Seven Deadly Sins

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Seven deadly sins 1 Seven deadly sins Hieronymus Bosch's The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things The Seven Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, is a classification of objectionable vices that have been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct followers concerning fallen humanity's tendency to sin. The currently recognized version of the list is usually given as anger, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony. The Catholic Church divides sin into two categories: "venial sins", which are relatively minor and can be forgiven through any sacramentals or sacraments of the Church (as well as through prayer and acts of charity), and the more severe "grave" or mortal sins. Theologically, a mortal sin is believed to destroy the life of grace within the person and thus creates the threat of eternal damnation. "Mortal sin, by attacking the vital principle within us - that is, charity - necessitates a new initiative of God's mercy and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished [for Catholics] within the setting of the sacrament of reconciliation." [1] The Deadly Sins do not belong to an additional category of sin. Rather, they are the sins that are seen as the origin ("capital" comes from the Latin caput, head) of the other sins. A "deadly sin" can be either venial or mortal, depending on the situation; but "they are called 'capital' because they engender other sins, other vices." [2] Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among European artists of the time eventually helped to ingrain them in many areas of Catholic culture and Catholic consciousness in general throughout the world. One means of such ingraining was the creation of the mnemonic "SALIGIA" based on the first letters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: superbia, avaritia, luxuria, invidia, gula, ira, acedia. [3] Biblical Lists In the Book of Proverbs, it is stated that the Lord specifically regards "six things the Lord hateth, and the seventh His soul detesteth." namely: [4] A proud look. A lying tongue. Hands that shed innocent blood. A heart that devises wicked plots. Feet that are swift to run into mischief. A deceitful witness that uttereth lies. Him that soweth discord among brethren While there are seven of them, this list is considerably different from the traditional one, with only pride clearly being in both lists.

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Page 1: Seven Deadly Sins

Seven deadly sins 1

Seven deadly sins

Hieronymus Bosch's The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things

The Seven Deadly Sins, also known as theCapital Vices or Cardinal Sins, is aclassification of objectionable vices thathave been used since early Christian timesto educate and instruct followers concerningfallen humanity's tendency to sin. Thecurrently recognized version of the list isusually given as anger, greed, sloth, pride,lust, envy, and gluttony.

The Catholic Church divides sin into twocategories: "venial sins", which arerelatively minor and can be forgiven throughany sacramentals or sacraments of theChurch (as well as through prayer and actsof charity), and the more severe "grave" ormortal sins. Theologically, a mortal sin isbelieved to destroy the life of grace withinthe person and thus creates the threat ofeternal damnation. "Mortal sin, by attacking the vital principle within us - that is, charity - necessitates a newinitiative of God's mercy and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished [for Catholics] within the settingof the sacrament of reconciliation."[1]

The Deadly Sins do not belong to an additional category of sin. Rather, they are the sins that are seen as the origin("capital" comes from the Latin caput, head) of the other sins. A "deadly sin" can be either venial or mortal,depending on the situation; but "they are called 'capital' because they engender other sins, other vices."[2]

Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among European artists of thetime eventually helped to ingrain them in many areas of Catholic culture and Catholic consciousness in generalthroughout the world. One means of such ingraining was the creation of the mnemonic "SALIGIA" based on the firstletters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: superbia, avaritia, luxuria, invidia, gula, ira, acedia.[3]

Biblical ListsIn the Book of Proverbs, it is stated that the Lord specifically regards "six things the Lord hateth, and the seventh Hissoul detesteth." namely:[4]

• A proud look.• A lying tongue.• Hands that shed innocent blood.• A heart that devises wicked plots.• Feet that are swift to run into mischief.• A deceitful witness that uttereth lies.• Him that soweth discord among brethrenWhile there are seven of them, this list is considerably different from the traditional one, with only pride clearlybeing in both lists.

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Another list, given this time by the Epistle to the Galatians (Galatians 5:19-21), includes more of the traditionalseven sins, although the list is substantially longer: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry,sorcery, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings,"and such like".[5] Since Saint Paul goes on to say that the persons who commit these sins "shall not inherit theKingdom of God", they are usually listed as (possible) mortal sins rather than Capital Vices.

