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    May/Jun 2010

    ContentsCover Story4 No Small Sacrifice

    Tool & Die Making7 Tooling; A Dying Trade

    Machine Tools

    10 Selling by Education13 Investing in Machines

    Corrosion15 Corrosion Testing Stainless Steel

    19 New Technology, New Problems?

    Stockists & Service Centres23 Mixed Fortunes for Stockists

    Non-Ferrous and Ferrous25 Use It, Dont Lose it

    Manufacturing30 Funtastic Balls

    Castings, Forgings, Furnaces and

    Refractories33 Piping Hot Performance

    Industry News35 Industry News

    Endorsing Bodies

    SAIMechE (SA Institution of Mechanical


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    E-mail: [email protected]


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    CopyrightAll rights reserved. No edi-

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    Advanced Materials Today

    may be reproduced in any form

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    While every effort is made to

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    use either generally or in any

    particular field or fields.

    UretechTel: (011) 268-8860

    Fax: (011) 447-2212



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    Fortunately technology has also advanced

    rapidly and solutions that were appropriate

    just a few years ago are being superseded

    by new longer lasting technologies that can

    reduce total cost of ownership dramatically.

    In light of the changing technologies wear, corrosion

    and insulation specialist, Uretech, is on a drive

    to take the guess-work out of specifying the right

    lining for the right application. Through applying

    knowledge gained over decades, the companysphilosophy is one of establishing and understanding

    the influences that affect the performance of linings

    against corrosion, wear and heat and providing

    customers with solutions that work.

    Protecting assetsLiners are used in processing and manufacturing

    plants to protect surfaces against heat, wear or

    corrosion. If correctly specified, they can elimi-

    nate damage to the underlying surface material.

    No Small SacrificeCosts of linings and sacrificial linings for industry have escalated to a point where they can no longer be

    regarded as a consumable commodity that can be replaced at the drop-of-a-hat.


    In most instances, the surfaces are protected at

    the expense of the lining - that will take the brunt

    of the abuse and deteriorate with time. Like the

    proverbial sacrificial lamb, it is sacrificed for the

    good of the overall process.

    Industries such as mining rely on liners to protect

    infrastructure from corrosive or abrasive environ-

    ments. Pipes and ore chutes are commonly lined

    with materials ranging from steel to polyurethane,

    rubber and ceramics. Linings are also used as heatshields in processing plants and a myriad of other


    This important field is often poorly understood

    due to the many outside influences that can affect

    a linings performance and the complex analysis

    thereof. Our aim is to use our experience to specify

    the right lining whether it be rubber, plastic, steel

    or ceramic, George Hoffmann, managing director

    of Uretech, tells :Advanced Materials Today.

    Material selectionStrategically, the recent merger with Dot Steel and

    Insulcon, allows Uretech to offer solutions in steel,ceramic, plastics and rubber composites. They of-

    fer 99% of the different linings used in industry.

    It is true that sacrificial rituals have been practiced

    throughout the ages in one form or another in the belief

    that higher powers would rain benefits on those

    responsible for the sacrifice

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    George adds, The merger puts

    us in a unique position to study

    applications and supply the appro-

    priate liner from our vast product


    One of the reasons for the merger

    was that we realised that we had to

    broaden our offering to ensure we

    have products that are best suited

    to the application. All too often in

    our industry, lining experts sell

    unsuitable solutions because they

    have to support their own technolo-

    gies of single product offering.

    This is compounded by the fact

    that customers regard linings as

    consumables and pay less atten-tion to technological advancements

    than perhaps they should. As a result, procure-

    ment decisions are based on tried and trusted

    technologies that may no longer provide the best

    solution, George says.

    According to George, the solution is simply to bench-

    mark materials and to document the performance

    of materials, either on a trail basis or in actual ap-

    plications, and then base buying decisions on fact.

    In order to assist with accurate benchmarking, the

    company has specially-trained technical staff around

    the country to undertake any tests required.

    Errors of judgementAlthough the specification of liners is not an exact

    science, the use of historical data from around the

    world provides findings that can be used as the basis

    for similar installations in South Africa. Uretech

    continually gathers this data, as well as data from

    the field in order to make informed decisions.

    George says their technical staff does encounter

    instances where poorly-specified linings have failed

    prematurely leading to the damage of the very

    equipment they were meant to protect. In these

    instances, Uretech is able to collect physical data

    and recommend alternatives that are more suited

    George Hoffmann

    to the application at hand.

    Problems can be avoided if plants

    are designed correctly and al-

    lowance made for suitable liner

    materials. Ideally operators and

    owners of plants should specify

    the use of liners before designing

    and building. This will avoid over-

    or under-engineering structures

    where unnecessarily heavy liners

    are not called for, or vice versa.

    In reality the weight of the liner

    has little bearing on its ability to

    resist wear, corrosion or heat and

    civil or structural engineers should

    be made aware of the choices that

    are suitable.

    Ahead of the gameWhether designing for new projects or refurbishing

    old processes, George suggests that close attention

    be paid to the process in its entirety and that lin-

    ings are carefully selected with the assistance of

    professionals. The right lining means the process

    will work optimally and endure less downtime in

    the long run.

    It is true that sacrificial rituals have been practiced

    throughout the ages in one form or another in the

    belief that higher powers would rain benefits on

    those responsible for the sacrifice. The correct use

    of linings and sacrificial linings will also rain ben-

    efits on its users and ensure that loss of production

    due to downtime does not sacrifice a companys

    hard-earned money.

    Uretech, George Hoffmann, Tel: (011) 268 8860, Fax: (011)

    447 2212, Email: [email protected], Web:

    All too often in our industry, lining experts sell

    unsuitable solutions because they have to support their

    own technologies of a single product offering


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    This is according to findings of a study un-

    dertaken for the National Tooling Initiative

    Programme (NTIP) by the University of

    Aachen in conjunction with the University

    of Stellenbosch. It found the industry to be in

    crisis due to massive skills shortages, as well as

    uncompetitive practices that continue to be used

    in an industry that is already under threat fromcheap imports from China and India.

    Already the countrys manufacturing sector uses

    only 20% local tools, dies and moulds (TDM). The

    problem is that certain manufacturing processes

    require local tooling and, at the very least, skilful

    toolmakers who can support increasingly complex

    tooling from abroad.

    At the moment the country relies on an ageing

    force of toolmakers who are still able to produce

    and support manufacturing, but the study has found

    that these skilled artisans are on average over 50

    years old and will be lost to the economy within

    the next few years, says Dirk van Dyk, NTIP chief


    Global scaleIn a global village and against the backdrop of

    fierce competition among traditional manufactur-

    ing economies and new-comers from the East, it

    is important to maintain and grow the tool and

    die making industries. A lack of skills at this level

    means that the entire manufacturing sector is at

    risk and will become uncompetitive. It also ham-

    pers innovation locally as prototyping, research

    and development of home-grown products will

    not be possible.

    Probably the main cause of the skills shortage

    was the downscaling and subsequent abolition of

    apprenticeship programmes that were run by gov-

    ernment entities such as Spoornet, Eskom, Iscor

    and Sasol among others. The closing of national

    trade testing and apprentice

    training centres and subse-

    quent unreadiness of tertiary

    institutions to fill the void,

    resulted in very few trades-

    men entering the market,

    adds Dirk.

    He continues that South Afri-

    cas woes should be seen incontext against countries like

    China that produces in excess of

    500 000 technically trained

    graduates per year. Although

    small compared with China,

    countries like Germany still

    produce about 5 000 qualified

    artisans per year and are put-

    ting in place urgent measures

    to increase this number in order

    to remain competitive.

    Mission possible

    Despite the findings, the situ-ation can be saved and steps

    to turn the situation around by

    the NTIP in partnership with

    the Department of Trade and

    Industry (DTI) and the Toolmakers Association of

    South Africa (TASA), are being implemented already.

    The initiative is guiding 175 candidates through

    a pre-apprenticeship programme at seven sites

    around the country. The programme is designed to

    orientate learners and polish-up their skills in order

    to ready them for apprenticeships. They will join

    245 other apprentices when the full programme

    kicks off with a pilot programme next year. Thesefigures will swell in following years as more training

    institutions adopt the curriculae.

