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    Vehicle to Grid PowerVehicle to Grid Power

    Presented to

    Delaware Public Service Commission7 J uly 2009

    byWillett Kempton, Director

    Center for Carbon-free Power IntegrationCollege of Earth, Ocean, and Environment

    University of Delaware

    Presented to

    Delaware Public Service Commission7 J uly 2009

    byWillett Kempton, Director

    Center for Carbon-free Power IntegrationCollege of Earth, Ocean, and Environment

    University of Delaware

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    Overview

    Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)

    Car as underutilized resource

    How much power available?

    Vehicles as A/S providers

    Control of car by ISO

    Software for aggregation of vehicles

    Car production, Fleet Expansion

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    vehicle-to-grid Powervehicle-to-grid Power

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    Plug-in for chargingPlug-in for charging

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    V2G with ISO ControlV2G with ISO Control

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    V2G taps an underutilized

    resource US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d

    Daily travel = 35 mi, battery 100-200 mi

    Thus, most storage unused most days

    Drive train output = 100 kW

    Practical power through grid = 10 - 20 kW

    Cars as significant power? Compare:

    Vehicle fleet at 15 kW each car, with

    Total load for country (GW)

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    How Much Power in cars?

    Denmark UK USA

    Light vehicles(10

    6) 1.9 28.5 191

    Vehicle GW(@ 15 kW each) 29 427 2,865

    Avg. ElectricLoad (GW) 3.6 40 417

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    Initial Market -- Ancillary

    services

    First Market: Ancillary Services (A/S)

    Higher revenue, especially regulation ISO control via Automatic Generation

    Control (AGC)

    Revenue sufficient for business launch

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    Energy Markets

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    North American RTO/ISOs

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    11 2006 PJ Mwww.pjm.com

    11

    Key Statistics

    PJ M member companies 470+Millions of people served 51Peak load in megawatts 144,796MWs of generating capacity 165,303Miles of transmission lines 56,070GWh of annual energy 728,000

    Generation sources 1,271Square miles of territory 164,260Area served 13 states + DC

    26% of generation inEastern Interconnection

    23% of load in

    Eastern Interconnection

    19% of transmission assets

    in Eastern Interconnection

    19% of U.S. GDP produced in PJM

    6,038substations

    PJM as Part of the US Eastern Interconnection

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    Value of regulationAverage Annual Market Clearing Price

    ($/MW-h)2004 2005 2006

    PJM $42.75 $49.73 $32.69

    RTO-NE $28.92 $30.22 $24.02

    NY ISO $22.59 $39.21 $51.26ERCOT $22.66 $38.07 n/a

    CA ISO $29.00 n/a $36.04

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    Value per Vehicle10 Year Present Value V2G Revenue Potential

    Assumptions: 80% availability, Reg. $40/MW-h, Spin.$10/MW-h, 7% discount rate, example calculations

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    Sequence of Markets

    Initial, high-value markets, are ancillaryservices (A/S)

    Regulating power (Regulation) Spinning reserves (synchronous

    reserves)

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    Sequence of Markets

    Later -- larger markets, lower value per kW Defer upgrades to distribution feeders,

    transformers

    Peak load reduction, valley filling

    Power factor correction

    Balancing wind, reducing ramp rate

    Shifting solar peak to load peak

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    Control of car by ISO

    (Grid operator)

    Control of car by ISO

    (Grid operator)

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    AGC from PJ M to Vehicle via

    PLC

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    What the ISO seesWhat the ISO sees

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    What the ISO sees

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    EVs providing regulation

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    Regulation, drive, regulation, drive

    Permitted by Load Serving Entity

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    Permitted by Load-Serving Entity

    (local utility)

    P itt d b L d S i E tit

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    Permitted by Load-Serving Entity

    (local utility)

    meets IEEE 1547 standards

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    Bill to codify interconnect Permits

    Define:

    Grid-integratedelectric vehicle

    Aggregator

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    Bill to codify interconnect Permits

    Net metering

    Continued...

    Interconnection requirements, etcsame as distributed renewables

    Net can be at rate at time of use (not in this case)

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    Changed to ISO -

    coalition - vehicle smartlink

    Changed to ISO -

    coalition - vehicle smartlink

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    ISO link now on server

    V hi l S t li k (VSL) i

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    Vehicle Smart link (VSL) in

    Car

    No moving parts, fitsunder dash

    Receives signal from

    coalition server

    Reports capacity andcurrent state back tocoalition

    Working to predict next

    use of car (time, distance)

    Automotive-grade Linux

    computer

    F t

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    From car-as-generator

    to fleet as generator AGC signal to a server used by

    aggregator

    Server runs an agent-based coalition

    manager, dispatches individual vehicles Vehicle Smart Link (VSL) on each vehicle

    learns pattern of use of that vehicle,

    predicts ability to dispatch

    Vehicle module acts reasonably when

    communication lost (e.g. night charge)

    V2G A t

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    V2G Aggregator

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    Leveling Wind with V2GLeveling Wind with V2G

    Simple model of V2G for

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    Simple model of V2G for

    wind leveling 220 MW offshore wind power (modelled from buoy 44009)

    Leveling target at 88 MW (40% of nameplate or 14%of average DE load over 8760 hours)

    EV storage of 1000 MWh (1 GWh) to level

    Storage from just under 30,000 EVs (28571eBoxes), about 4% of DE fleet

    Simplifying assumptions: no other end use storage,no distribution power limits, driving compromisedduring a few long wind lulls/year

    Equivalent proportion: 3,250 MW capacity (100% ofDE electricity) and 58% of fleet

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    J uly Wind

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    J uly wind + V2G

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    J anuary Wind

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    J anuary wind + V2G

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    V2G as wind leveling

    Good to reduce ramp rate, fill short gaps(up to 6 hours? one day?)

    Simple model: Not suitable for multi-day

    wind lulls

    Still need fossil or some other backup

    for long wind lulls Half of fleet serves very roughly 100%

    wind electric -- needs model with load,etc

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    Experimental FleetExperimental Fleet

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    Current Fleet

    AC PropulsioneBox

    Fuel Cell Bus

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    Fleet expansion Now building 5 vehicles

    Market test requires enough vehicles, at15 kW/vehicle that is

    V2G market test in PJ M: 200 cars = 1MW

    V2G test in ISO-NE: 20 cars = 100 kW OEMs not building grid-oriented cars, so

    we work with medium-volume (300/year)

    manufacturers

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    medium-volume manufacturing

    AutoPort, Inc. converts vehicles, will do EVs with V2G

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    Fleet expansion

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    Summary Electricity has won as next car fuel

    Plug-in cars will be a grid resource

    A/S as initial high-value markets

    Completed or in process

    1-6 vehicle dispatch under AGC

    Software for aggregator & vehicle Interconnect; law for net metering

    Next: Fleet for A/S contract (~200+)

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    ENDENDMore information:

    www.magicconsortium.org

    www.carbonfree.udel.edu

    More information:

    www.magicconsortium.org

    www.carbonfree.udel.edu

    http