Development of the Traditional Seven SinsThe modern concept of the Seven Deadly Sins is linked to the works of the 4th century monk Evagrius Ponticus,who listed eight evil thoughts in Greek as follows:[6]

• Γαστριμαργία (gastrimargia)• Πορνεία (porneia)• Φιλαργυρία (philargyria)• Λύπη (lypē)• Ὀργή (orgē)• Ἀκηδία (akēdia)• Κενοδοξία (kenodoxia)• Ὑπερηφανία (hyperēphania)They were translated into the Latin of Western Christianity, thus becoming part of the Catholic tradition's spiritualpietas (or Catholic devotions), as follows:[7]

• Gula (gluttony)• Fornicatio (fornication, lust)• Avaritia (avarice/greed)• Tristitia (sorrow/despair)• Ira (wrath)• Acedia (acedia)• Vanagloria (vainglory)• Superbia (hubris, pride)These 'evil thoughts' can be collected into three groups:[7]

• lustful appetite (Gluttony, Fornication, and Avarice)• irascibility (Anger)• intellect (Vainglory, Sorrow, Pride, and Discouragement)In AD 590, a little over two centuries after Evagrius wrote his list, Pope Gregory I revised this list to form the morecommon Seven Deadly Sins, by folding sorrow/despair into acedia, vainglory into pride, and substituting luxuria(lust/lechery) for fornicatio and adding envy. In the order used by both Pope Gregory and by Dante Alighieri in hisepic poem The Divine Comedy, the seven deadly sins are as follows:1. luxuria (lechery/lust)[8] [9] [10]

2. gula (gluttony)3. avaritia (avarice/greed)4. acedia (acedia/discouragement)5. ira (wrath)6. invidia (envy)7. superbia (pride)The identification and definition of the seven deadly sins over their history has been a fluid process and the idea ofwhat each of the seven actually encompasses has evolved over time. Additionally, as a result of semantic change:• Lust was substituted for luxuria in all but name

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• socordia (sloth) was substituted for acedia

It is this revised list that Dante uses. The process of semantic change has been aided by the fact that the personalitytraits are not collectively referred to, in either a cohesive or codified manner, by the Bible itself; other literary andecclesiastical works were instead consulted, as sources from which definitions might be drawn. Part II of Dante'sDivine Comedy, Purgatorio, has almost certainly been the best known source since the Renaissance.The modern Roman Catholic Catechism lists the sins in Latin as "superbia, avaritia, invidia, ira, luxuria, gula,pigritia seu acedia", with an English translation of "pride, avarice, envy, wrath, lust, gluttony, and sloth/acedia".[11]

Each of the seven deadly sins now also has an opposite among corresponding seven holy virtues (sometimes alsoreferred to as the contrary virtues). In parallel order to the sins they oppose, the seven holy virtues are humility,charity, kindness, patience, chastity, temperance, and diligence.

Historical and modern definitions of the deadly sins

LustLust or lechery (carnal "luxuria") is usually thought of as excessive thoughts or desires of a sexual nature.Aristotle's criterion was excessive love of others, which therefore rendered love and devotion to God as secondary .In Dante's Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/sexual thoughts and feelings. InDante's "Inferno", unforgiven souls of the sin of lust are blown about in restless hurricane-like winds symbolic oftheir own lack of self control to their lustful passions in earthly life.


"Excess"(Albert Anker, 1896)

Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow,gluttony (Latin, gula) is the over-indulgence and over-consumption ofanything to the point of waste. In the Christian religions, it isconsidered a sin because of the excessive desire for food or itswithholding from the needy.[12]

Depending on the culture, it can be seen as either a vice or a sign ofstatus. Where food is relatively scarce, being able to eat well might besomething to take pride in. But in an area where food is routinelyplentiful, it may be considered a sign of self-control to resist thetemptation to over-indulge.Medieval church leaders (e.g., Thomas Aquinas) took a moreexpansive view of gluttony,[12] arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constanteating of delicacies and excessively costly foods.[13] Aquinas went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commitgluttony, including:

• Praepropere - eating too soon.• Laute - eating too expensively.• Nimis - eating too much.• Ardenter - eating too eagerly (burningly).• Studiose - eating too daintily (keenly).• Forente - eating wildly (boringly).

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1909 painting The Worship ofMammon by Evelyn De Morgan.