    Locally only about 15% of candidates who start

    training for a career in manufacturing complete


    Tooling; ADying TradeTool and die making skills are in dire straits in South Africa

    and if the situation is not addressed immediately the

    industry will collapse taking the countrys manufacturing

    abilities with it.

    The wheels of industry in South Africa will grind slowly to a halt if we dont produce enough toolmakers

    Already the countrys manufacturing sector uses only

    20% local tools, dies and moulds

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    the course. This is often due to unreadiness of

    the candidate for the courses often as a result of

    factors such as poor education foundations, lan-

    guage difficulties or attraction of the wrong profileof candidate who has a poor understanding of the

    work involved. The pre-apprenticeship programme

    will iron out these issues and ensure candidates are

    properly prepared when training starts next year,

    Importance of benchmarkingSince the inception of the NTIP in 2004,

    issues were identified and a roadmap

    for the future put in place. The interven-

    tion started with analysis of the mainproblems facing the industry and formal

    planning of the steps to be taken in order

    to rescue the situation. The next step

    was the formulation of the up-to-date

    curriculum to be implemented at further

    education and training authorities. The

    study mentioned in this article was the

    third step and included the benchmarking

    of the industry against European, South

    American and other countries tool mak-

    ing industries.

    With the knowledge gained through the

    Aachen University, it is possible to look

    at the state of the local industry and

    compare practices with other developing

    countries as well as developed countries

    like Germany and Europe.

    The benchmarking studies uncovered a

    number of potentially serious flaws that

    contribute to the state of the industry inSouth Africa. The benchmark revealed

    that the main cause for concern was lack

    of skills development. Other serious is-

    sues highlighted were the uncompetitive

    nature of business in South Africa, lack of

    focus on exports, lack of automation and

    a lack of recapitalisation of equipment and

    skills following the closure of the nuclear

    project and downscaling of the arms and

    aerospace industries that fed the precision

    manufacturing industry.

    Not art

    South Africa, like Germany a few yearsago, still clings to the belief that a tool-

    maker is an artist and that handcrafted

    tools are the way to go. As a result, tool

    rooms are mostly set up to support this

    type of manufacture, when they should

    rather be geared to industrialised products

    that are manufactured in a quick and

    efficient manner.

    We found most tool, die and mould

    making operations to be quite inefficient and, on

    average, served only two main customers. This is a

    problem as reliance breeds an environment where

    the customer has the ability to squeeze margins and

    as a result the companies are subject to dwindling

    turnover, low profits and tight cash flows.

    The customer bases locally cannot and will not

    Benchmark findings reveal that on average South African tool, die and mould

    making operations are inefficient compared to a sample of equivalent sized Eu-

    ropean and South American companies. The following findings were made:

    The level of technology usage is lower with 50% of programming done at the

    machine as opposed to CAD / CAM stations.

    Lack of CAD / CAM usage means sophisticated designs cannot be effectively


    Automation levels are low.

    Average skill levels are lower with far fewer engineers and master artisanson site.

    Manufacturing capacity is low. South African operations run one shift on aver-

    age opposed to two overseas.

    Average age of toolmaker is 55 in South Africa and in Europe is 30s.

    Local operations have fixed remuneration structures as opposed to performance

    related packages elsewhere

    On average the local operations service two main customers opposed to seven


    Poor marketing contributes to lack of new business in South Africa.

    European comparisons


    South Africa, like Germany a

    few years ago, still clings to the

    belief that a toolmaker is an


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    s, dies and moulds shape modern society

    Local tool rooms need to be modernised

    provide sufficient business to sustain the sector

    and businesses are not set-up to compete globally

    with exports. Perhaps the biggest concern is the

    unparalleled lack of urgency in South African tool

    rooms and this can only start being addressedthrough the creation of an environment that is

    geared to competing on a global scale, says Aachen

    University scientist, Stefan Kozielski.

    Future projectsThe NTIP is not sitting on its laurels though. It is

    mobilising support from industry and government to

    seek ways of competing on the global stage through

    specialisation in certain fields where expertise does

    already exist and expanding on that.

    It makes sense to become a country known

    for certain specialities rather than being a jack

    of all trades, but master of none, says Dirk.

    For this reason we are working with the DTI

    to identify niches that we can serve and to

    form business clusters specialising in providing

    services to certain industries.He puts forward the notion that TDMs can be

    competitive if they work together as specialist

    serving industries like, for example, mining,

    packaging and automotive industries. The

    pooled skills and resources of companies that

    would normally compete can create globally

    competitive offerings.

    In some instances possible areas of coopera-

    tion have already been identified and the NTIP

    and DTI are already undertaking feasibility


    National Tooling Initiative Programme, Dirk van Dyk,Tel: (012) 643-9360, Fax: (012) 663-9418, Email:

    [email protected]

    The local automotive industry

    will suffer as a result of the tool

    and die maker skills shortage

    in the country


    It makes sense to become a country

    known for jack of all trades, but master

    of none

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    The longer this work in progress takes, the

    more you eat into your profit.

    Acting on these wise words is not always easy

    when one considers that a skills shortage

    is gripping the metalworking industry worldwide.

    That is why Peter tells Advanced Materials Today

    that he and his team have built Hi-Tech around hisproposition to sell by education.

    He has set up a state-of-the-art, Merseta accredited

    training facility at his Modderfontein warehouse to

    do just that. Since the abolishment of the states

    apprenticeship programs and trade tests, the level of

    skills available for both CNC operators and program-

    mers is low. We believe in upskilling our customers

    workforces to ensure they are competitive locally

    and internationally.

    Centre for excellenceHi-Techs training centre lecture rooms are equipped

    with12 desk top computers installed with Mazatrol

    (Turning) and (Milling) and (MT Mill-Turn) software

    to replicate actual programs and jobs. The trainee

    first needs to master the simulator before moving

    to the next level where the Mazatrol CNC controls

    are linked to actual Mazak CNC machines and the

    raw material is physically machined. The training

    is aimed at operators and programmers who are

    already employed in the machining industry and

    includes training on the operation of Mazatrol and

    ISO controlled CNC machines, best practices,

    techniques and maintenance of machines.ExcellentI believe that our training equips learners with the

    know-how to effectively operate a CNC machine.

    It should turn a mediocre operator into a good one

    and a good operator into an excellent one. As long

    as they have learned the fundamentals at technical

    school or college, they can be equipped with the

    skills to operate a machine and later undertake

    basic programming, Peter adds.

    His effective training program helps him sell more

    machines. As soon as the customer sees what

    can be achieved when our machines are operated

    effectively by a competent operator, they generally

    remain loyal. Operators too become loyal to our

    Mazak brand because it never lets them down and

    despite its high-tech abilities, it is so easy to use.

    Educating Mazak users is a rewarding job and helps

    me to sell machines to an audience who understands

    the value of buying quality equipment.

    Saleable solutionsAnd sell he does. Hi-Tech

    Machine Tools has sold

    many hundreds of CNC

    machines into the local

    market in the 20 years thatit has been in existence.

    Peters relationship with

    Yamazaki Mazak goes back

    even further to 1978.

    He has nothing but ad-

    miration for the Japanese

    company and its way, of

    doing business. I feel I

    am lucky to stand on the

    shoulders of this giant.

    Wherever they can see a

    way they have a vision and

    Hi-Tech has always beenpart of their plans.

    Despite this Peter has

    maintained his indepen-

    dence and adapted his

    Selling by


    More than 30 years in the business of selling

    machine tools has taught Peter Killian that the

    quickest route for his customers to make money

    from their machines is to have the raw materialto finished machined product, complete with

    invoice, delivered to their customer in the fastest

    time possible.

    A skills shortage is gripping the metalworking industry



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    unique techniques and understanding of the local

    market to sell more product. His no-nonsense and

    enthusiastic approach to introducing his machines

    to new clients is often seen as a forceful approach,

    but nothing could be further from the truth.

    After 30 years in the market I still get excited when

    I go and see a client and if I have solutions for them

    I like to show them hands-on, says Peter.

