps speaking and listening text (formerly known as the Oral Language Resource Book) by drawing on contemporary research and developments in the field of spoken language and its importance for students social and academic development. The new Speaking and Listening Resource Book, used in conjunction with the First Steps Speaking and Listening Map of Development Second Edition, has a strong focus on supporting teachers as they implement a dynamic interactive model of speaking and listening.

    The First Steps Speaking and Listening Resource Book will help teachers focus on the explicit teaching of the different forms of spoken language; speaking and listening processes, strategies and conventions; and the contextual aspects associated with composing and understanding oral texts. Teachers will find the information relevant for all phases of speaking and listening development, and will be able to apply the ideas and suggestions with all students in their classroom.

    CD-ROM icons appear throughout the First Steps Speaking and Listening Resource Book. They indicate that a practical format is available on the Speaking and Listening CD-ROM (included in the First Steps Speaking and Listening Map of Development Second Edition). The CD-ROM contains activity formats, recording sheets and resource lists, as well as teaching, learning and assessment frameworks. The First Steps Linking Assessment, Teaching and Learning book is also a useful companion resource.

    1Figure 1.1

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    The First Steps Speaking and Listening Resource Book

    FIRST005 | Speaking and listening resource book Department of Education WA 2013 Reviewed August 2013

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

  • 2

    The Explicit Teaching of Speaking and ListeningTeaching students to become effective speakers and listeners cannot be simplified, as speaking and listening and their accompanying behaviours are involved in almost everything students and teachers do throughout the day. The teachers role is to ensure that students develop the confidence to become effective speakers and listeners in order to meet their future needs in social, academic, family and community contexts.

    To effectively teach speaking and listening, teachers need to provide meaningful opportunities for students to talk for a range of purposes. Teachers also need to explicitly teach the components of different types of discourse, e.g. planned and unplanned, formal and informal, dialogue and monologue, public and private. Teachers can significantly assist students by discussing the demands o