The Sport Psychology Network Gobinder Gill. Goal Setting Goal setting is most effective when applied...

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Transcript of The Sport Psychology Network Gobinder Gill. Goal Setting Goal setting is most effective when applied...

  • The Sport Psychology NetworkGobinder Gill

  • Goal SettingGoal setting is most effective when applied with the SMARTER/SMART principleGoal setting should lead to effective focus and concentrationIn addition, goal setting should lead to higher self-confidencePractising goal setting continuously will lead to effective performance

  • Key PrincipleSpecific e.g. win 100m race in athletics that is two months away

    Measurable e.g. win race in under 10 seconds

    Achievable e.g. yes previous times have averaged 10 seconds

    Realistic e.g. yes within capabilities of performer

    Timed e.g. two month period

  • Application to PracticeSportGoal: Run MarathonEffective Goal: Finish with a time of 2.30Ineffective Goal: Take part and complete circuit

    EducationGoal: Achieve a grade C for exam Effective Goal: Complete 5 mock papers and review grade each timeIneffective Goal: Revise topics for exam Tip: The goal must meet the SMART principle

  • Self-ConfidenceSelf-confidence is a state performers exhibit before, during and after performancePerformers can suffer from positive and negative self-confidencePositive self-confidence should lead to higher self-motivation, greater confidence and enhanced focusNegative self-confidence will lead to increased anxiety, negative emotions and limited direction

  • Key PrincipleSelf-confidence and self-efficacy are two key principles that correlateTheory dictates that higher self-efficacy leads to enhanced self-confidencePerformers with high levels of self-efficacy are likely to develop strategies that can help control their emotions when participating in sportSelf-confidence relates to being successfulEven elite performers can suffer from low self-confidence during their careers

  • Application to PracticeTo build self-confidence ask performers to identify their best and worse performancesIn addition, ask performers to list their emotions when going through best and worse performance scenariosPerformers describe/explain their strengths and areas to develop for best and worse performancesPerformers then list how they can control their own emotionsPerformers should then set goals based on the SMART principle

  • Psychological SkillsIs a form of mental practice that arguably can enhance performanceThere are a range of psychological skills that performers could usePerformers need to practice over time to get used to psychological skillsPsychological skills should be integral and be used as a continuous routine

  • Key PrincipleMental practice can train the mind to make it effective during both training and in competitionPractising with a range of mental skills is most effective than one in isolationPerformers should be allowed to reflect on the benefits of psychological skills

  • Application to PracticeProfile performers in their use/knowledge/application of mental skillsIdentify most users against least usersEducate users how mental skills workHighlight effectiveness of mental skillsUtilise mental skills that are practised in training and then put these into competitionReview how these mental skills worked in training and competitionSet out an action plan to show how improvements can occur

  • Emotional IntelligenceRelates to people being able to understand their own and others emotionsResearch argues that people high in emotional intelligence are more likely to succeed in tasks that they attemptIn addition, people who can regulate their own emotions are more likely to be high in emotional intelligence

  • Key PrincipleThe ability to regulate emotion of oneself and that of othersTo become self-aware and recognise how to support peopleTo develop intervention programmes that utilise emotional awareness

  • Application to PracticeAssess the emotional intelligence of performers

    Examine group profile of performers (teams and individuals)

    Develop self-awareness through a range of activitiesObjectively assess how emotional intelligence is raised or enhanced in periods

    Provide opportunities to regulate emotion amongst team and individuals

  • ReflectionReflection is a generic construct that can be utilised in all specific actionsReflection can lead to focus and determinationReflection is a form of communication to one about their own performanceReflection can lead to better time management and setting of specific goals

  • Key PrincipleTo develop awareness of how reflection can support performance

    To reflect on both positive and negative outcomes in a robust manner

    To allow practitioners to build intervention programmes for performers

  • Application to PracticeUse training sessions to utilise reflective practice

    Performers to complete logbooks to make accounts of their reflection

    Make reflection an integral part of team sessionsUse reflection to provide opportunities for team bonding

    Reflection can be utilised by support staff to help improve their own performance

    Provide performers opportunities to reflect and provide constructive feedback

  • StressStress is something that humans have to cope withStress can be either positive or negativeStress is important because it keeps humans alertPositive stress is good because it enables humans to cope with tasksNegative stress is not good and can lead to apprehension and feelings of unhappiness Stress needs to be controlled and managed

  • Stress ManagementManaging stress is important to prevent symptoms like anxiety. Stress can be controlled through useful strategiesPlanning and preparation is key to avoiding negative stressSetting specific goals can also help control stressReflect on your actions and assess ways to develop better practiceSelf-talk is useful because it directs thinking into positive thoughtsAcceptance to pressure can also lead to action because your mind is channelled

  • Arousal RegulationRegulating your arousal levels are key for successful performance outcomesThrough effective arousal regulation performers can remain focused on the task in handPerformers must be aware of their own psychological stateArousal regulation must relate to both somatic and cognitive symptomsThere are a range of strategies that can help performers to regulate their arousal levels

  • Strategies to Regulate Arousal Learn to relax muscles to reduce tensionUse breathing exercises to stimulate a rhythmic feel to enhance controlSet regular goalsUse positive self-talk to engineer responses that align with successPractice imagery consistentlyGo to Yoga, Meditation, or Pilates classes

  • Working with PerformersCoaches, educators, psychologists all have a responsibility when working with performersMutual trust and rapport are key ingredients to develop an effective relationshipThe working relationship must be professional and cover all ethical proceduresPerformers must be able to have the confidence to approach people who are responsible for their own safeguarding

  • ConsultationPerformers should accept the following from consultants:Be easily accessibleProvide enough time for clientsBe interested in their needsProvide support and guidanceHighlight ways forwardHave sufficient knowledgeIdentify with good interpersonal skills

  • MotivationMotivation is a desire to meet with challengesMotivation can be formed both intrinsically and extrinsicallyCharacteristics of motivation can be identified through direction, effort and intensityTheory dictates that motivate relates to self-needs that are promoted through situational factors

  • Group CohesionWhen working in groups cohesion is vitalTwo types of cohesion are task and socialTask cohesion relates to meeting set goalsSocial cohesion relates to attraction of group membersIncreased cohesion can lead performers to reach goals and develop togetherness

  • ImageryRelates to the practice of creating images or pictures in your mind prior to executing a taskInformation stored in your brain can be used to support performers to create these images or picturesImagery involves all our vital sensesPerformers need to practice imagery to enable focus and control

  • PersonalityPersonality is determined by trait characteristic of an individualThere are a number of different approaches to personalityOur personality can dictate how we act in different situationsBehaviour is dependent on the different type of personality we exhibit

  • LeadershipEffective leaders can influence performers to reach goalsLeaders either emerge or are appointedAll leaders should understand their groupsTrust and rapport must be built with performersLeaders should exhibit a range of leadership styles with their performersStyles of leadership should vary and are dependent on the situation and group

  • FocusMaintaining focus is critical within sports performancePositive self-belief will help performers maintain their focusStrategies to enhance focus would be to utilise positive self-talk and goal settingPerformers should also individualise their set tasks when maintaining focus