    Peter and his loyal team of Technicians and Product

    Support Engineers have gained many new customers

    by guiding them to buy the right machine for the

    right job. At his charismatic best he can be quite

    persuasive and his firm belief in assisting customers

    to optimise productivity rather than save a few rands

    on the purchase price is a hard proposition to beat

    when a customer watches a live demonstration of

    their own product being made.Right or wrongPeters stance is black or white, its right or its

    wrong. He believes businesses should buy the

    right machine to do the job cost effectively rather

    than substituting machines that are not capable

    of quick set-ups.

    Peters stern belief in his products comes from his

    background where he started as an apprentice fitter

    and turner and a lifelong career spent in service

    in the machine tool industry. I back my products

    and readily put my neck on the line by inviting

    clients to see how we make their work-pieces on

    Peter Killian

    Sell machines to an audience who understands the value

    of buying quality equipment

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    our Mazak CNC machines. If they like what they

    see they buy it and in the unlikely event they dont,

    then Ill acknowledge that somebody elses machine

    is more suited, laughs Peter.

    At least onceIf ever there was a man that is cut out to be in

    the job, its Peter. His true character comes to the

    fore when he is talking machine tools and produc-

    tion. An ever-present desire to get involved andfind out more contributes

    to his already massive

    knowledge of production

    and his ability to relay

    real-life scenarios makes

    him an effective agent for

    the Mazak range of CNC

    machine tools.

    Many people in the steel

    working and manufacturing

    industry would recommend

    that users of machine

    tools speak to Peter at

    least once in their career.

    If you dont buy his ma-

    chines you certainly will

    learn a few things about


    Hi-Tech Machine Tools, Peter

    Killian, Tel: (011) 608 0088,

    Fax: (011) 608 0148, Email:

    [email protected], Web: www.


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    That is why Aurelio Grech-

    Cumbo of RGC Engineering

    is somewhat of an activist

    to stop slow but

    steady demise of our

    manufacturing output.

    The opening of markets

    in recent years couldhave spelt boom-time

    for local companies able

    to capitalise on broader

    market penetration, but

    instead the culmination

    of skills shortages and

    inward thinking has led

    to a situation where locals

    have seen their market

    share eroded or vanish

    in the face of cheaper or

    superior imports.

    RGC Engineering has traditionally served

    the top end of the market supplying

    products like Hermle machine tools and

    Mitutoyo and Gom measuring equipment to the

    industry. These machines are not cheap, but they

    offer excellent return on investment when they are

    employed at 90% or more of their capacity.

    The problem in South Africa is finding enough

    work to keep machines productive. The only solu-

    tion is for our manufacturers to uphold world-class

    production standards and compete for business

    abroad. We really have to

    look towards industrialis-

    ing products for export,

    Aurelio tells Advanced

    Materials Today.

    Industry developmentRGC Engineering is a ma-

    jor supplier of machines,accessories and tooling

    for the metalworking and

    manufacturing industries

    in South Africa. In order

    to secure its position as

    a leading player in the

    market, it has developed

    a customer centric ap-

    proach to customers and

    the market it serves.

    We want to promote high

    quality production and

    global competitiveness andin order to achieve this we

    have placed a strong focus

    on providing solutions that

    are suited to the local

    Investing in MachinesDriving world class manufacturing practices among local busi-

    nesses should be one of the prime objectives of engineering

    industry role-players and government.


    Aurelio Grech-Cumbo 03

    Clamping xture for grinding application

    Gauging and control system for checking disk brakes

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    Machines available from RGC

    EngineeringMachine tools

    Agents for JOBS, Hermle and ELB-Schliff.

    Range includes CNC Milling, CNC Turning,

    CNC Grinding

    Metal forming, punching and pressingAgents for Schuler Pressen.

    Measuring systems and equipmentAgents for Marposs, Mitutoyo and GOM.

    Marking and engraving systemsIncluding industrial marking systems laser

    marking, engraving systems and micro-impact

    indent marking.

    Other products and services include:Tool presetters, industr ial polishing and washing

    systems, tooling and accessories.

    Turnkey project offeringsIntegrated manufacturing systems for metal

    removing industry

    Customised integrated measuring systems

    SoftwareStatistical process control

    Customised software for CAD, CAM measur-


    Applications & Integration of Systems

    market and its unique requirements.

    Through active involvements in initiatives like the

    National Tooling Initiative Programme (NTIP), weare not only committed to supplying high quality

    equipment to the industry, but also want to ensure

    that skills are developed to operate the machinery

    effectively and ultimately strengthen our customers

    and the countrys position as world-class manu-

    facturers, says Aurelio.

    Promoting performance

    Local machine shops must work smarter in orderto compete in a market that is either dominated by

    cheap imports from the East or that is threathened

    by perceived superior quality from traditional global

    manufacturing centres such as Europe and the

    United States.

    Plastic injection moulding tool core for safety helmet

    Machining of helmet core


    Crysta-Apex co-ordinate measuring machineTurn the tide and emerge as a global manufacturing


    If we are going to turn the tide and emerge as a

    global manufacturing power, then we have to start

    now by investing in world-class machines, adopt-

    ing international best-practices and training for thefuture, concludes Aurelio.

    RGC Engineering, Aurelio Grech-Cumbo, Tel: (011) 887

    0800, Fax: (011) 887 7833, Email: aurelio.grech-cumbo@

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    According to Simon Norton, principal consul-

    tant of Chemical Investigation Services, the

    company was approached late last year byan internationally-renowned food industry

    supplier to assist with the development of a food

    processing machine. The company concerned had

    carried out a pilot trial of a newly-designed and

    manufactured food processing machine, only to

    discover that the process fluid caused severe pittingcorrosion on the upper machine surfaces.

    Corrosion strikesThe machine had been manufactured using AISI

    316 stainless steel and the designers and manufac-

    turers had expected that the stainless steel would

    have withstood the process fluid environment. So

    just what caused these corrosion problems is what

    we had to find out, says Simon.

    Which advanced materials, ie, stainless steels

    should have been considered for application in

    their new food machinery? What corrosion testing

    should they have carried out to ensure that the cor-

    rect stainless steel was selected before completing

    the final design, begged the question.

    He says at the root of the problem is the need for

    designers and engineers to know the properties of

    various stainless steels as well as their capabilities

    and limitations.

    Corrosion causesSimons continues that it is a well known fact that

    chloride ions in solution will attack the passive

    oxide layer formed on the surface of stainless

    steels. Steels need > 13% chromium to make them

    stainless steels or else at lower Cr concentrations

    the material behaves much like iron. It is less well

    known that sulphide inclusions in the stainless

    steel and the possible presence of manganese in

    the stainless act to enhance the pitting of stainless

    steels by forming manganese sulphide inclusions.

    These local chemical variations in the stainless

    can trigger off the formation of pits.

    In addition to the presence of chloride ions, if a

    solution has a low pH ( pH < 5 ) it will furtherenhance corrosion and pitting. Add to this elevated

    temperature in a system, and corrosion takes place

    very much quicker.

    Chemical kinetic theory (how fast chemical reac-Figure1 - Pitted AISI 316 stainless steel exposed to chloride ions at elevated tem-

    perature under wet/dry conditions during a cyclic corrosion test

    Corrosion Testing

    Stainless SteelsFew engineers and designers seem to be aware of the range of stainless steels that are available to

    fulfill a multitude of roles in the fabrication and manufacture of equipment for the process industry

    and food industries.

    The table below shows the chemical composition of the 5 different stainless steels

    used in the corrosion testing to be described in this article

    % element C Mn Cr Ni Mo N Other

    AISI 316


    0,08 2,00 17,0 12,0 2,5 0,07 -

    AISI 904L

    Super Austenitic

    0,017 1,43 20,05 24,13 4,40 0,06 Cu 1,46%

    AISI 2205


    0,021 1,52 22,38 5,75 3,14 0,18 Cu 0,21%

    SAF 2507

    Super Duplex

    0,02 0,83 25,07 6,91 3,82 0,27 Cu 0,22%

    254 SMO

    Super Austenitic

    0,02 - 20,0 18,0 6,1 0,20 Cu 0,7%

    Local chemical variations in the

    stainless can trigger off the formation of


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    tions proceed) demonstrates that if the

    temperature of a chemical reaction

    system is increased by 10 degrees cen-

    tigrade, then the speed of the reaction

    will double.

