Activity 4 - Appendicular Skeleton

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Activity 4: Appendicular Skeleton

Activity 4:Appendicular SkeletonChapter 8 Human Anatomy (4e) textbookObjectives:Identify the bones and bone markings from the upper limb and pectoral girdle.Identify the bones and bone markings from the lower limb and pelvic girdle.1Compilation: Kathryn Watson & Claudia GonzalesLast Revision: Mohammad Tomaraei


Appendicular Skeleton2 pairs of limbs, and 2 girdlesPectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs to axial skeleton, consisting ofClavicle (2)Scapula (2)Pelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbs to axial skeleton, and is made ofOs Coxa (hip bone) (2)2

Appendicular Skeleton3-Segmented limbsUpper limb = armArmForearmWrist & HandLower limb = legThigh & KneeLegFoot3

Appendicular Skeleton Helpful Terms4

Pectoral Girdle - ClavicleS-shaped, long bone; connects manubrium of sternum to acromion of scapulaSternal end (medial):Pyramid shapedArticulates with clavicular notch of manubrium on sternumAcromial end (lateral):Broad and flattenedArticulates with acromion of scapulaConoid tubercle:Cone-shaped, round projectionNear the acromial endLocated inferiorly and posteriorly (down and back)5

Pectoral Girdle - Clavicle6

Orientation: Sternal end goes medially, conoid tubercle faces inferiorly, posteriorly

Pectoral Girdle - ScapulaBroad, flat, triangular bone; forms the shoulder blade7Superior borderSuprascapular notch: adjacent to superior borderMedial (vertebral) borderLateral (axillary) borderSuperior angleInferior angleSpine: posterior ridge of boneAcromion: posterior process continuous to spine

Pectoral Girdle - Scapula8Coracoid process: smaller anterior projectionSupraspinous fossa: depression superior to spineInfraspinous fossa: depression inferior to spineSubscapular fossa: anterior surface of scapulaGlenoid cavity (fossa): articulates with humerusSupraglenoid tubercle: superior to glenoid cavityInfraglenoid tubercle: inferior to glenoid cavity

Pectoral Girdle - Scapula9

Orientation: Spine is located posteriorly, acromial process points laterally

Upper limb Arm HumerusLong bone; runs from the shoulder to the elbow; connects scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, radius and ulnaHead (of humerus): medial, articulates with glenoid cavityGreater tubercle: more prominentLesser tubercle: smaller of tuberclesIntertubercular sulcus/groove: runs between two tuberclesAnatomical neck: between tubercles and headSurgical neck: a common fracture siteDeltoid tuberosity: attachment site for deltoid muscle (lateral)Coronoid fossa: articulates with coronoid process of ulna10

Upper limb Arm HumerusOlecranon fossa: articulates with olecranon process of ulnaRadial fossa: articulates with head of radiusMedial epicondyleLateral epicondyleTrochlea: articulates with trochlear notch of ulna; medial Capitulum: articulates with head of radius; lateralRadial groove: radial nerve and vessels travel through it (posterior)


Upper Limb Arm Humerus12

Orientation: Head of humerus faces medially (into the body), olecranon fossa faces posteriorly

Upper Limb Forearm UlnaLonger than radius, medially locatedOlecranon (process): articulates with olecranon process of humerusStyloid process (of ulna): medialCoronoid process (of ulna): articulates with coronoid fossa of humerus remember coroNoid because its on ulNaTrochlear notch: articulates with trochlea of the humerusRadial notch of ulna: articulates with head of radiusHead of ulna: located distally/inferiorly, next to styloid process13

Upper Limb Forearm RadiusShorter than ulna, laterally locatedHead (of radius)Neck (of radius)Radial tuberosity: attachment site for biceps brachii muscleUlnar notch: articulates with head (distal) of ulnaStyloid process (of radius): lateral14

Upper Limb Forearm Radius and Ulna15Radius orientation:Radial tuberosity faces anteriorly; styloid process of radius is positioned laterally

Ulna orientation:Trochlear notch faces anteriorly; the styloid process of ulna is positioned medially

Upper Limb Wrist & Hand Carpal Bones (8)Bones between radius and ulna, and the metacarpals; form the wrist; connect hand to forearmProximal row (lateral to medial):Scaphoid boneLunate boneTriquetrum bonePisiform boneDistal row (lateral to medial):Trapezium boneTrapezoid boneCapitate boneHamate bone16

Upper Limb Wrist & Hand Carpal Bones (8)Mnemonics to remember the carpal bones:Some Lovers Try Positions That They Cant Handle(proximal row lateral medial, then distal row lateral medial)Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Trapzeium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate

