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Seven deadly sins
For other uses, see Seven deadly sins (disambiguation).The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital
Hieronymus Bosch's The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four LastThings
vices or cardinal sins, is a classification of vices (part ofChristian ethics) that has been used since early Christiantimes to educate and instruct Christians concerning fallenhumanity’s tendency to sin. In the currently recognizedversion, the sins are usually given as wrath, greed, sloth,pride, lust, envy, and gluttony. Each is a form of Idolatry-of-Self wherein the subjective reigns over the objective.The Catholic Church divides sin into two categories:venial sins, in which guilt is relatively minor, and themoresevere mortal sins. According to the Catechism of theCatholic Church, a mortal or deadly sin is believed to de-stroy the life of grace and charity within a person. “Mor-tal sin, by attacking the vital principle within us – thatis, charity – necessitates a new initiative of God’s mercyand a conversion of heart which is normally accomplishedwithin the setting of the sacrament of reconciliation.”
According to Catholic moral thought, the seven deadlysins are not discrete from other sins, but are instead theorigin (“capital” comes from the Latin caput, head) of theothers. Vices can be either venial or mortal, dependingon the situation, but “are called 'capital' because they en-gender other sins, other vices”.
Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of theseven deadly sins as a theme among European artists ofthe time eventually helped to ingrain them in many areasof Catholic culture and Catholic consciousness in generalthroughout the world. One means of such ingraining was
the creation of themnemonic acronym “SALIGIA” basedon the first letters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: su-perbia, avaritia, luxuria, invidia, gula, ira, acedia.
1 Biblical lists
The Holy Spirit and the Seven Deadly Sins . Folio from Waltersmanuscript W.171 (15th century)
In the Book of Proverbs 6:16-19, among the verses tradi-tionally associated with King Solomon, it states that theLord specifically regards “six things the Lord hateth, andseven that are an abomination unto Him”, namely:
1. A proud look
2. A lying tongue
3. Hands that shed innocent blood
4. A heart that devises wicked plots
5. Feet that are swift to run into mischief
6. A deceitful witness that uttereth lies
2 2 HISTORY
7. Him that soweth discord among brethren
Another list, given this time by the Epistle to the Gala-tians (Galatians 5:19-21), includes more of the tradi-tional seven sins, although the list is substantially longer:adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idola-try, sorcery, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife,seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, rev-ellings, “and such like”. Since the apostle Paul goes onto say that the persons who practice these sins “shall notinherit the Kingdom of God”, they are usually listed as(possible) mortal sins rather than capital vices.
An allegorical image depicting the human heart subject to theseven deadly sins, each represented by an animal (clockwise:toad = avarice; snake = envy; lion = wrath; snail = sloth; pig= gluttony; goat = lust; peacock = pride).
The modern concept of the seven deadly sins is linked tothe works of the fourth-century monk Evagrius Ponticus,who listed eight evil thoughts in Greek as follows:
• Γαστριμαργία (gastrimargia) gluttony
• Πορνεία (porneia) prostitution, fornication
• Φιλαργυρία (philargyria) avarice
• Ὑπερηφανία (hyperēphania) hubris – sometimesrendered as self-esteem
• Λύπη (lypē) sadness – in the Philokalia, this term isrendered as envy, sadness at another’s good fortune
• Ὀργή (orgē) wrath
• Κενοδοξία (kenodoxia) boasting
• Ἀκηδία (akēdia) acedia – in the Philokalia, thisterm is rendered as dejection
They were translated into the Latin of Western Christian-ity (largely due to the writings of John Cassian), thusbecoming part of the Western tradition’s spiritual pietas(or Catholic devotions), as follows:
• Gula (gluttony)
• Fornicatio (fornication, lust)
• Avaritia (avarice/greed)
• Superbia (hubris, pride)
• Tristitia (sorrow/despair/despondency)
• Ira (wrath)
• Vanagloria (vainglory)
• Acedia (sloth)
These “evil thoughts” can be categorized into threetypes:
• lustful appetite (gluttony, fornication, and avarice)
• irascibility (wrath)
• mind-related (vainglory, sorrow, pride, and discour-agement)