Greed (Latin, avaritia), also known as avarice or covetousness, is, like lust andgluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the church) is applied to avery excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of wealth, status, and power. St.Thomas Aquinas wrote that greed was "a sin against God, just as all mortal sins,in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things." InDante's Purgatory, the penitents were bound and laid face down on the groundfor having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. "Avarice" is more of ablanket term that can describe many other examples of greedy behavior. Theseinclude disloyalty, deliberate betrayal, or treason, especially for personal gain,for example through bribery. Scavenging and hoarding of materials or objects,theft and robbery, especially by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation ofauthority are all actions that may be inspired by greed. Such misdeeds caninclude simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actualconfines of a church.

As defined outside of Christian writings, greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs,especially with respect to material wealth.[14]

SlothOver time, the "acedia" in Pope Gregory's order has come to be closer in meaning to sloth (Latin, Socordia). Thefocus came to be on the consequences of acedia rather than the cause, and so, by the 17th century, the exact deadlysin referred to was believed to be the failure to utilize one's talents and gifts. Even in Dante's time there were signs ofthis change; in his Purgatorio he had portrayed the penance for acedia as running continuously at top speed.The modern view goes further, regarding laziness and indifference as the sin at the heart of the matter. Since thiscontrasts with a more willful failure to, for example, love God and his works, sloth is often seen as beingconsiderably less serious than the other sins, more a sin of omission than of commission.


Acedia (Latin, acedia) (from Greek ακηδία) is the neglect to take care of something that one should do. It istranslated to apathetic listlessness; depression without joy. It is similar to melancholy, although acedia describes thebehaviour, while melancholy suggests the emotion producing it. In early Christian thought, the lack of joy wasregarded as a wilful refusal to enjoy the goodness of God and the world God created; by contrast, apathy wasconsidered a refusal to help others in time of need.When Thomas Aquinas described acedia in his interpretation of the list, he described it as an uneasiness of the mind,being a progenitor for lesser sins such as restlessness and instability. Dante refined this definition further, describingacedia as the failure to love God with all one's heart, all one's mind and all one's soul; to him it was the middle sin,the only one characterised by an absence or insufficiency of love.


Despair (Latin, Tristitia) In this context, Despair is the precipitating cause of suicide. Feelings of hopelessness,despondency, pessimism and impending doom, were not the same as the condition, melancholy. "If the man bebereft, give him solace. If he be in physical torment, give him medicine. If he be to the desire of death, give himhope. Reason, encouragement, and faith bring hope, therefore, use them liberally." (Francis of Assisi). Since sadnessoften results in acedia, Pope Gregory's revision of the list subsumed Despair into Acedia.

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WrathWrath (Latin, ira), also known as anger or "rage", may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings ofhatred and anger. Anger, in its purest form, presents with self-destructiveness, violence, and hate that may provokefeuds that can go on for centuries. Anger may persist long after the person who did another a grievous wrong is dead.Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways, including impatience, revenge, and vigilantism.Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest (although one can of course bewrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy, closely related to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as "loveof justice perverted to revenge and spite". In its original form, the sin of wrath also encompassed anger pointedinternally rather than externally. Thus suicide was deemed as the ultimate, albeit tragic, expression of wrath directedinwardly, a final rejection of God's gifts.

EnvyLike greed, Envy (Latin, invidia) may be characterized by an insatiable desire; they differ, however, for two mainreasons:• First, greed is largely associated with material goods, whereas envy may apply more generally.• Second, those who commit the sin of envy resent that another person has something they perceive themselves as

lacking, and wish the other person to be deprived of it.Dante defined this as "a desire to deprive other men of theirs." Envy can be directly related to the TenCommandments, specifically "Neither shall you desire... anything that belongs to your neighbour". In Dante'sPurgatory, the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire because they have gained sinfulpleasure from seeing others brought low. Aquinas described envy as "sorrow for another's good".[15]

PrideIn almost every list Pride (Latin, superbia), or hubris, is considered the original and most serious of the sevendeadly sins, and the source of the others. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others,failing to acknowledge the good work of others, and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of properposition toward God). Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbour." InJacob Bidermann's medieval miracle play, Cenodoxus, pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to thedamnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor. In perhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer, pride (hisdesire to compete with God) was what caused his fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan. InDante's Divine Comedy, the penitents were forced to walk with stone slabs bearing down on their backs to inducefeelings of humility.


Vainglory (Latin, vanagloria) is unjustified boasting. Pope Gregory viewed it as a form of pride, so he foldedvainglory into pride for his listing of sins.The Latin term gloria roughly means boasting, although its English cognate - glory - has come to have anexclusively positive meaning; historically, vain roughly meant futile, but by the 14th century had come to have thestrong narcissistic undertones, of irrelevant accuracy, that it retains today.[16] As a result of these semantic changes,vainglory has become a rarely used word in itself, and is now commonly interpreted as referring to vanity (in itsmodern narcissistic sense).