    The cooking fluid used to prepare the

    food products that would be processed

    in the newly-designed machine contained

    6400 mg/l of chloride ions, had a pH

    ~ 3,5 and the process fluid had to be

    heated to over 80 oC to ensure proper

    cooking of the product.

    The pitting corrosion of the machine ap-

    peared to occur only on the top surfaces

    and covering lid of the entire machine,

    which was consistent with areas of the

    machine that were wet by hot process fluidand then dried out later thus depositing

    chloride ions on the stainless steel.

    Thus all the conditions necessary for

    attacking the magic chromium oxide

    layer on stainless steel were met and

    the stainless steel surface became cor-


    Bring on advanced materialsIt was now necessary to take a whole new look

    at the material selection for this food processing

    application and start to examine other stainless

    steels and their suitability for the application.To start the process off, a literature review was

    initiated looking at stainless steel and the impact

    of elevated temperature, high chloride ion content

    and low pH ( acidity ) on the performance of vari-

    ous types and grades of stainless. Also, test work

    done to examine the impact of surface finish on

    pitting corrosion was reviewed.

    The test work that was described in the published

    technical papers gave us the clues to selecting a

    range of stainless steels which could be tested to see

    if they could withstand the tough process conditions

    imposed by the food processing application.

    Four types testedSimon explains that one could say that these are the

    advanced materials necessary to fabricate equip-

    ment where environmental and process conditions

    are difficult and where conventional AISI 304 and

    AISI 316 stainless steel just wont work.

    The challenge to engineers and designers is to

    open their minds to the range of stainless steels

    and advanced materials that are available while

    making sure to consider material selection at the

    design stage. If the food equipment manufacturer

    had considered the material selection and fluid

    composition initially, a different outcome wouldhave been achieved, Simon says.

    AISI 316 stainless steel which was originally

    used to fabricate the food machine, is an aus-

    tenitic stainless steel and has a face centred

    cubic crystal structure. The nickel content

    increases the size of the austenite field in the

    microstructure and eliminates all ferrite from

    the iron chromium alloy. The molybdenum

    content provides some form of corrosion re-

    sistance to chloride ions but not sufficient for

    this extreme application.

    The Duplex stainless steels namely SAF 2507

    and AISI 2205 are made up of 50 % ferrite

    and 50 % austenite and offer the designer and

    fabricator the best of both worlds in terms of

    mechanical properties and excellent corrosion

    resistance under tougher conditions.

    AISI 904 L and 254 SMO are specialised stain-

    less steels that offer outstanding performanceunder severe environmental and operating


    AISI 904 L is a low carbon non-stabilized

    austenitic stainless steel and is resistant to

    chloride attack, pitting and crevice corrosion

    and stress corrosion cracking.

    Figure 2 - Corrosion test chamber with stainless steel panels hot mist gets fed into the sealed

    chamber during the wet cycle the chamber is surrounded by a heating jacket


    The table illustrates the relative costs of the 5 different stainless steels and shows

    their relative ranking with regard to critical pitting temperatures

    Stainless steel type Critical pitting temperature by

    ASTM G 150 in oC

    Relative cost

    @April 2010

    316 Austenitic 18 1

    2205 Duplex 50 1,2

    2507 Super Duplex 82 2,0

    904L Super Austenitic 52 2,6

    254 SMO Super Austenitic 83 3,0

    Where conventional AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless

    steel just wont work

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    254 SMO is a high molybdenum and high

    strength stainless steel with excellent corrosion

    resistance due to its higher alloying element


    The selection process used to find stainless steels

    that may withstand the very corrosive conditions

    created by the hot cooking fluid were:

    Critical pitting corrosion performance

    Suitable mechanical properties

    Ease of welding and fabrication


    Advanced materials to the testThe next step in the process was to design a cor-

    rosion test pattern that would subject the chosen

    stainless steels to an environment that would allow

    discrimination between the steels performance and,

    at the same time, mimic the wet and dry environ-

    ment they would experience.

    Furthermore, the stainless steel would be subjected

    to elevated temperature >80 oC and a high chloride

    containing process fluid. The evaporation of the

    process fluid on the stainless steel would lead to

    a concentration of chlorides on the surface of the

    steel and so exacerbate the corrosive impact.

    It was known from the literature reviewed that whenchloride containing solutions evaporate and dry on

    the surface of stainless steels they speed up cor-

    rosive attack and pitting. The question now to be

    answered was whether the selected stainless steels


    could withstand the severe conditions imposed by

    the process fluid?

    First corrosion testFirst we attempted to test the 5 different stain-

    less steels in the brushed finish condition using a

    CYCLIC wet + dry test pattern for a 28-day period.

    The actual fluid used in the food cooking process

    was misted hot into the corrosion chamber, which

    was set at an elevated temperature matching the

    actual food process conditions.

    The stainless steels all failed after just 9 days

    testing showing extensive pitting corrosion. Clearly

    it was back to the drawing board.

    From our literature review we knew that

    surface finish can increase the critical

    pitting temperature and improve the cor-

    rosive resistance of stainless, but we hadto find out whether the stainless steels

    could withstand the high chloride and

    elevated fluid temperatures

    Second corrosion testThe samples of stainless steel were cut

    into suitably-sized test pieces and sur-

    face prepared to a 600 grit mirror finish,

    detergent washed, rinsed in distilled

    water and dried.

    They were then placed in a test chamber

    and subjected to a wet and dry cycle for

    28 days. During the wet cycle they wereexposed to a hot mist of the process fluid

    with the chamber temperature between

    65-69 oC. During the drying cycle they

    were at ambient temperature and left

    to dry with the wet misting system

    switched off.

    This time it was clear that discrimination

    could be obtained between the pitting corrosion

    performance of the various stainless steels. While

    316 failed early in the test, the remaining stainless

    steels only started to fail towards the very end of

    the severe 28-day cyclic wet and dry test.

    Rethinking designThis process of corrosion testing has lead the food

    equipment supplier to re-examine the process fluid

    composition and to try to eliminate the chloride

    and raise the pH. At the same time the choice of

    stainless has become clearer and a new round of

    testing with a modified fluid composition and duplex

    stainless steels will soon be undertaken.

    The moral of the story is that design is key and

    material selection is critical at the design stage

    taking all environmental and process conditions

    into consideration.

    Chemical Investigation Services, Simon Norton, Tel: (021)

    788 9980, Email: [email protected], Email: www.

    Figure 3 - Corrosion test chamber with heated perspex inner chamber where the stainless steel

    samples seen in Figure 2 are located

    The stainless steels all failed after just 9 days testing

    showing extensive pitting corrosion. Clearly it was back

    to the drawing board

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    Advanced Materials Today learnt aboutthis new problem in the installation of

    corrosion protection systems while talking

    to Neil Webb, director of Isinyithi Cathodic

    Protection (ICP), about the latest developments

    in cathodic protection systems. Steel pipeline

    coatings have become so good that the CP system

    of today only delivers in the region of five amps

    per rectifier, compared with the earlier systemsof fifty-plus amps for a pipeline coated in the old

    bitumen-fibreglass coatings, he says. This means

    that just one four-millimetre cable inside an actua-

    tor which is wrongly connected can flatten the CP

    system completely.

    FaultsThis is just one example of how a seemingly simple

    aspect of a pipeline protection system can create a

    problem that could be avoided, thus saving on the

    significant retrofit costs that can be incurred if the

    problem is only discovered after the pipeline has

    been installed. In terms of pipelines, we

    are increasingly picking up problems related

    to the interfacing between the mechanical

    design of the pump station and the CP

    systems operation, explains Neil. This

    is mainly due to the mechanical side not

    paying enough attention to the detailing

    of the design.

    Basically it boils down to the fact that,

    when you have a cathodically protected

    pipeline, it needs to be isolated electrically

    from the pump station so that the current

    for the CP system does not get drained

    off to earth, he explains. This is usuallyachieved by using insulating flange kits that

    are installed in specific places. Typically

    however, someone comes along to install a

    pipe to draw cooling water for a pump and

    Effective cathodic protection (CP) works with the flow of relatively low current to the surface of the steel

    structure that needs to be protected. With protective coatings becoming increasingly effective, this current

    has been reduced to less than ever before. Although this is an energy saving feature, the result is that even

    the slightest leakage of current through faulty grounding of ancillary equipment in the system can render the

    entire CP system useless, because the electrical power has been drained of f to earth.