In AD 590, a little over two centuries after Evagriuswrote his list, Pope Gregory I revised this list to formthe more common Seven Deadly Sins, by folding (sor-row/despair/despondency) into acedia, vainglory intopride, and adding envy. In the order used by Pope Gre-gory, and repeated by Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) cen-turies later in his epic poemTheDivine Comedy, the sevendeadly sins are as follows:
1. luxuria (lechery/lust)
2. gula (gluttony)
3. avaritia (avarice/greed)
4. acedia (sloth/discouragement)
5. ira (wrath)
6. invidia (envy)
7. superbia (pride)
3.2 Gluttony 3
The identification and definition of the seven deadly sinsover their history has been a fluid process and the idea ofwhat each of the seven actually encompasses has evolvedover time. Additionally, as a result of semantic change:
• socordia sloth was substituted for acedia
It is this revised list that Dante uses. The process of se-mantic change has been aided by the fact that the per-sonality traits are not collectively referred to, in either acohesive or codified manner, by the Bible itself; other lit-erary and ecclesiastical works were instead consulted, assources from which definitions might be drawn. Part II ofDante’s Divine Comedy, Purgatorio, has almost certainlybeen the best known source since the Renaissance.The modern Catholic Catechism lists the sins in Latin as"superbia, avaritia, invidia, ira, luxuria, gula, pigritia seuacedia", with an English translation of "pride, avarice,envy, wrath, lust, gluttony, and sloth/acedia". Each ofthe seven deadly sins now also has an opposite among cor-responding seven holy virtues (sometimes also referredto as the contrary virtues). In parallel order to the sinsthey oppose, the seven holy virtues are humility, charity,kindness, patience, chastity, temperance, and diligence(see below).
3 Historical and modern defini-tions
Main article: LustLust, or lechery (carnal "luxuria"), is an intense and un-controlled desire. It is usually thought of as uncontrolledsexual wants, however the word was originally a generalterm for desire. Therefore, lust could include the uncon-trolled desire for money, food, fame, or power.In Dante’s Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames topurge himself of lustful thoughts and feelings. In Dante’sInferno, unforgiven souls of the sin of lust are blown aboutin restless hurricane-like winds symbolic of their own lackof self-control to their lustful passions in earthly life.
Main article: GluttonyGluttony (Latin, gula) is the overindulgence and
overconsumption of anything to the point of waste. Theword derives from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulpdown or swallow,In Christianity, it is considered a sin if the excessive desirefor food causes it to be withheld from the needy.
Because of these scripts, gluttony can be interpreted as
LustSankt Bartholomäus church (Reichenthal), Pulpit (1894)
Excess(Albert Anker, 1896)
selfishness; essentially placing concern with one’s own in-terests above the well-being or interests of others.Medieval church leaders (e.g., Thomas Aquinas) tooka more expansive view of gluttony, arguing that itcould also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, andthe constant eating of delicacies and excessively costlyfoods. Aquinas went so far as to prepare a list of sixways to commit gluttony, comprising:
• Praepropere – eating too soon
• Laute – eating too expensively
4 3 HISTORICAL AND MODERN DEFINITIONS
• Nimis – eating too much
• Ardenter – eating too eagerly
• Studiose – eating too daintily
• Forente – eating wildly
Main article: GreedGreed (Latin, avaritia), also known as avarice, cupid-
1909 painting The Worship of Mammon by Evelyn De Morgan.
ity or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin ofexcess. However, greed (as seen by the Church) is ap-plied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuitof material possessions. Thomas Aquinas wrote, “Greedis a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as muchas man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporalthings.” In Dante’s Purgatory, the penitents were boundand laid face down on the ground for having concen-trated too much on earthly thoughts. Hoarding of mate-rials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means ofviolence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all ac-tions that may be inspired by Greed. Such misdeeds caninclude simony, where one attempts to purchase or sellsacraments, including Holy Orders and, therefore, posi-tions of authority in the Church hierarchy.As defined outside of Christian writings, greed is an inor-dinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs,especially with respect to material wealth.