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Catholic Seven VirtuesThe Roman Catholic Church also recognizes seven virtues, which correspond inversely to each of the seven deadlysins.

Vice Latin Virtue Latin

Lust Luxuria Chastity Castitas

Gluttony Gula Temperance Temperantia

Greed Avaritia Charity Caritas

Sloth Acedia Diligence Industria

Wrath Ira Patience Patientia

Envy Invidia Kindness Humanitas

Pride Superbia Humility Humilitas

Associations with demonsIn 1589, Peter Binsfeld paired each of the deadly sins with a demon, who tempted people by means of the associatedsin. According to Binsfeld's classification of demons, the pairings are as follows• Lucifer: Pride (superbia)• Mammon: Greed (avaritia)• Asmodeus: Lust (luxuria)• Leviathan: Envy (invidia)• Beelzebub: Gluttony (gula or gullia)• Satan/Amon: Anger (ira)• Belphegor: Sloth (acedia)This contrasts slightly with an earlier series of pairings found in the fifteenth century English Lollard tract Lanterneof Light, which pairs Lucifer with Pride, Beelzebub with Envy, Satan/Amon with Wrath, Abadon with Sloth,Mammon with Avarice, Belphegor with Gluttony and Asmodeus with Lust.[17]

PatternsAccording to a 2009 study by a Jesuit scholar, the most common deadly sin confessed by men is lust, and forwomen, pride.[18] It was unclear whether these differences were due to different rates of commission, or differentviews on what "counts" or should be confessed.[19]

Cultural referencesThe seven deadly sins have long been a source of inspiration for writers and artists, from morality tales of the MiddleAges to modern manga series and video games.

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Menninger on the Deadly SinsIn his 1973 book, Whatever Became of Sin?, Karl Menninger argued that the traditional list of the seven deadly sinswas incomplete; that most modern ethicists would include cruelty and dishonesty and probably would rate these asmore serious than some of the more traditional sins such as gluttony or sadness.

Culbertson on the Deadly SinsIn his 1908 book, "How one is not to be," Andrew Culbertson argues that two further vices should be added to thedeadly sins: fear and superstition. Fear, in Culbertson's description, amounts to the modern psychiatric conditioncalled Delusional disorder, while superstition is, "Belief in things that one does not understand, to the point of givingmoney to frauds and spiritual confidence men."

Enneagram IntegrationThe Enneagram of Personality integrates the seven with two additional "sins", deceit and fear. The Enneagramdescriptions are broader than the traditional Christian interpretation and are presented in a comprehensive map.[20]


Literary works inspired by the seven deadly sins• John Climacus (7th century) in The Ladder of Divine Ascent places victory over the eight thoughts as individual

steps of the thirty-step ladder: wrath (8), vainglory (10, 22), sadness (13), gluttony (14), lust (15), greed (16, 17),acedia (18), and pride (23).

• Dante's (1265–1321) The Divine Comedy is a three-part work composed of "Inferno", "Purgatorio", and"Paradiso". "Inferno" divides Hell into nine concentric circles, four of which directly correspond to certain deadlysins: circle two to lust, three to gluttony, four to greed, and five to both wrath and sloth. The punishment for thelatter two sins takes place in the Stygian lake, the wrathful being punished atop the lake, attacking one anotherwith the various members of their person, including fangs, while the slothful are punished underneath the lake,breathing sighs in bubbles and singing a dolorous song.[22] The remaining circles do not neatly map onto theseven sins. In "Purgatorio", Mount Purgatory is scaled in seven levels and follows the sin sequence of Aquinas(starting with pride).