    Just one four-millimetre cable inside an actuator which

    is wrongly connected can flatten the CP system


    Neil Webb of ICP




    Special ange seals and bolts with a sleeve for poper insulation

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    The AC threatA further spin-off problem resulting from the

    improvement in pipeline coatings is the factthat HVAC overhead power lines are now

    causing interference currents in the pipeline,

    which are more than just a light electrical

    shock.Induced AC volages can become life

    threatening, if not controlled properly.

    Neil Webb, of Isinyithi Cathodic Protection,

    explains. Improved pipe coatings provide

    better insulation of the pipeline. Less cur-

    rent is needed for a Cathodic Protection (CP)

    system, but there is an interesting side-ef-

    fect which is a relatively new phenomenon

    that we have to deal with today, he says.

    As the insulation properties of the coat-ings have improved, so has the pipelines

    susceptibility to electrical interference. The

    older pipelines were relatively well earthed,

    because bitumen/fibreglass is a fairly conduc-

    tive coating, compared to the wide range of

    new coatings including fusion bonded epoxy,

    liquid applied polyurethane and extruded or

    sintered polyethylene which are all extremely

    good insulators.

    Apart from that, South Africa is fast running

    out of space in certain areas and services are

    increasingly being directed down servitude

    corridors, where they run parallel to each

    other in close proximity for long distances.

    Where a well- insulated pipeline is now be-

    ing laid in parallel to a power line, we have

    started picking up AC interference and this

    has increased since the loads on power lines

    have been increased in general, explains

    Neil. Primarily this is a concern in terms of

    personnel safety, because the induction from

    the power line into the pipeline represents

    an electrical shock hazard to anyone who

    may come into physical contact with the

    pipe or valve attached to the pipeline. In

    extreme cases, were now also experienc-

    ing corrosion due to AC interference, where

    traditionally it had only been DC current that

    posed a threat.

    Now it has become a whole new ball-game.

    Weve gone to these lengths to protect a

    pipeline by insulating it and now we have to

    earth the pipe again to get rid of the danger

    of the AC., explains Neil. To solve the two

    contradictory requirements, we now use

    what is called a de-coupled earthing unit,

    which works like a glorified capacitor. The

    unit conducts AC but blocks DC , in orderto provide safety earthing whilst maintain-

    ing the pipelines isolation from earth from

    a DC perspective.

    Remote controlled valves have been installed on the

    live side of the system and the actuators on the valve

    system therefore earth the pipeline back to the electrical


    Even the slightest leakage of current through faulty grounding of ancillary equipment

    in the system can render the entire CP system useless


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    they fit this pipe on the wrong side of the insulating

    flange, effectively earthing the whole system that

    has just been painstakingly insulated.

    ExamplesThis is when Neils company is called in to tr y and

    solve the problem. Once weve identified and fixed

    a typical problem like this, you may very well find

    that the system still does not work. On further in-

    vestigation, we might find that

    remote controlled valves have

    been installed, but theyve been

    fitted on the live side of the

    system and the actuators on the

    valve system therefore earth the

    pipeline back to the electrical

    sub-station, he says.

    Once weve fixed that, we may

    find that the system still does

    not work and, delving deeper,

    discover that the client usedactuators from two different

    manufacturers. In one case, we

    were familiar with the actuators

    from one but not the other, so

    we first fixed the earth on the

    unfamiliar actuators, but still

    the system did not work.

    Wed been working with the

    actuators from the familiar

    manufacturer for many years

    and assumed that they would

    be the same as always, but

    soon discovered that they hadchanged the design to a sys-

    tem that now has an earth to

    the casing, requiring a special

    insulating link which had not

    The wrong way of doing things. The pipeline is earthed to the steel in the structure

    and renders the CP system useless

    been the case previously. Once

    wed done all that and all the

    actuators had been isolated

    from the pipeline, we then had

    to deal with a new problemwhich involves surge protection:

    installing spark gaps to avoid

    damage to the equipment in

    the systems.

    Flow metersOver and above all this, flow

    meters that work on a mag-

    netic principle are extensively

    used on pipelines and have to

    be isolated from the pipeline

    to avoid interfering with its

    functioning. Inevitably the

    installation contractor does not

    fit this flow meter one hundred

    percent correctly and theyre

    not isolated properly. Then the

    meters have to be retrofitted

    in an working pipeline, which is a very expensive

    operation, says Neil.

    Recurring problemIn spite of warning project engineers and design

    They all know the pipeline has cathodic protection

    because it is on the bill of materials, but it lacks the

    detail to specify that the actuators used have be isolatedactuators

    An actuator on a pipeline

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    engineers time and again, project after project,

    about all of these problems, we get called back

    to deal with the same faults and problems almost

    every time, adds Neil. It all boils down to a lack

    of awareness on the part of the mechanical design

    engineer, the mechanical installation contractor and

    sometimes even the pipeline contractor. They all

    know the pipeline has cathodic protection because

    it is on the bill of materials, but it lacks the detail

    to specify that the actuators used have be isolated


    If this is picked up while the contractor is still

    on site, the problem can be rectified fairly easily,

    without huge costs. However, on every single one


    A nut and bolt with insulation sleeve

    of the five large projects weve done recently, weve

    had to go back to go and fix insulation problems

    after the pipeline had been commissioned.

    SolutionsThe solution to the problem is twofold and should

    be addressed by equipment suppliers as much as

    the installation contractor. The supplier should

    ask the contractor whether the equipment will be

    used on a cathodically protected pipeline, just as

    the contractor should ask the supplier whether his

    equipment is suitable for a CP installation, in terms

    of it being isolated, or whether it can be isolated

    and what would be needed to isolate it properly,

    suggests Neil.

    Over and above that, the installation contractor

    would need to have a certain amount of training as

    far as correct procedures are concerned for install-ing insulating flange kits, because these kits can

    easily be damaged if not handled correctly. As far

    as the mechanical design engineer is concerned, I

    would suggest that they get expert opinion when

    it comes a speciality like CP. Dont hold back; as-

    sistance is as far away as a call to the Corrosion

    Institute, who will direct you to a specialist in the

    area you need assistance.

    Neil Webb, ICP, Tel: (011) 465-1807, Email: neil@isinyithi.

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    In sectors like aluminium

    and stainless steel, wherecommodity prices were

    driven lower by the un-

    derperforming global market,

    our local stockists have had

    to hang in there, work extra-

    hard and run lean operations

    in order to continue trading.

    Stockists of other metals can

    take small consolation from

    pricing stability as they still

    have to deal with thin order

    books and more erratic order-

    ing from their customers.

    Lack of confidenceA snap survey of stockist and

    Mixed Fortunes for

    StockistsAftershocks from the world-wide recession continue to reverberate through South Africas manufacturing

    industry and are having a dramatic effect on metals stockists and service providers. Although resilience is

    the name of the game some companies have not given any ground and

    remain profitable, while others have had to take drastic action to avoid

    becoming a victim of the down-turn in manufacturing.

    service centres by Advanced Materials Today

    reveals that a recovery is underway albeit slowand less than spectacular. The vast majority of

    company leaders indicate that business is getting

    better slowly, but that turnovers are lagging way

    behind 2008 figures.

    As the first line in manufacturing processes this

    sector is a good indicator for the manufacturing

    sector and these findings would seem to indicate

    that manufacturing volumes are ticking up equally


    Overwhelmingly respondents say the main reasons

    for the slow recovery is that the market stills lacks

    confidence and stock levels are being kept low.With little pressure on supply, manufacturers are

    confident enough to order materials only when

    they are required.


    Ross Teichmann

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    Business is out thereBusiness is not in your of fice, it is not in the pub,

    nor is it on the golf course, if you want to maintain

    your business in the same condition as it was before

    the recession you have to get out there and go findit, says Alex Russell, director of Pegasus Steel.