Main article: Sloth (deadly sin)Sloth (Latin, acedia) can entail different vices. While
SlothParable of the Wheat and the Tares by Abraham Bloemaert,Walters Art Museum
sloth is sometimes defined as physical laziness, spirituallaziness is emphasized. Failing to develop spiritually willlead to becoming guilty of sloth. In the Christian faith,sloth rejects grace and God.Sloth has also been defined as a failure to do things thatone should do. By this definition, evil exists when goodmen fail to act.Edmund Burke (1729-1797) wrote in Present Discontents(II. 78) “No man, who is not inflamed by vain-glory intoenthusiasm, can flatter himself that his single, unsup-ported, desultory, unsystematic endeavours are of powerto defeat the subtle designs and united Cabals of ambi-tious citizens. When bad men combine, the good mustassociate; else they will fall, one by one, an unpitied sac-rifice in a contemptible struggle.”Over time, the “acedia” in PopeGregory’s order has cometo be closer in meaning to sloth. The focus came to be onthe consequences of acedia rather than the cause, and so,by the 17th century, the exact deadly sin referred to wasbelieved to be the failure to utilize one’s talents and gifts.Even in Dante’s time there were signs of this change; inhis Purgatorio he had portrayed the penance for acedia asrunning continuously at top speed.
Main article: WrathWrath (Latin, ira), also known as "rage", may be de-scribed as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of ha-tred and anger. Wrath, in its purest form, presents withself-destructiveness, violence, and hate that may provokefeuds that can go on for centuries. Wrath may persist longafter the personwho did another a grievous wrong is dead.
3.7 Pride 5
Wrath,by Jacques de l'Ange
Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways, includ-ing impatience, revenge, and self-destructive behavior,such as drug abuse or suicide.Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with self-ishness or self-interest, although one can of course bewrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy (closely re-lated to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as“love of justice perverted to revenge and spite". In itsoriginal form, the sin of wrath also encompassed angerpointed internally as well as externally. Thus suicide wasdeemed the ultimate, albeit tragic, expression of hatreddirected inwardly, a final rejection of God’s gifts.
Main article: EnvyEnvy (Latin, invidia), like greed and lust, is character-ized by an insatiable desire. Envy is similar to jealousyin that they both feel discontent towards someone’s traits,status, abilities, or rewards. The difference is the enviousalso desire the entity and covet it.Envy can be directly related to the Ten Commandments,specifically, “Neither shall you desire... anything that be-longs to your neighbour.” Dante defined this as “a desireto deprive other men of theirs”. In Dante’s Purgatory,the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewnshut with wire because they have gained sinful pleasurefrom seeing others brought low. Aquinas described envyas “sorrow for another’s good”.
EnvyArch in the nave with a gothic fresco from 1511 of a man witha dog-head, which symbolizes envy (Dalbyneder Church, Den-mark)
Main article: PridePride (Latin, superbia), or hubris (Greek), is consid-
Building the Tower of Babel was, for Dante, an example ofpride. Painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder
ered, on almost every list, the original and most serious ofthe seven deadly sins: the source of the others. It is identi-fied as believing that one is essentially better than others,failing to acknowledge the accomplishments of others,and excessive admiration of the personal self (especiallyholding self out of proper position toward God); it also in-cludes vainglory (Latin, vanagloria) which is unjustified
6 6 ASSOCIATIONS WITH DEMONS
boasting. Dante’s definition of pride was “love of selfperverted to hatred and contempt for one’s neighbour”.In Jacob Bidermann’s medieval miracle play, Cenodoxus,pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly tothe damnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor. Inperhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer,pride (his desire to compete with God) was what causedhis fall fromHeaven, and his resultant transformation intoSatan. In Dante’s Divine Comedy, the penitents are bur-dened with stone slabs on their necks which force themto keep their heads bowed.