• William Langland's (c. 1332–1386) Vision of Piers Plowman is structured around a series of dreams that arecritical of contemporary errors while encouraging godly living. The sins are mentioned in this order: proud (pride;Passus V, lines 62–71), lechour (lecherousness; V. 71–74), envye (envy; V. 75–132), wrathe (wrath; V.133–185), coveitise (covetousness; V. 186–306), glutton (gluttony; V. 307–385), sleuthe (sloth; V. 386–453).[23]

• John Gower's (1330–1408) Confessio Amantis centres on a confession by Amans ("the Lover") to Genius, thechaplain of the goddess Venus. Following confessional practice of the time, the confession is structured aroundthe seven deadly sins, though focuses on his sins against the rules of courtly love.[24]

• Geoffrey Chaucer's (c. 1340–1400) Canterbury Tales features the seven deadly sins in The Parson's Tale: pride(paragraphs 24–29), envy (30–31), wrath (32–54), sloth (55–63), greed (64–70), gluttony (71–74), lust(75–84).[25]

• Christopher Marlowe's (1564–1593) The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus shows Lucifer, Beelzebub, andMephistophiles coming from hell to show Dr. Faustus "some pastime" (Act II, Scene 2). The sins presentthemselves, in order: pride, greed, envy, wrath, gluttony, sloth, lust.[26]

• Edmund Spenser's (1552–1599), The Faerie Queene addresses the seven deadly sins in "Book I (The Legend ofthe Knight of the Red Cross, Holiness)": vanity/pride (Canto IV, stanzas 4–17), idleness/sloth (IV. 18-20),gluttony (IV. 21-23), lechery/lust (IV. 24-26), avarice/greed (IV. 27-29), envy (IV. 30-32), wrath (IV. 33-35).[27]

• Garth Nix's "The Keys to the Kingdom" is an all ages seven-book series in which the main nemesis of each bookis afflicted by one of the seven deadly sins.

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• Dale E Basye's series starting with Heck: Where the Bad Kids Go contains one deadly sin in each book.• A collection of Star Trek stories, Star Trek: Seven Deadly Sins, was recently released. It contains seven short

novels, which link each deadly sin to a major Trek race: the Romulans (Pride), Borg (Gluttony), Klingons(Anger), Pakleds (Sloth), the Mirror Universe (Lust), the Ferengi (Greed), and the Cardassians (Envy).[28] [29]

• Author Caroline Myss, in her book Defy Gravity: Healing Beyond the Bounds of Reason, integrates the sevendeadly sins as a key to understanding the spiritual underpinnings of healing. Her work proports that the "darkpassions" of pride, avarice, luxury, wrath, gluttony, envy, and sloth are countered by the transformational powerof the respective seven graces: reverence, piety, understanding, fortitude, counsel, knowledge, and wisdom.

• Daniel Born along with Donald Whitfield and Mike Levine selected and edited two short stories for each of theseven deadly sins in The 7 Deadly Sins Sampler published by The Great Books Foundation in 2007. The samefoundation published Even Deadlier as a sequel with the same format in 2009. For the second title Born headed anew group of editors, which included Molly Benningfield, Judith McCue, Abigail Mitchell, and Lindsay Tigue inaddition to Whitfield.

Art and music• Mekaal Hassan Band's single Chal Bulleya represents the Seven Deadly Sins.• Soulfly, the cover artwork for the album Omen (2010) depicts the seven deadly sins• Magenta, Seven, where the songs represent the seven daily sins (2004)• Hieronymus Bosch, The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things (1485).• Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht, The Seven Deadly Sins (Die sieben Todsünden) (1933); a ballet-chantant in which

the protagonist (Anna) and her 'sister' or alter-ego, also named Anna, try to help their family by engaging in eachsin in one form or another, as they travel across the United States.

• Welsh Heavy Metal band Bullet for My Valentine's music video for their single Your Betrayal(2010) shows awoman committing each of the seven deadly sins.

• Modern artist Paul Cadmus painted a series of graphically disturbing, anthropomorphic depictions of the sevendeadly sins, in the style of comic books. After his death, this series was willed to the Metropolitan Museum ofArt.

• The album Heaven and Hell by Joe Jackson is a modern musical interpretation of the seven deadly sins.• The Tiger Lillies's new album and stage show 7 Deadly Sins is based on the sins being experienced by a

modernized version of Punch and Judy (in itself a reworking of Adam and Eve) called "Punch and Jude".• The album Melankolia / XXX Couture by Danish rapper L.O.C. focuses on how the artist came into contact with

each of the sins, and then how these sins have come to be culturally accepted.• Kendell Geers, "The Seven Deadly Sins" 2006: Series of 7 Ultra Violet neons exhibited at Stephen Friedman

Gallery in London, Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst in Ghent Belgium, DA2 in Salamanca Spain and the2007 Venice Biennial

• The painting "The Seven Cardinal Sins" by German Expressionist artist Otto Dix depicts seven beings, eachrepresenting one of the seven sins.