    This reinforces the sentiments of most business

    leaders within the industry, who have adopted a

    never say die attitude to seeing through the reces-

    sion. Andrew Broekhuizen, managing director of

    Aluminium Traders, is realistic about the companys

    current position. With aluminium prices at lows

    that were last experienced in the late 1980s we

    have to work much harder to make the same

    amount of money.

    He adds that volumes are 120% higher than

    pre-recession in 2008, but that the low price of

    aluminium means that turnover in money value is

    nowhere near that period. Likewise, despite dismal

    times the company is trading its way out of tough

    times and he foresees good revenues made in the

    mining industry, as well as in the rest of Africa.

    We are just putting our shoulders to the wheel

    and working hard, thats all we can do right now

    while prices are low.

    Tide is turning

    Ross Teichmann, chief executive of BSI Steel (SAStockists), says that the company has noticed a

    significant upturn in the market since the beginning

    of the year. Last year a number of our customers

    were working four-day weeks and some even had to

    lay off staff. Now our clients are going full-steam-

    ahead and production is back in full-swing.

    Although we are not yet at 2008 levels it is getting

    much better. Recent steel price increases and talk

    of another in July has led to some stocking-up from

    our clients, but they are not going to be too bullish

    in the current climate, he says.

    Ross adds that segments of the manufacturing in-dustry that were hardest hit by recessionary woes,

    have bounced back the quickest and strongest.

    As is always the case in a crisis, some businesses

    were able to adapt their approach and actually gain

    ground. According to Alex, Pegasus Steel managed

    to maintain its position during the recession and has

    gained business as the recession drew to an end.

    Last year the outlook was bleak, but we managed

    to pull it off and the year ended as one of the better

    years we have had in a while it was a good year

    for us. We invested in new machines that enables

    us to work smarter and gain business from new

    quarters so as they come on line we are seeing agood upturn in our business, he says.

    Headed upDespite current fears of a bounce or market cor-

    rection downwards, and with fears over Greeces

    liquidity growing, the resilient manufacturing sec-

    tor is recovering slowly, but surely. Stockists and

    value-adding service centres are recording increased

    sales and when the recessionary bubble finally

    bursts and confidence returns the stalwarts of the

    industry are standing ready to supply whatever is

    needed wherever it is needed and whenever is is



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    You wouldnt take your hard earned Rands

    and Cents and bury them in the garden,

    under the bed and in the neighbours

    property in the hope that one day you will

    find all your money and use it when you

    next need it.


    either should businesses with valuable

    items lose track of their assets. Identifica-

    tion and tracking of items is big business

    in the industrial sector where anythingfrom raw materials to tools and capital equipment

    are registered and tracked using technology.

    Advanced Materials Today pops in at Traceability

    Solutions in Honeydew has a number of innovative

    solutions that are tailor-made to the industrial re-

    quirements of their clients. These range from simple

    markings to highly sophisticated computerised

    systems that log, track and trace goods through the

    use of high tech 2 dimensional (2D) codes.

    Effective markingsIn the past it used to be about marking goods for

    identification and ownership purposes, but today

    markings are used for a far greater number of pur-

    poses. Industrial clients nowadays not only want

    to locate and identify their products, but also want

    to use the marking to reflect a number of other

    criteria such as time and date of manufacture,

    batches, descriptions and details, says Kyle Parker

    of Traceability Solutions.

    He continues by saying that markings have gone

    from the use of readable digits or letters in years

    gone by, to barcodes more recently. These systems

    had shortcomings in the field and even the trusted

    ever prevalent barcoding system is not sufficientfor todays requirements.

    The latest 2D marking technology available from

    Traceability Solutions allows users to enter more

    data per mark than previous methods. It is also less

    susceptible to the type of reader errors that plague

    barcoding systems and for security purposes can

    be miniaturised or hidden to avoid detection.

    CodingJust like other markings, it uses a mark and se-

    quence to form a code that identifies the product.

    The main difference is that it is read vertically and

    horizontally as opposed to older techniques.Both person-readable codes and barcodes are read

    horizontally from one side to the other. If a digit or

    line is damaged, obscured or removed, the code

    is rendered useless and all the information associ-

    ated with that item cannot be obtained. In heavy

    industrial applications, like the steel industry, this

    is a problem and, as a result, a smarter technique

    has been developed and adopted by industry role-

    players, says Kyle.

    The main advantage of using a 2D code is the

    ability to store more information. This allows more

    efficient usage of information for storage, tracking

    and tracing. It also allows up to 25% of the code

    to be obscured without affecting readability.

    Direct code markingDirect Part marking (DPM) allows users to put mark-

    Use It, Dont Lose It

    Examples of 2D markings

    Kyle Parker of Traeability Solutions

    These systems had shortcomings in the

    field and even the trusted ever prevalent

    barcoding system is not sufficient

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    ings directly onto items thereby reducing

    manpower requirements and cost.

    Most materials can be marked directly

    by means of pinstamp or laser marking

    techniques. This means that materials

    as diverse as metal, steel or even a bird

    Miniaturised markings on a bearing housing

    A hand help pinstamp marker


    feather can be marked without the need

    for consumables such as paint, ink or


    Where specialised markings or colour

    codes are required, laser markers use the

    thermal properties of the item to change

    the colour of the materials as required.

    It is possible to mark stainless steel in

    almost any colour of the rainbow without

    the addition of paints or inks.

    When the electronic marking device

    is used, it is possible to store informa-

    tion relating to the item directly to an

    enterprise resource planning (ERP)

  • 8/7/2019 AMT: May / Jun 2010

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    system which can be made available

    across a network to users anywhere in

    the world. When the item needs to be

    identified, a user will scan the code in

    much the same manner as a barcodereader, Kyle adds.

    Industrial suppliersTraceability Solutions provides marking

    hardware such as marking devices, read-

    ers and consumables for the marking

    and tracing of items. Solutions range

    from high-tech 2D markings to barcod-

    ing and specialised labelling systems.

    These include heat resistant and abrasion

    resistant labels for the steel industry,

    indestructible labels for military, and

    specialised retail labels that cannot be

    removed and placed onto other items.

    The company is also involved in research

    and development of suitable markings

    for a number of unique applications

    within the manufacturing industr y. One

    of the most noticeable developments is

    its application of 2D technology to mark

    strands of cable before it is wound to

    identify stolen telecommunication and

    electrical cables.

    A number of innovative uses have already

    appeared in the metals and manufacturing

    environment. As the technology develops

    and becomes more widely used in our

    industry, it is likely that 2D coding and

    marking will supersede barcoding and

    other methods of marking within an

    industry that requires rugged, reliable


    We are eager to work with manufacturers

    and anyone involved in the metals and

    other advanced materials industries to

    develop technologies and solutions for

    the marking, tracking and tracing of ma-

    terials within this specialised industry,

    concludes Kyle.

    Traceability Solutions, Kyle Parker, Tel: (011)

    794 5299, Fax: (011) 794 2844, Email: kyle@, Web:


    Indestructible labels for mili-

    tary and specialised retail la-bels that cannot be removed

    and placed onto other items

    Close-up of a pinstamp in operation

    An example of the versatility of 2D marking equipment is the permanent laser mark-

    ing of a car manifold

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    occer emerged from its many different forms

    around the globe using balls as exotic as

    human and animal heads, animal skins,

    bladders and almost anything that was re-motely round and rolled. Not so today, the modern

    ball is a masterpiece.

    Modern balls by contrast are made from advanced

    materials using precise manufacturing techniques to

    provide players with an even bounce and perfectly

    weighted glide through the air. The official ball of

    the 2010 Fifa World Cup, the Jabulani, is a perfect

    example of a ball engineered for the sort of preci-

    sion required by modern footballers.

    A goats bladder just wont do in the modern game.

    The technology put into producing a football is as-

    tonishing and, to some people, is pricey beyondtheir means.

    That is why in poor areas around the globe, imagi-

    native techniques are used to keep the beautiful

    game alive and flourishing. They are cheap and

    cheerful and dont cost an arm and a leg. One of

    the better examples of an improvised ball is the

    Plastic Packet Ball that is easy to make, rugged

    and reliable.