4 Historical sins
Main article: AcediaAcedia (Latin, acedia) (from Greek ἀκηδία) is the ne-
Acediamosaic, Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière
glect to take care of something that one should do. Itis translated to apathetic listlessness; depression withoutjoy. It is related to melancholy: acedia describes the be-haviour and melancholy suggests the emotion producingit. In early Christian thought, the lack of joy was regardedas a willful refusal to enjoy the goodness of God and theworld God created; by contrast, apathy was considered arefusal to help others in time of need.When Thomas Aquinas described acedia in his interpre-tation of the list, he described it as an uneasiness of themind, being a progenitor for lesser sins such as restless-ness and instability. Dante refined this definition further,describing acedia as the failure to love God with all one’sheart, all one’s mind and all one’s soul; to him it was themiddle sin, the only one characterised by an absence orinsufficiency of love. Some scholars have said that theultimate form of acedia was despair which leads to sui-cide.
Main article: VanityVainglory (Latin, vanagloria) is unjustified boasting.
Conversion of the Magdalene' or 'Allegory of Modesty andVanity by Bernardino Luini, c. 1520
Pope Gregory viewed it as a form of pride, so he foldedvainglory into pride for his listing of sins.The Latin term gloria roughly means boasting, althoughits English cognate - glory - has come to have an exclu-sively positive meaning; historically, vain roughly meantfutile, but by the 14th century had come to have the strongnarcissistic undertones, of irrelevant accuracy, that it re-tains today. As a result of these semantic changes,vainglory has become a rarely used word in itself, andis now commonly interpreted as referring to vanity (in itsmodern narcissistic sense).
5 Catholic seven virtues
The Catholic Church also recognizes seven virtues, whichcorrespond inversely to each of the seven deadly sins.
6 Associations with demons
In 1409-1410 The Lanterne of Light (an anonymousEnglish Lollard tract often erroneously attributed toWycliffe) paired each of the deadly sins with a demon,who tempted people by means of the associated sin. Ac-cording to this classification system, the pairings are asfollows:
• Lucifer: pride
• Mammon: greed - avarice (avarouse) and covetous-ness (covetise)
• Asmodeus: lust (leccherouse)
• Beelzebub: envy (envious)
• Belphegor: gluttony (glotouns)
• Aamon or Pazuzu: wrath (wraþþe)
• Abaddon: sloth (slowȝ)
In 1589, Peter Binsfeld again paired each of the deadlysins with a demon, in a slightly contrasting classificationsystem, whereby the pairings are as follows:
• Lucifer: pride (superbia)
• Mammon: greed (avaritia)
• Asmodeus: lust (luxuria)
• Leviathan: envy (invidia)
• Beelzebub: gluttony (gula or gullia)
• Satan: wrath (ira)
• Belphegor: sloth (acedia)
In Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus, there is a “parade” of theseven deadly sins that is conducted by Mephistopheles,Satan, and Beelzebub suggesting that the demons do notmatch with each deadly sin, but the demons are in com-mand of the seven deadly sins.
According to a 2009 study by a Jesuit scholar, the mostcommon deadly sin confessed by men is lust, and forwomen, pride. It was unclear whether these differ-ences were due to the actual number of transgressionscommitted by each gender, or whether differing views onwhat “counts” or should be confessed caused the observedpattern.
8 Cultural references
The seven deadly sins have long been a source of inspira-tion for writers and artists, from medieval works such asDante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy, to modern works suchas the film Se7en.The seven sins also have been used as enemies in the videogame The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth.
9 See also• Arishadvargas in Hindu religion
• Cardinal virtues
• Enneagram of Personality
• Five poisons in Buddhism
• Five Thieves in Sikhism
• Knightly Virtues
• Nafs and Tazkiah in Islam
• Seven Social Sins written by Mohandas Gandhi
• Sufism in Islam
• The Seven Sins of Memory
• Theological virtues
• Tree of virtues
 Catechism of the Catholic Church, nn.1856. See alsonn.1854–1864.
 Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1866.
 Boyle, Marjorie O'Rourke (1997) [October 23, 1997].“Three: The Flying Serpent”. Loyola’s Acts: The Rhetoricof the Self. The New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Po-etics, 36. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp.100–146. ISBN 978-0-520-20937-4.
