AP U.S. Gov & Politics. Prepare! Dont cram the night before, pace yourself! Focus on studying...
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Transcript of AP U.S. Gov & Politics. Prepare! Dont cram the night before, pace yourself! Focus on studying...
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AP U.S. Gov & Politics Slide 2 Prepare! Dont cram the night before, pace yourself! Focus on studying items you do not know. The morning of. Wake up on time (even early)be awake! Eat a healthy breakfast Wear comfortable clothes & your lucky socks :) Bring a sweater Bring at least two #2 pencils & a black pen for essays Bring bottle of water (& snack for break). Slide 3 Review AP Test Coverage I. Constitutional Underpinnings= 5-15% II. Political Beliefs & Behaviors = 10-20% III. Pol. Parties, IG, & Mass Media = 10-20% IV. Institutions (3 Branches) = 35-45% V. Public Policy = 5-15% VI. Civil Rights & Civil Liberties = 5-15% Slide 4 Exam Breakdown I.60 Multiple Choice questions of total score 45 min. II.Essays 4 free response in 100 minutes Each essay is worth 1/8 of total score... Or a combined total of 50 % of total. For example M/C = 60 points & Essay = 60 points Scoring could break down for MC only as: 78% and above = 5 77% - 68% = 4 67% 55% = 3 54% - 40% = 2 39% and below = 1 (2009 released exam) These benchmarks can or depending on difficulty of exam depending on difficulty of exam Slide 5 Exam Tips Goal is to earn points! Multiple Choice: 5 answers per question (a-e) Correct answer = 1 point Incorrect answer = NO penalty You might as well guesseven if youre clueless! Choose the best answer, some are good, but not the best, go with your gut! Essay/Free Response Questions: Write, write, write what you know! Explain using modern day examples if you can Slide 6 Constitutional Underpinnings Constitutional Underpinnings What are the purposes of Government? Maintain order Provide Public Goods and Services Promote Equality Democratic Systems (Direct or Indirect/Representative) Popular Sovereignty people control (who and how many) Separation of Powers ~ 3 branches Checks & Balances ~ balance of power between branches Republicanism a representative government Federalism - division of national, state & local govts Judicial Review implied in Art III Majority Rule with Minority Rights Who really governs? Theories ~ Majoritarian Politics govt by the majority of the people Pluralism (elitism) govt. by competing interest groups (distinct small groups of people make govt. decisions i.e., big business, bureaucrats, wealthy, military leaders or a combo of Hyperpluralism - Interest groups are so numerous and have such varied competing interests that coalitions are difficult to form so gridlock can occur Slide 7 Constitutional Underpinnings Constitutional Underpinnings Declaration of Independence social contract, natural rights protected, popular sovereignty 1 st attempt at govt Articles of Confederation, had weaknesses Shays Rebellion Philly convention to revise AoC resulting in THE U.S. Constitution - Debates over: - Representation! Plans: Virginia (feds), New Jersey (states) Great Compromise or Connecticut Compromise Bicameral legislature- 2 Senators per state (indirect vote)& Reps according to population (direct vote) - Slavery - South wanted all males counted; 3/5ths compromise - Suffrage Who can vote? Why? - Economics - Congress controls Post Offices to taxation to interstate trade; promote growth (all in Article I) -national govt should protect property - Lack of individual rights protected from a strong national govt?? (except habeas corpus, bills of attainder, ex post facto, trial by jury) Led to BILL OF RIGHTS after ratification! Anti-Federalists argued for its addition Slide 8 Constitutional Underpinnings Ratification of Constitution of the U.S. required 9 of 13 states (AoC?) Federalists v. Anti-Federalists Federalists=large landowners, wealthy merchants who favored strong national govt and weak state govt Antis=small farmers, shopkeepers, laborers who wanted strong state govt and weak national govt with a national bill of rights in place to protect individual liberties Federalist Papers written by? ~ fear of factions (#10) undesirable but inevitable and a large republic will limit the excesses of faction ~ checks and balances (#51) Constitution ratified within 9 months from the closing of Philadelphia Convention- Congress/Pres begin national March 1789 Amendment Process 2 step process which focuses on the federal structure of the US Constitution and requires supermajority votes: Proposal ~ 2/3 vote of Congress or State Conventions Ratification ~ state legislatures or State Conventions Bill of Rights ratified collectively by state legislatures(1791) Slide 9 Constitutional Underpinnings Informal methods of constitutional change: Congressional legislation has expanded constitutional provisions -Judiciary Act of 1789 set up the national court system as it was not described in Article III beyond a SCOTUS -Cabinet departments, agencies, offices in the executive branch -Commerce clause has been expanded to include