Chaotic Stellar Dynamo Models Math 638 Final Project Rodrigo Negreiros Ron Caplan.

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Transcript of Chaotic Stellar Dynamo Models Math 638 Final Project Rodrigo Negreiros Ron Caplan.
Chaotic Stellar Dynamo Models
Math 638 Final Project
Rodrigo Negreiros
Ron Caplan
Overview• Background: What are stellar dynamos?• Formulation of the model
– Desirable Dynamics– Step by Step Formulation and Analysis
• 1D, 2D– Formulation– Lorentz Force adds Hopf Bifurcations– Breaking degeneracy of 2nd Hopf
• 3D– Symmetry breaking– Chaos!– New breaking term for Reversibility
• Numerical Results• Summary
Stellar Dynamos
Formulation of the Model
Begin with 1D
• Simplify all hydrodynamical behavior of a star into a single variable, z
• We want to describe two steady convecting velocity fields, so we model z by:
2zz This gives rise to a saddlenode bifurcation, with fixed points:
UnstablezP
StablezP
_:
__:
Magnetic Field
• Toroidal field Bt = x• Poloidal field Bp = y• Set q = x + iy = reiФ
• r = (x2 + y2)0.5 Strength of magnetic field• Now we have,
)()()(2qqOzqibaqiq zqibaqiq )()(
Magnetic Field cont.• Using the definition of q, and reordering, we
obtain the following system:
xbzyazy
ybzxazx
zz
)()(
)()(
2
xyazy
yxazx
zz
)(
)(
2
And in cylindrical coordinates:
bz
azrrr
zz
2
azrrr
zz 2
What do we have now?
azrrr
zz 2
azrrr
zz
2
azar
zJ
02
0
*
2/1
r
z
)(),(22/1 ae
))(2( aT
a2)(2
:P
:P
a a
Sink Saddle
) a + 4 + a (4 + ) ( a) 2 + (44 222 T
a a
Saddle Source
Lorentz Force
• Need to add backreaction of magnetic field on the flow
• This force is proportional to B, so we add a term to zdot (carefully):
xyazy
yxazx
zz
)(
)(
2
azrrr
zz 2
xyazy
yxazx
yxzz
)(
)(
)( 222
azrrr
rzz 22
What do we have now?
azrrr
rzz
22
azar
rzJ
22
0
*
2/1
r
z
2
2
*
3
a
ar
z
0
22
),(
2
2
2
2
*3
aa
aarzJ
02
a
T )(2
2
2
aa
)8a(4
42
2
2
22
aaT
02 a
Saddlea 02
000
UnstableCenterStable
a
a
a
a
21
2
21
2 33
Spirals
Quick Reality Check
• We are analyzing r vs. z
• Fixed point in r (r ≠ 0) means? Periodic orbit in x and y!
• Periodic orbit in r means?
• Toroidal orbit in x and y (and z)!
Bifurcation Diagram
Breaking Degeneracy
• We want a torris that will break into chaos, so first we need a viable torris that is maintained in parameter space!
• To do this, a cubic term is added to zdot, breaking the symmetry that caused the degeneracy.
• Now our system: (c<0)
xyazy
yxazx
yxzz
)(
)(
)( 222
xyazy
yxazx
czyxzz
)(
)(
)( 3222
azrrr
czrzz 322
What do we have now?(1)
• New fixed point, and total remap of three old ones.
• No degeneracy
• Heteroclinic Connection
• Stable, unique toroidal orbits, shown as limit cycles in rz plane
What do we have now? (2)
azrrr
czrzz
322
0
023321
*
3,2,1
μzcz:z
r
z ,,
3
3
2
2
*
4
ac
a
ar
z
azar
rczzJ
232 2
0
232),(
3
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
4
ac
aa
ac
aac
arzJ
2
2
32ac
aT
)(2 323
2 caa
a
8a)84
()128
(94 22
3324
422
aacacaacT
0
c
a
3
2
Hopf
Hopf
a2
227
82
c
aa
0
227
4
c
Z1 = [1/9*(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+100/9/(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+10/9]
Z2 =
[ 1/18*(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)50/9/(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+10/9+1/2*i*3^(1/2)*(1/9*(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)100/9/(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3))]
Z3 =
[ 1/18*(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)50/9/(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+10/91/2*i*3^(1/2)*(1/9*(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)100/9/(10001215*u+45*(1200*u+729*u^2)^(1/2))^(1/3))] Lambda1 = [1/2/a^2*(2*lam*a+3*c*lam^2+(4*lam^2*a^2+12*lam^3*a*c+9*c^2*lam^4+8*a^3*lam^2+8*a^2*c*lam^38*a^5*u)^(1/2))]
Lambda2 = [ 1/2*(2*lam*a+3*c*lam^2(4*lam^2*a^2+12*lam^3*a*c+9*c^2*lam^4+8*a^3*lam^2+8*a^2*c*lam^38*a^5*u)^(1/2))/a^2]
Bifurcations Revisited
What about Chaos?
• Since system is essentially 2D, no chaos possible.
• To break axisymmetric property of system, we add cubic term to toroidal field (x).
• Finally(?), our system:
xyazy
yxazx
czyxzz
)(
)(
)( 3222
sin
cos2
322
drz
zdrazrrr
czrzz
xyazy
yxdzyxazx
czyxzz
)(
)()(
)(22
3222
One is Better than Two• In order to simplify our numerical
experiments, we want to only have one variable parameter.
• This is done by creating a parametric curve in the lambdamu plane, which crosses into all the interesting different qualitative regions.
As if this Wasn’t Enough!• After 10 years, an improvement has been made on the model. • We last left our model after adding a symmetrybreaking cubic term to x• This unfortunately breaks the y>y, x>x reversibility of the system• Another possibility for achieving the same result, without losing
reversibility is:
)3()(
)3()(
)(
32
23
3222
yyxdxyazy
yxxdyxazx
czyxzz
sin
cos2
322
drz
zdrazrrr
czrzz
2sin
2cos2
3
322
dr
drazrrr
czrzz
xyazy
yxdzyxazx
czyxzz
)(
)()(
)(22
3222
Numerical Results
• 1  All trajectories collapsing to the fixed point P+.
1
Numerical Results
• 2  First Hopf bifurcation.36.38 10
Numerical Results
• 3  Second Hopf bifurcation.36.38 10
Numerical Results
• 3  Second Hopf bifurcation. • Poincaré Plane
36.38 10
Numerical Results
• 4  Torus folding onto a chaotic attractor.
0.49
Numerical Results
• 4  Torus folding onto a chaotic attractor.
0.85
Bifucartions numerically
Summary
• We rederived the model found in the paper, and in addition we did a detailed analysis of the bifurcations occurring in the system.
• We could see that the model is fairly successful reproducing the different qualitative regimes of magnetic activity in the star.
• Even being an artificial model, it might be very helpful to understand the processes occurring in such complex system.
• Furthermore is a very rich nonlinear model in which a great number of features.