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Film, television, radio, comic books and video games• There was a series of seven silent films made in 1917 that bore the series title, The Seven Deadly Sins, which

began with Envy (1917), continued with Pride (1917), Greed (1917), Sloth (1917), Passion (1917), and Wrath(1917), and concluded with the synonymously titled The Seventh Sin (1917). The final installment was given thattitle because Gluttony was considered too offensive, and the producers couldn't come up with an adequatesynonym.

• The film The Devil's Nightmare is about a succubus who kills a group of tourists who are each guilty of one of theseven sins.

• The original version of the film Bedazzled (1967) (remade in 2000) includes all seven sins; Raquel Welch as(Lillian) Lust, Barry Humphries as Envy, Alba as Vanity, Robert Russell as Anger, Parnell McGarry as Gluttony,Daniele Noel as Avarice, and Howard Goorney as Sloth.

• In the film Seven (1995), written by Andrew Kevin Walker, directed by David Fincher and starring Brad Pitt andMorgan Freeman, a mysterious serial killer punishes transgressors of each of the deadly sins through his crimes.

• The Magnificent Seven Deadly Sins (1971) is a British film built around a series of comedy sketches on the sevendeadly sins, and referencing the classic Western film The Magnificent Seven.

• In the video game Overlord, the seven heroes that the protagonist must defeat have all been corrupted by one ofthe seven deadly sins.

• The Seven Deadly Sins (traditionally given as "The Seven Deadly Enemies of Man") figure prominently in themythos of Fawcett/DC Comics superhero Captain Marvel, and have appeared several times as supervillains inrecent DC Comics publications.

• In the manga and anime Digimon, the Seven Great Demon Lords, each of whom represent one of the sins, are amajor group of antagonists.

• In the manga and anime Katekyo Hitman Reborn!, the member of Varia each match one of the Seven Deadly Sins,their Latin names, or the respective demons of the sins.

• In the manga and anime Fullmetal Alchemist, each sin is used as the name of each member of a group of powerfulartificial humans called "homunculi", with each homunculus' personality and appearance being based on the sinwhich they are named after.

• In the videogame Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII, a major boss uses special attacks named after the deadly sins:Unleashed Wrath, End of Gluttony, Wings of Pride, Charge of Greed, Thunder of Envy, Defense of Lust, andRage of Sloth.

• In the videogame Devil May Cry 3, the seven deadly sins are represented by a group of common enemies, as wellas by seven infernal bells. Fallen angels that personify the sins are also featured heavily in the prequel manga, inwhich they are important in summoning the bell-containing tower in the first place.

• In an episode of America's Next Top Model, Cycle 4 each of the girls portrayed a deadly sin.• In the Philippines TV series Lastikman each major villain represents one of the deadly sins.• In the Norwegian TV show De syv dødssyndene (The Seven Deadly Sins), Kristopher Schau attempts to invoke

the wrath of God by carrying out each of the seven deadly sins. When Schau was talking about the show on thetalk show Senkveld (Late Night), he said "If I don't end up in Hell, then there is no Hell." The program caused agreat deal of public debate surrounding the issue of censorship.

• In Matt Fraction's comic book Casanova, the series' issues are named, in Latin, for each of the seven sins,beginning with Luxuria.

• Rengoku II: The Stairway to Heaven is based on eight levels of a tower, seven named after the sins, the eighthbeing Paradise.

• In the webcomic Jack, the seven sins are personified by anthropomorphs. The main character, Jack, represents thesin of Wrath.

• Mark Watson Makes the World Substantially Better fits the sins into a six part BBC radio series, with Greed andGluttony combined as the 'similar sins'.

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• In Knight Online's Bifrost are monsters that can hunt for Fragments of the seven sins. Fragments can be turnedinto unique items, or collected to gain access to the chamber of Ultima.

• In 11eyes, the Black Knights are named Avaritia, Ira, Invidia, Acedia, Gula, and Superbia.• In Umineko no Naku Koro ni, the Seven Stakes of Purgatory are named after Peter Binsfeld's temptor demons and

propagate or embody a deadly sin. Their ages follow the order of Purgatorio, Lucifer (Pride) being the eldest andAsmodeus (Lust) the youngest.

• In Stan Lee and Hiroyuki Takei's manga Karakuridôji Ultimo, the main antagonists, excluding Vice, are based onthe Seven Deadly Sins.