 [bible verse Proverbs 6:16–19]
 Evagrio Pontico,Gli Otto Spiriti Malvagi, trans., FeliceComello, Pratiche Editrice, Parma, 1990, p.11-12.
 In the translation of the Philokalia by Palmer, Ware, andSherrard.
 Remedies for the Eight Principal Faults
 Refoule, 1967
 Introduction to Paulist Press edition of John Climacus:The Ladder of Divine Ascent by Kallistos Ware, p63.
 Godsall-Myers, Jean E. (2003). Speaking in the medievalworld. Brill. p. 27. ISBN 90-04-12955-3.
 Katherine Ludwig, Jansen (2001). The making of theMagdalen: preaching and popular devotion in the laterMiddle Ages. Princeton University Press. p. 168. ISBN0-691-08987-6.
 Vossler, Karl; Spingarn, Joel Elias (1929). Mediæval Cul-ture: The religious, philosophic, and ethico-political back-ground of the “Divine Comedy” . University of Michigan:Constable & company. p. 246.
 “Catechism of the Catholic Church”. Vatican.va.Archived from the original on March 27, 2008. RetrievedJuly 24, 2010.
8 12 EXTERNAL LINKS
 Okholm, Dennis. “Rx for Gluttony”. Christianity Today,Vol. 44, No. 10, September 11, 2000, p.62
 “Gluttony”. Catholic Encyclopedia.
 “The Free Dictionary”. The Free Dictionary. April 1,1987. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
 “Summa Theologica: Treatise on The Theological Virtues(QQ - 46): Question. 36 - Of Envy (four articles)".Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
 Oxford English dictionary
 Milford, Humphrey. Introduction, The Lanterne of Liȝt.Oxford University Press, 1917
 Morton W. Bloomfield, The Seven Deadly Sins, MichiganState College Press, 1952, pp.214-215.
 “Two sexes 'sin in different ways’". BBC News. February18, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
 Morning Edition (February 20, 2009). “TrueConfessions:Men And Women Sin Differently”. Npr.org. RetrievedJuly 24, 2010.
• Refoule, F. (1967) Evagrius Ponticus. In Staffof Catholic University of America (Eds.) NewCatholic Encyclopaedia. Volume 5, pp644–645.New York: McGrawHill.
• Schumacher, Meinolf (2005): “Catalogues ofDemons as Catalogues of Vices in Medieval Ger-man Literature: 'Des Teufels Netz' and the Alexan-der Romance by Ulrich von Etzenbach.” In In theGarden of Evil: The Vices and Culture in the MiddleAges. Edited by Richard Newhauser, pp. 277–290.Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
11 Further reading
• The Divine Comedy (“Inferno”, “Purgatorio”, and"Paradiso"), by Dante Alighieri
• Summa Theologica, by Thomas Aquinas
• The Concept of Sin, by Josef Pieper
• The Traveller’s Guide to Hell, by Michael Pauls &Dana Facaros
• Sacred Origins of Profound Things, by Charles Pa-nati
• The Faerie Queene, by Edmund Spenser
• The Seven Deadly Sins Series, Oxford UniversityPress (7 vols.)
• Rebecca Konyndyk DeYoung, Glittering Vices: ANew Look at the Seven Deadly Sins and Their Reme-dies, (Grand Rapids: BrazosPress, 2009)
• Solomon Schimmel, The Seven Deadly Sins: Jew-ish, Christian, and Classical Reflections on HumanPsychology, (New York: Oxford University Press,1997)
• "Doctor Faustus" by Christopher Marlowe
12 External links• Catholic Catechism on Sin
• Medieval mural depictions - in parish churches ofEngland (online catalog, Anne Marshall, Open Uni-versity)
• Stranger, An Allegorical Tale of the Seven DeadlySins, ISBN 9781311073846
13 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
13.1 Text• Seven deadly sins Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_deadly_sins?oldid=671056321 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Kpjas, The
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10 13 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES
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