Ideology – Louis Althusser · PDF file11.11.2011 · Louis Althusser :...

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Transcript of Ideology – Louis Althusser · PDF file11.11.2011 · Louis Althusser :...

  • Ideology Louis Althusser EN 2903 Literary Theory

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • Ideology Louis Althusser

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • Louis Althusser : ideology

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

    ! Ideology: representation of the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence

    ! Ideology: illusion/allusion

    ! Ideology: an imaginary relation to real relations

    Examples of ideologies ! Democracy ! Multiculturalism ! Capitalism ! Communism ! Individualism ! Liberal humanism

  • Literary texts produce or construct ideological subjects

    ! We are surrounded by ideologies and cannot see them

    ! Like good taste, they are naturalized, rendered invisible, thought of as just the way things are or common sense

    ! Texts are always imbued with ideologies which we must unpack and de-naturalize in order to reveal and understand the ideologies at work

    ! There is no outside to ideology

    ! The ideological subject produced by the text is usthe reader

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • Interpellation or hailing

    ! Individuals are interpellated or hailed as subjects of ideology

    ! Ideology speaks to an individual through images and language

    ! Ideology constitutes individuals as subjects

    ! Subject simultaneously constitute all ideology

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • Double meaning of subject

    1. A free subjectivity, with free will, author of its own actions

    2. Subjected to the authority of someone dominant (e.g. the Queens subjects) stripped of free will except the will to submit to domination

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • Interpellation

    ! Wikipedia: The process by which ideology addresses the pre-ideological individual and produces him or her as a subject

    ! Problem with wikipedias definition?

    ! There can be no pre-ideological individual

    ! The subject is always-already interpellated

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • Ideology: practices & subjects

    ! there is no practice except by and in an ideology

    ! there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • State apparatuses Repressive

    ! Police force

    ! Military

    ! Juridico-legal (punitive: jails, reform schools, etc.)

    Ideological

    ! Juridico-legal

    ! Church

    ! Schools

    ! Family

    ! Culture

    ! Banks

    ! Workplaces

  • Reading images, reading selves

    ! as subjects of ideologies, we interpret images and texts

    ! images and texts interpellate or hail us as viewers who are subjects of the ideological situation depicted

    ! Images and texts simultaneously tell us the kind of viewer we are

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • YOU WILL

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • Ideologies in Dead Poets Society

    ! How can we identify ideologies at work in a literary text?

    ! Identify the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence

    ! Which subject-positions are the boys interpellated into?

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen

  • Next class: Nov 15 The Culture Industry (Horkheimer and Adorno 1242)

    11-11-10 Professor S. Jeppesen