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APPENDIX A Transcription Conventions The audio- and video-recorded materials were transcribed according to the following notation system, whose core was originally developed by Gail Jefferson for the analytic research of conversation. I use the transcription notation { } to show the synchronized vocal and non-vocal action. Symbol Represents [ overlapping utterances = latched utterance (.) micro pause (2.0) timed pause (e.g., 2-second) : extended sound or syllable . falling intonation , continuing intonation ? rising intonation ! animated intonation - cut-off >word< speech at a pace quicker than the surrounding talk <word> speech at a pace slower than the surrounding talk $ smile voice Yeah emphasis VERY speech much louder than the surrounding talk ◦Um◦ speech quieter than the surrounding talk ((walks toward)) non-vocal action that is not synchronized with verbal, details of conversational scene {raises his arm} non-vocal action that is synchronized with verbal speech over gestural stroke (i.e., normally synchronous with co-expressive speech and 1

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APPENDIX A

Transcription Conventions

The audio- and video-recorded materials were transcribed according to the following notation

system, whose core was originally developed by Gail Jefferson for the analytic research of

conversation. I use the transcription notation { } to show the synchronized vocal and non-vocal action.

Symbol Represents

[ overlapping utterances

= latched utterance

(.) micro pause

(2.0) timed pause (e.g., 2-second)

: extended sound or syllable

. falling intonation

, continuing intonation

? rising intonation

! animated intonation

- cut-off

>word< speech at a pace quicker than the surrounding talk

speech at a pace slower than the surrounding talk

$ smile voice

Yeah emphasis

VERY speech much louder than the surrounding talk

◦Um◦ speech quieter than the surrounding talk

((walks toward)) non-vocal action that is not synchronized with verbal, details of

conversational scene

{raises his arm} non-vocal action that is synchronized with verbal speech

over gestural stroke (i.e., normally synchronous with co-expressive speech and

highlights the specific meanings that the speaker wants to convey)

( ) unrecoverable speech

RH right hand

LH left hand

BH both hands

BB blackboard

PS projection screen

APPENDIX B

General Description of Analytic Essay

APPENDIX C

Guidelines of Analytic Essay & Key Words/Phrases for Discussion Activity

APPENDIX D

The following transcript illustrates the preceding sequence when Chan and Mr. Karki were discussing and negotiating the terms, “examples” and “supporting points” in relation to the thesis statement. Although Mr. Karki acknowledges Chan’s viewpoint as legitimate, Mr. Karki tries to emphasize the importance of including “supporting ideas” in the thesis statement while Chan thinks that these points are examples, which should not be included in the thesis statement.

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