• A Pakistani Musical Band "Meekal Hasan Band" portrayed the concept of the seven deadly sins in their musicvideo titled "Chal Buleya".

• In the manga Soul Eater, Team Spartoi has to pass through the chapters of the Book of Eibon, each of the chaptersin one of the seven deadly sins starting with Lust.

• MTV Roadies 7.0 was the seventh season of MTV Roadies, a reality television show aired on MTV India. In thisseason, the roadies drive headed to the wild Africa. For reaching Africa, a roadie had to clear 7 stages,each stagewas a twist which occurred when a roadie committed one of the 7 sins. The tag line for this season was '7 DeadlySins. 1 Wild Safari'.

• In 2010 a miniseries called "Seven Deadly Sins" was aired on the Lifetime Movie Network, based on authorRobin Wasserman's series of novels.

• Sherwood Schwartz stated that he based the seven characters of Gilligan's Island on the seven sins with Priderepresented by the Professor, Anger by the Skipper, Sloth by Gilligan, and so on.[30]

ReferencesNotes[1] Catechism of the Catholic Church, nn.1856. See also nn.1854-1864.[2] Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1866.[3] BOYLE, Marjorie O'Rourke (1997) [1997-10-23]. "Three: The Flying Serpent" (http:/ / ark. cdlib. org/ ark:/ 13030/ ft2t1nb1rw/ ). Loyola's

Acts: The Rhetoric of the Self. The New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Poetics,. 36. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 100–146.ISBN 978-0-520-20937-4. .

[4] Proverbs  6:16–19[5] Galatians[6] Evagrio Pontico,Gli Otto Spiriti Malvagi, trans., Felice Comello, Pratiche Editrice, Parma, 1990, p.11-12.[7] Refoule, 1967[8] Godsall-Myers, Jean E. (2003). Speaking in the medieval world (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Hgw0WSuUZn4C& pg=PA27&

dq=luxuria+ divine. comedy& hl=en& ei=nddLTbfDF42iuQPc8ZkZ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=10&ved=0CFQQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage& q=luxuria& f=false). Brill. p. 27. ISBN 9004129553. .

[9] Katherine Ludwig, Jansen (2001). The making of the Magdalen: preaching and popular devotion in the later Middle Ages (http:/ / com/ books?id=tAxSQ7O4WogC& pg=PA194& dq=luxuria+ divine. comedy& hl=en& ei=nddLTbfDF42iuQPc8ZkZ& sa=X&oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=luxuria& f=false). Princeton University Press. p. 168.ISBN 0691089876. .

[10] Vossler, Karl; Spingarn, Joel Elias (1929). Mediæval Culture: The religious, philosophic, and ethico-political background of the "DivineComedy" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?ei=nddLTbfDF42iuQPc8ZkZ& ct=result& id=McIRAAAAMAAJ& dq=luxuria+ divine.comedy& q=luxuria#search_anchor). University of Michigan: Constable & company. p. 246. .

[11] "'' Catechism of the Catholic Church''" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080327080743/ http:/ / www. vatican. va/ archive/ catechism/p3s1c1a8. htm#V). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ archive/ catechism/ p3s1c1a8. htm#V) on 2008-03-27. .Retrieved 2010-07-24.

[12] Okholm, Dennis. "Rx for Gluttony" (http:/ / www. ctlibrary. com/ ct/ 2000/ september4/ 3. 62. html). Christianity Today, Vol. 44, No. 10,September 11, 2000, p.62

[13] "Gluttony" (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 06590a. htm). Catholic Encyclopedia. .[14] "The Free Dictionary" (http:/ / www. thefreedictionary. com/ greed). The Free Dictionary. 1987-04-01. . Retrieved 2010-07-24.[15] "Summa Theologica: Treatise on The Theological Virtues (QQ[1] - 46): Question. 36 - OF ENVY (FOUR ARTICLES)" (http:/ / www.

sacred-texts. com/ chr/ aquinas/ summa/ sum291. htm). . Retrieved 2010-01-02.[16] Oxford English dictionary[17] Morton W. Bloomfield,The Seven Deadly Sins, Michigan State College Press, 1952, pp.214-215.