air routes to internet traffic as well as to ban discrimination in public accommodations (Civil Rights Act of 1964) Executive actions -Sending troops into combat without a declaration of war -Making executive agreements to circumvent the treaty making process -Senatorial Courtesy used in nominating federal judges (not SCOTUS) as an unwritten tradition Judicial decisions -Judicial Review not in Constitution but established with the Marbury v. Madison case in 1803 Political Party Practices -Parties are not mentioned in Constitution yet that hold conventions to nominate candidates and the electoral college has become a rubber stamp for the popular vote based on party vote per state Slide 10 Constitutional Underpinnings Federalism govt power is divided between a central govt. and state govts (and local too) or a decentralization of govt powers Framers do not want unitary (most/all power for national) or confederate (most/all power at state level) Delegated Powers = Federal powers as stated in Constitution per branch Reserved Powers = States powers (10 th Amendment, education, marriage, licensing doctors, establish public schools, etc.) Inherent Powers = powers for national govt. based on the fact that the US is a sovereign nation-state and must have right to make treaties, wage war control immigration, under the concept of international law Expressed Powers = specifically granted for national govt (Congress makes laws on interstate trade, declares war, issues copyrights) sometimes referred to as enumerated powers as most are listed in Art. I Sec. 8 clauses 1-17 as well as in Art. II Executive, Art. III Judicial Implied Powers = not expressly stated in the Constitution; helps make expressed powers worki.e., Congress establishes a civil service system to hire federal workers, military draft in order to raise army, and EPA known as the elastic clause Art I Sec 8 Cl 18 Concurrent Powers =shared powers, i.e. establish courts, taxation, borrow $ Slide 11 Prohibited powers = denied to both feds and states (feds cannot tax exports, states cannot make treaties) Who shall rule in conflicts between feds & states? Art VI - Supremacy Clause Implied powers of national govt upheld with: McCulloch v. Maryland - helped establish necessary and proper clause (elastic clause) gave Congress power to enact policies not specifically listed (National Bank) and states cannot tax federal institutions. Validates the supremacy of the national govt. over the states when in conflict. (Marshall Court) Commerce power of national govt extended with: Gibbons v. Ogden - commerce includes the production, buying, selling, and transporting of goods and services. Congress regulates all interstate and international commerce. (Marshall Court) Constitutional Underpinnings Constitutional Underpinnings Slide 12 Constitutional Underpinnings Dual Federalism layer cake; national and state govt remain supreme within their own spheres of operation (feds foreign policy, states public schools) Characterizes the nation/state relations before New Deal! Cooperative Federalism- marble cake; national and state govts work together to complete projects (interstate highway system) Fiscal Federalism- the pattern of spending, taxing and providing grants from national to state govts; Why share the money? Grant-In-Aid - one level of govt pays for another levels project Categorical grants $$ for specific projects w/strings attached ($ for wastewater treatment plants) feds have some power in decisions Formula grant- Do you meet the formula? i.e. public housing, employment programs Block grant funds for general spending areas; made for a broadly defined purpose (homeland security or community development) states have more discretion/power in decisions Mandates Federal law that sets specific guidelines for all citizens that the states must comply to AND if they dont state could be penalized by loss of funding (i.e. raise drinking age to 21 or lose highway funding, Disability Act, Clean Air Act) Unfunded mandates - laws w/o funding for state and locals to provide services and could be penalized if not followed (NO $$$) Slide 13 Constitutional Underpinnings Devolution- refers to the movement to transfer responsibilities of governing from the feds to the states/locals (starts with Reagan in the 1980s) Welfare Reform of 1996 (TANF) gave the states $$ to run their own welfare programs with wide discretion in implementation from welfare to work programs (Clinton and Congress) Advantages of Federalism: ~promotes diverse policies that encourage experimentation and creative ideas ~provides multiple power centers making it difficult for any one faction or interest group to dominate policies ~keeps the govt close to the people by increasing opportunities for participation Disadvantages of Federalism: ~promotes inequality because states differ in resources provided to services ~enables local interests to delay or even thwart majority support for a policy ~creates confusion because the different levels of government make it difficult for citizen to know what different governments are do