Intonation (The Structure of the Tone Unit, & Function of Intonation) - Phonology

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    INTONATIONThe Structure of the Tone Unit, & Functionof Intonation

    Presented by Group 7

    Khalimin (201312500235) Trio Aji Basuki (201312500374)

    Wiwi Sumarti (201312500392) !tno "tari (20131250039#)$ajri%ah (20131250044#) Siti Si&a "l%a (20131250079#)Siti 'urholiah (2013125009#7) *!na Asania (201312570020 )

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    Tone unit and the structure of

    tone unit: Tone: Tone is the overall behaviour of pitch.

    Pitch: Pitch is frequency of vibration of

    vocal cords.

    Tone unit:For the purpose of analyzing

    intonation, a unit greater than syllable one

    syllable. Usually tone unit is always

    composed of more than one syllable.

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    Analysis of Utterances to Understand

    Tone Unit

    ne syllable utterance

    !ou

    This is one tone unit.

    ote! Underlined syllable carry tone.

    Three Syllable Utterance

    "s it you"

    This is one tone unit.

    ote! the underlined syllable have more prominence.

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    The structure of the tone-unit.

    The structure of tone unit comprises of!

    Tonic syllable #T$%

    &ead #&%

    Pre'&ead #P&%

    Tail #T%.

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    Tonic syllable is an obligatory component of tone unit. Thecentre of the unit, around which everything else is constructed,is the tonic syllable, or nucleus.

    For e#a$ple:(ohn, is it you)

    "n this e*ample, there are two tone units because there are, two

    tonic syllables in it. First is (ohn, one syllable utterance%second is it you) #Three syllable utterance%. "t contains a high degree of prominence which is a property of

    stressed syllable, so, tonic syllable contains.

    Tone % Stress:

    Tonic stress: The stress that tonic syllable is having is calledtonic stress.

    Tonic Syllable

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    ' 'A(

    The head is all that part of a tone unit that e*tends from the first stressed syllable up to the tonisyllable.

    For e#a$ple:

    +ive me, those) &ead T$

    "f there is no stressed syllable proceeding the tonic syllable, thercannot be any head.

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    T' P)'*'A(

    The unstressed syllable before the head is called pre'head.For e#a$ple

    "n an hour

    Pre'head T$

    Pre'head can be found in two situations. hen there is no head.

    For e#a$ple:

    "n an hour

    P& T$

    hen the head is after the unstressed syllable.

    For e#a$ple:

    "n a little less than an, hour

    P& & T$

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    T' TAI+

    -ny syllable that follows the tonic syllable or any syllablebetween tonic syllable and of tone unit is called the Tail.

    For e#a$ple:

    oo/ at it

    T$ Tail

    " might buy it

    & T$ Tail

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    Attitudinal function

    Accentual function

    Grammatical function

    Discourse function

    Functions of Intonation

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    Intonation enables us to express emotion and attitudes as we

    speak, and this adds a special kind of meaning to spokenlanguage,

    We can isolate three distrinct types of suprasegmental

    ariable !component of intonation" #

    $e%uential

    &rosodic

    paralinguistic

    Attitudinal function

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    $e%uential component

    'omponents neer occur simultaneously (hey are# pre)head, head, tonic syllable, tail &auses (one)unit boundaries

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    &rosodic component

    'haracteristics of speech that are constantlypresent while the speech is going on#) Width of pitch range) *ey

    ) +oudness) $peed) oice %uality

    ) !rhythmicality"

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    &aralinguistic component

    -acial expressions, gestures, body language ocal effects# laughs, sobs, ... /ffects releant to the act of speaking but not

    proper components of speech

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    (he following tones are the ones most usually encountered. -all 0ise 1 fall

    -all 1 rise 0ise +eel

    Tones conveying meanings

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    It is regarded as neutral tone and gies theimpression of finality.

    Example:A# 2ae you attended the class3

    4# 5es

    !It will be understood that the %uestion is nowanswered and that there is nothing more to besaid."

    - Fall

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    (his tone coneys an impression that something more is to follow.

    For example:

    A# !wishing to attract 4$ attention."/xcuse me.

    4#5es!4$ reply is, perhaps, e%uialent to what do you want3"

    A# Do you know 6ohn $mith34#5es!Initing A to continue with what she intends to say about

    6ohn $mith. (he response with a fall would make it difficultfor A to continue".

    .- )ise

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    This tone shows limited agreement, uncertainty,and doubt.

    For e#a$ple:

    -! " have heard that it0s a good college.1! 2es

    #1 does not completely agree and - wouldprobably e*pect 1 to go on to e*plain why hewas reluctant to agree%.

    /- Fall rise

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    (his is used to coney rather strong feelings of approal,

    disapproal or surprise. (his tone is used rarely in /nglish.

    A# 5ou wouldnt do on awful thing like

    that, would you34# 7o

    A# Isnt the iew loely8

    4# 5es

    0- )ise Fall

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    1- +e2el

    This tone is neutral and uninterested.

    &igh level 2es o

    ow level 2es o

    "t is used in 3nglish language in a restricted conte*t. "talmost always conveys a feeling of routine,uninteresting or boring.

    For e#a$ple:

    - teacher calling names of the pupils from a register.

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    Intonation helps to produce the effect of

    prominence on syllables that should be perceied

    as stressed while tonic stress on a particular

    syllable marks the word as the most important in

    the tone)unit.

    Accentual function

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    (he listener better recogni9es grammar and what is

    being said by using the information contained in

    intonation# e.g. placement of boundaries between

    phrases, clauses and sentences, difference between

    %uestions and statements, use of grammaticalsubordination, etc.

    Grammatical function

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    Intonation can signal to the listener what is to be

    taken as :new information; within the act of

    speaking, when the speaker is indicating a contrast

    or link with the material from preious tone)units

    and it can also make the listener feel what kind ofresponse is expected

    Discourse function