    It is true that its bounce is less even than a Jabulani,

    its flight Mmmm lets say, is not perfect - but it

    works. Considering the popularity of both balls we

    decided to look at how they are made.

    The Adidas JabulaniIt is hard to believe that a mere soccer ball can

    generate such excitement, with glitzy launch events

    across the globe and throngs of soccer-mad fans

    clamouring to add the official World Cup ball to their

    collections. Playgrounds across the world have tags

    of crazed 10-year olds chasing Jabulanis around the

    park and dreaming of one day becoming the next

    Wayne Rooney or Christiano Ronaldo. With notice-

    ably thinner wallets, parents too

    proclaim the quality andfeel of the ball is worth

    every penny they spent

    on it.

    The story of the Jabu-

    lani is an interesting

    one. The name originates

    from isiZulu and means to

    celebrate. As such, it pays

    tribute to the passionate football

    celebration international fans will

    enjoy in South Africa. Eleven different

    colours are used in Adidas eleventh World

    Cup ball. These 11 colours represent the 11players in every team, the 11 official languages

    of South Africa and the 11 South African tribes that

    make the country one of the most ethnologically

    diverse countries on the African continent.

    Had mankind not advanced to become more civilised and

    genteel the game of football may as easily have been called

    headball in honour of the beautiful games early origins. In

    those early days, in South America, for example, you were

    more likely to pluck your enemys head off and kick it about

    the village than to use anything that resembles the modern

    soccer ball.

    Funtastic Balls

    Who knows where the next shooting star will come from. It

    may be a child that grew up kicking a Plastic Bag Ball

    A goats bladder just wont do in the modern game

    South Africa 2010 WorldCup Ball in front and



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    Cheerleaders stand straight and proud for their countries

    The evolution of the soccer ballCharles Goodyear revolutionised soccer ball manufacture when he patented

    vulcanised rubber back in 1836. In 1855 he introduced rubber bladders to

    replace animal bladders and this enabled balls to be manufactured round witha predictable bounce. In 1872 the English Football Association laid down the

    rules regarding size and weight of the ball and since then little has remained

    almost unchanged.


    A Charles Goodyear ball on display at the

    National Soccer Hall of Fame in New York

    Match Ball used in the FA Cup Fi-

    nal of 1893 the score was Wolves

    1, Everton 0

    A ball

    used in

    the 1950s

    The ofcial 1930 World Cup ball

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    Stable flightAccording to Adidas, the ball uses a South African

    inspired design and radically new technology with

    a newly developed GripnGroove profile that

    provides the best players in the world with an

    exceptionally stable flight and perfect grip under

    all conditions.

    Under the skin, the ball has a specially-designed

    inner bladder that provides spring and cushion-

    ing for kickers. Its outer is thermally bonded and

    comprises eight, 3-dimensional panels. These are,

    for the first time, spherically moulded to ensure

    the ball is perfectly round and more accurate than

    ever before. In fact, each ball undergoes rigoroustesting to ensure it is perfectly round and will stay

    so before it is released onto the market.

    Goose bumpsThe eight panels are moulded together to envelope

    the inner carcass using a 0,3 mm layer of Ther-

    moplastic polyurethane-elastomer (TPU) and 3.5

    mm Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The surface has

    a pattern texture, called aero grooves, that creates

    a clearly visible profile on the balls surface.

    Since the introduction of the goose bumps surface

    for the last European Championship ball, the micro-

    texture of the new balls outer skin has also beengiven a visible facelift. The Jabulani has a futuristic

    texture with high grip, giving players full control

    over the ball under all weather conditions.

    The ball is shaped and manufactured in Adidas

    plants and factories in Asia using the latest ma-

    chinery and materials.

    Plastic bag ballNever mind the fancy balls. Just watching a game

    played with the Plastic Bag Ball gives you goose

    bumps, for this is a ball dreamed up by children

    without the means to afford a ball and no access

    to a convenient sports shop around the corner. Farfrom hi-tech factories, it is crafted at home. All

    that is needed is an inner made from a condom,

    balloon or even crumpled-up plastic bags or paper

    which is then wrapped in packets.

    Techno-speakMaterials used to make the Adidas Jabulani ball include:

    Thermoplastic polyurethane-elastomer (TPU)These are versatile materials that behave as cross-linkedelastomers at room temperature but, unlike conventional

    elastomers, they can be processed, shaped, and formed when

    heated in an industrial process. They form the outer surface

    of the ball.

    Latex bladderNatural rubber is the most important product obtained from latex;

    more than 12,000 plant species yield latex containing rubber,

    though in the vast majority of those species the rubber is not

    suitable for commercial use. The latex bladder in the ball gives

    it bounce and lightweight characteristics. This latex is used to

    make many other products as well, including gloves, swim caps,

    condoms, catheters and balloons.

    Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is a polymer that approaches

    elastomeric materials in softness and flexibility, yet can be

    processed like other thermoplastics. The material has good

    clarity and gloss, barrier properties, low-temperature tough-

    ness, stress-crack resistance, hot-melt adhesive water proof

    properties, and resistance to UV radiation. EVA has little or

    no odour and is competitive with rubber and vinyl products

    in many electrical applications.

    Isotropic polyester/cotton fabric, glue and ink (11 colours) are

    also used and despite the vast number of materials the balls still

    adhere to football rules regarding size and weight.

    All official match balls for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, CAF,FIFA and UEFA competitions and local leagues have the same

    weight and the same circumference and are therefore always

    the same size. Jabulani is manufactured to Fifa requirements

    for the between 420 445 g category. The circumference is

    69 cm.


    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world because it can

    be played anywhere, anytime and all you need is a ball

    The quality and feel of the ball is worth every penny

    they spent on it

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    The technique is really quite simple. Create a shape

    that is roughly round and put this inside the bag. Wrap

    the bag tightly around and twist the handles around to

    secure it. Keep doing so with more bags until the ball

    is about the size of a soccer ball. Then, using tape,

    string or even the individual strands from a mielie

    bag, wrap it evenly and tighly around the ball.

    This forms the outer skin and should provide enough

    grip and wear resistance to provide many hours

    of soccer. By comparison to the Jabulani, it is not

    perfectly round, nor does it have aerodynamic grip

    and groove technology to ensure it flies straight and

    true. In weight it ranges between very light and very

    heavy. But, it does provide less fortunate children

    with a ball and the ability to play soccer.

    A beautiful gameSoccer is a game for the masses and across the globe

    more people play and watch this sport than any other.

    Its popularity is due largely to its simplicity - all that

    is needed to play is a ball - whether it be a home-

    made plastic ball or the fabulous Jabulani.

    The construction of the Adidas Jabulani ball

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    The beat goes onThe 2010 Soccer World Cup will offer many

    challenges for the operations management

    profession. But what happens when it is all over?Supply Chain and Operations Management

    professionals must maintain a steady, reliable

    beat as we continue to move African industry

    forward to ensure our sustainable footprint.

    25 - 28 July 2010

    Sun City

    The SAPICS Annual Conference is the LeadingEvent in Africa for Supply Chain and Operations

    Management Professionals.

    32nd Annual Conference & Exhibition

    T 011 023 6707, F 086 575 2979 [email protected]

    With the participation of: Principal sponsor:

    Silver sponsor:Gold sponsor:

    Platinum sponsors:

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    Exothermic foundry sleeves are manufactured

    from a mixture of newspaper and specialised

    compounds to keep metal molten for as

    long as possible to feed the casting. The

    riser serves as an outlet for gasses when molten

    materials are poured into the casting and the use of

    exothermic sleeves prevents the metal cooling too

    fast and shrinking beyond the level of the cast.

    Vacuum formed or blown sleeves are produced in

    their hundreds by Procor Steel and Foundry Supplies

    on a daily basis. The consumption of sleeves by thecountrys foundries is therefore a good indicator of

    state of the industry and if sales in the first two

    months of the year are anything to go by then

    somebody has switched the light at the end of the

    tunnel back on.

    Foundry consumablesProcor has established a solid reputation for provid-

    ing solutions to our foundries. It manufactures and

    supplies a wide range of products and consumables

    to this ever-changing industry and as new require-

    ments come to the fore it is quick to seize the

    initiative to meet demands.