So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb(proximal row lateral medial, distal row medial lateral)Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum PisiformHamate Capitate Trapezoid Trapezium17

Upper Limb Wrist & HandMetacarpals (1 through 5)Phalanges (1 through 5)Proximal phalanx (1 through 5) Middle phalanx (2 through 5)Distal phalanx ( 1 through 5)Note: all the phalanges consist of proximal, middle, and distal phalanges, except the pollex which lacks a middle phalanx


Upper Limb Wrist & Hand19

Upper Limb Wrist & Hand20

Pelvic Girdle Os Coxa (2)Composed of fused ilium, ischium, and pubis bonesAcetabulum: articulates with head of femurObturator foramen: obturator nerve and blood vessels pass through this foramen21

Pelvic Girdle Os Coxa (2) IliumIliac crestAnterior superior iliac spineAnterior inferior iliac spinePosterior superior iliac spinePosterior inferior iliac spineGreater sciatic notch: passageway to sciatic nerveIliac fossaAuricular surface (of ilium): articulates with sacrum22

Pelvic Girdle Os Coxa (2) IschiumBody (of ischium)Ischial spineLesser sciatic notchRamus (of ischium) or ischial ramusIschial tuberosity23

Pelvic Girdle Os Coxa (2) PubisBody (of pubis)Pubic tuberclePubic crestSuperior pubic ramusInferior pubic ramus24

Pelvic Girdle Os Coxa (2)25

Orientation: Pubis faces anteriorly and medially, ischium faces posteriorly and medially (or you can try to hold it next to your head like a telephone; if it fits its from that side!)

Pelvic Girdle Os Coxa (2)26Orientation: Pubis faces anteriorly and medially, ischium faces posteriorly and medially (or you can use the telephone method!)

Lower Limb Thigh & Knee FemurLongest bone of the body; connects to the hip joint and knee jointHead (of femur): articulates with acetabulum of os coxaFoveaNeck (of femur)Greater trochanterLesser trochanterIntertrochanteric crest: connects trochantersShaft (of femur)Gluteal tuberosity: attachment site of gluteus maximus muscle27

Lower Limb Thigh & Knee FemurLinea aspera: posterior; attachment site for musclesMedial condyle (of femur)Medial epicondyle (of femur)Adductor tubercle: attachment site for adductor magnus muscleLateral condyle (of femur)Lateral epicondyle (of femur)Intercondylar fossa: separates condyles28

Lower Limb Thigh & Knee PatellaAlso known as the kneecapCircular-triangular bone which articulates with femurCovers and protects the anterior articular surface of knee jointLargest sesamoid bone in the body29

Lower Limb Thigh & Knee Femur & Patella30

Orientation: Head of femur faces medially; intercondylar fossa is situated posteriorly

Lower Limb Leg & Foot TibiaAlso known as the shinbone; the larger and stronger of the two long bones of leg (tibia and fibula)Medial condyle (of tibia)Lateral condyle (of tibia)Intercondylar eminenceTibial tuberosityMedial malleolusAnterior border (crest)31

Lower Limb Leg & Foot FibulaAlso known as the calf bone; the smaller and more slender of the two long bones of leg (tibia and fibula)Head (of fibula)Neck (of fibula)Lateral malleolus32

Lower Limb Leg & Foot Tibia & Fibula33

Tibia orientation: Tibial tuberosity faces anteriorly, medial malleolus medially

How to tell if its a left or right fibula?34

Make sure youre looking at a fibula!On its lateral aspect, and near the distal end, find a diagonal rough line, just above the lateral malleolus.Following the direction of this line upwards tells you if its a left or right fibula.Here, our diagonal line goes to left so its a left fibula.


Lower Limb Leg & Foot Tarsal Bones (7)A cluster of seven articulating bones situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula, and the metatarsal bonesTalus boneCalcaneus boneNavicular boneMedial cuneiform boneIntermediate cuneiform boneLateral cuneiform boneCuboid bone35

Lower Limb Leg & Foot Tarsal Bones (7)Mnemonics to remember the tarsal bones:The Circus Needs More Interesting Little ClownsTalus Calcaneus Navicular Medial cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform Lateral Cuneiform Cuboid36

Lower Limb Leg & Foot Metatarsal Bones & PhalangesMetatarsal bones (1 through 5)Phalanges (1 through 5)Proximal phalanx (1 through 5) Middle phalanx (2 through 5)Distal phalanx ( 1 through 5)Note: all the phalanges consist of proximal, middle, and distal phalanges, except the hallux which lacks a middle phalanx


Lower Limb - Foot38