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[18] "Two sexes 'sin in different ways'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ 7897034. stm). BBC News. 2009-02-18. . Retrieved 2010-07-24.[19] Morning Edition (2009-02-20). "True Confessions: Men And Women Sin Differently" (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story.

php?storyId=100906920). . Retrieved 2010-07-24.[20] Maitri, The Enneagram of Passions and Virtues, pp.11-31[21] Rohr, The Enneagram[22] Dante, Inferno, Canto VII.120-128, translated by H.F. Cary, courtesy Project Gutenberg[23] References use the B-text, see Vision of Piers Plowman (http:/ / www. hti. umich. edu/ cgi/ c/ cme/ cme-idx?type=HTML& rgn=TEI. 2&

byte=21030211)[24] "Confessio Amantis, or, Tales of the Seven Deadly Sins by John Gower - Project Gutenberg" (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 266). 2008-07-03. . Retrieved 2010-01-02.[25] "The Canterbury Tales/The Parson's Prologue and Tale - Wikisource" (http:/ / en. wikisource. org/ wiki/ The_Canterbury_Tales/

The_Parson's_Prologue_and_Tale). 2008-11-01. . Retrieved 2010-01-02.[26] "Christopher Marlowe, The Tragedie of Doctor Faustus (B text) (ed. Hilary Binda)" (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/

ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 03. 0011& query=scene=#6& layout. norm=compare). . Retrieved 2010-01-02.[27] http:/ / darkwing. uoregon. edu/ ~rbear/ queene1. html[28] "Seven Deadly Sins - Memory Beta, non-canon Star Trek Wiki" (http:/ / memory-beta. wikia. com/ wiki/ Seven_Deadly_Sins). . Retrieved 2010-07-24.[29] "Seven Deadly Sins - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki" (http:/ / memory-alpha. org/ en/ index. php/ Seven_Deadly_Sins). 2010-03-30. . Retrieved 2010-07-24.[30] Your Turn: Gilligan : In Character : NPR (http:/ / www. npr. org/ blogs/ incharacter/ 2008/ 01/ your_turn_gilligan. html)

Bibliography• Refoule, F. (1967) Evagrius Ponticus. In Staff of Catholic University of America (Eds.) New Catholic

Encyclopaedia. Volume 5, pp644–645. New York: McGrawHill.• Schumacher, Meinolf (2005): "Catalogues of Demons as Catalogues of Vices in Medieval German Literature:

'Des Teufels Netz' and the Alexander Romance by Ulrich von Etzenbach." In In the Garden of Evil: The Vicesand Culture in the Middle Ages. Edited by Richard Newhauser, pp. 277–290. Toronto: Pontifical Institute ofMediaeval Studies.

Further reading• The Divine Comedy ("Inferno", "Purgatorio", and "Paradiso"), by Dante Alighieri• Summa Theologica, by Thomas Aquinas• The Concept of Sin, by Josef Pieper• The Traveller's Guide to Hell, by Michael Pauls & Dana Facaros• Sacred Origins of Profound Things, by Charles Panati• The Faerie Queene, by Edmund Spenser• The Seven Deadly Sins Series (http:/ / www. oup. com/ us/ collections/ 7_sins/ ?view=usa), Oxford University

Press (7 vols.)

External links• Article on Sloth's minor position in the sins (http:/ / themodernword. com/ pynchon/ pynchon_essays_sloth. html)• Catholic Catechism on Sin (http:/ / usccb. org/ catechism/ text/ pt3sect1chpt1art8. shtml)

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Article Sources and ContributorsSeven deadly sins  Source:  Contributors: 10buffalo,,, 2D, 32Magic, ACEOREVIVED, Abigail-II,Abnerian, Abramchrista, Abtract, Academic Challenger, Acipsen, Ad Nauseam, Adashiel, Addihockey10, Addshore, Adolytsi, Aero13792468, Aesopm, Afterwriting, Ageo020, Ahoerstemeier,Aileron, Aitias, Ajraddatz, Akadruid, Akrumbac1981, Alansohn, Alanstrohm, Albireo8, Ale jrb, Alex43223, Ali K, AlisonW, Aliza250, All Hallow's Wraith, Allstarecho, Alterego, Alumni,Amccune, Ameliorate!, Amorymeltzer, AnOddName, Anamexis, Andonic, Andrea105, Andrew Wood, AndrewGNF, Andromeda321, Andycjp, Andyroid, AngelKnight, Angr, Animum,AnonMoos, Anonymi, Anonymous Dissident, Antandrus, Anthony Appleyard, Anthony on Stilts, Apeloverage, AppuruPan, Aqueous maus, Arakunem, Arasaka, Arjun G. 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