    Its products include sleeves, mould dressings,

    ceramic fibres and insulation products that are sup-

    plied in standard sizes and shapes or customised

    to requirements.

    Having a manufacturing plant locally stands us ingood stead because we are able to respond quickly

    to clients requirements and really get involved in

    working with them to find solutions that are tailor

    made to the requirements.

    Importing completed products may be a tempting

    proposition at face value, but it really excludes the

    possibility of customising products to exact require-

    ments, says Derick Elliott of Procor.

    Best-of-breedBy sourcing and, where necessary, importing raw

    materials and compounds for the manufacture of

    its products it is possible to keep a tight controlof the quality of manufactured goods. Despite

    recent declines in manufacturing outputs locally

    and abroad, Procor has maintained its standards

    and although sales volumes have fallen its market

    share has not been affected.

    We strive to maintain consistently high quality

    standards so that each product that leaves our

    gates performs as it should time after time. This

    is not the time to save costs by experimenting with

    unknown suppliers and products.

    Procor maintains records of all raw materials and

    tests the performance of each batch to ensure it

    meets specification. Likewise, we test end products

    and maintain batch records for each production

    cycle, which means we have full traceability of our

    products in the marketplace, comments Derick.

    Simple yet effectiveMan has been casting metals for millennia and has

    perfected techniques to the extent that precision

    casting is now possible. Wastage has been almost

    eliminated thanks to these techniques and if the

    right materials and equipment are used, casting is

    a straight forward process.

    So too is the manufacture of foundry consumables.

    The somewhat old-fashioned and labour intensivefactory belies a specialised yet simple manufactur-

    ing process. Sleeve manufacture, for example, uses

    paper pulp as a basis and is blended with various

    compounds to ensure hot and even-burning prop-

    Piping Hot PerformanceBad news travels fast, but burns well in an industry that has

    been shaken by the world-wide recession. Whether the days

    headline screams of economic gloom, some crazy chap named

    Julius or the death of ET, it all lands up serving a valuable

    purpose in the countrys foundries.

    Derick Elliott of Procor

    Procor Foundry and Steel Supplies factory

    Wastage has been almost eliminated thanks to these


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    available at any time.

    Mould dressings, paints and powders and addi-

    tives are also blended by the company to provide

    foundries with a one-stop solutions for consumables

    and insulation products.

    Trick up the sleeveUnless you have worked in a foundry you cant

    help being impressed by the properties of foundry

    products. Thanks to a breath-taking impromptu

    display by Derick it is impressive to see the enor-

    mous heat resistance properties (beyond 1600

    C) of the insulation products. More impressive is

    the heat generated through the burning of a sleeve

    that easily melts glass and metal.

    In instances where a steel casting requires more

    metal the addition of metal producing powders can

    supplement the casting and is an impressive site,

    motions Derick as he ignites the powder in a shower

    of sparks. Just like the other products the display

    of producing metal from powder gives a realisa-

    tion that there is more to casting than meets the

    eye and the addition of the right consumables at

    the right place and time can makes the difference

    between a good casting or scrap.

    Procor Foundry and Steel Supplies, Derick Elliott, Tel:

    (011) 740 1450, Fax: (011) 740 1503, Email: procor@

    Metal producing powder ignites to convert to a molten form

    A foundry sleeve burns hot to ensure molten materials cool evenly

    Ceramic insulation products


    More impressive is the heat

    generated through the burning of asleeve

    erties. The slurry is vacuum formed with

    hand-tools and moulded products left to

    dry for several hours on simple racks before

    being fired in a furnace.

    Likewise, ceramic products such as insulat-

    ing sleeves, taper seals, botting cones, and

    ceramic fibre tubes are hand formed using

    vacuum moulds. More complex or thick walled

    product are made using vacuum forms and

    can be made of rigid, semi-rigid or flexiblematerials to suit the requirement of the user.

    Blankets and fibre insulation products such

    as insulation boards (1260 C, 1400 C, and

    1600 C) are always a stocked product and

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    New sheetingTransvaal Rubber Company (Truco) has

    announced the addition of compressed

    non asbestos fibre (CNAF) sheeting to

    its product range. This complementaryrange is being offered by the company

    predominantly for use in the manufacture

    of gaskets.

    Truco is offering five variants in the range

    to address a wide range of applications.

    The variants on offer include CNAF sheet-

    ing for low, medium and high pressure

    applications, oil resistant and steel wire

    mesh blend sheeting.

    The low, medium and high pressure

    CNAF sheeting is manufactured from

    Aramid fibres blended with NR/NBRrubber, making the products ideal for

    use in a diverse range of applications.

    The oil resistant medium pressure vari-

    ant is also manufactured using Aramid

    fibres but is blended with oil-resistant

    rubber to make it resistant to oil-based material contact.

    The steel mesh variant is made from Aramid fibres blended

    with NR/NBR rubber and reinforced with 304 stainless

    steel. This sheeting is ideal for use in high pressure, high

    temperature applications.

    According to Pierre Morgenrood, a divisional director of

    Truco, the company has found that with the ban on the use

    of asbestos fibre products, the demand from customers for

    alternative products has grown. We identified the appro-

    priate alternative and have introduced CNAF to replace the

    traditional asbestos sheeting that has been used for many

    years. The CNAF sheeting is used to complement rubber in

    the manufacture of gaskets when high temperature or pres-

    sure resistance is required.

    The CNAF sheeting is imported and the company has a

    significant stockholding to ensure that customer demand

    can be supplied.

    Truco, Pierre Morgenrood, Tel: (011) 839-2370, Fax: (011) 830-1629,

    Email: [email protected]

    Truco has added compressed non asbestos bre (CNAF) sheetingto its product range

    Industry News

    A cute solutionFor those in the business of profiling and fabrication the

    Amada Acute (AC) series is a lightweight electric servodrive

    punching machine with a big punch.

    In European markets it has found a niche. It builds on the

    success of the companys existing (EM) range of energy ef-

    ficient, ecological, electric servodrive punching machines,

    but is essentially an entry level machine. The Acute ispitched at small-to-medium sized subcontract profiling and

    fabrication shops. However, this isnt to say it lacks many

    of the features found on Amadas EM range.

    In fact, little could be further from the truth. For example,

    the drive system employs Amadas innovative electric servo-

    drive technology, giving a healthy reduction (50%) in power

    consumption without any compromise in performance or

    component quality: a combination of factors that deliver

    maximum productivity at the lowest cost per part.

    The all-electric drive system not only helps manufacturers

    counter the pinch of ever increasing energy bills, but also

    lessens the effect that engineering operations have on theenvironment in tandem with reduced maintenance require-

    ments: the cost of oil or filter changes, along with recycling

    or disposal is eliminated.

    The secret of this revolutionary innovation lies in the load

    levelling power circuit. This mechanism collects and stores

    in a capacitor the energy generated while brake is applied

    to the ram, enabling the stored energy to be re-used to ac-

    celerate the ram.

    Its an industry development that has generated exceptional

    levels of acclaim as it combines the best qualities of con-

    ventional mechanical and hydraulic machines.

    With no fabrication shop too small for the Acute, the machineoffers efficient use of valuable floor space while still having a

    full sheet capacity of up to 2500 by 1250mm (AC2510NT)

    or 1250 by 1250mm (AC255NT) without repositioning.

    Amada, Tel: (011) 453 5459, Fax: (011) 453 5442, Email: sales@

    Amada AC 255

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    Industry NewsTrusted name, new distributorsDurma, one of the worlds largest builders of

    metal fabricating machinery will be distributed

    Rijva Quality Machines and GB Machine Tools

    in South Africa.

    Durma manufactures CNC press brakes, shears,

    rolls, saws, turret presses, punching machines,

    laser and plasma cutters, notchers and ironwork-

    ers. Durmas ISO certified manufacturing facilities

    encompass nearly 1,000,000 sq. ft.

    Rijva Quality Machines has a reputation of sup-

    plying good quality new and used engineering

    equipment to the manufacturing industry with a

    firm emphasis on service and customer satisfac-

    tion. It carries the largest amount of new and

    used machines in Southern Africa at i ts 2400m

    craned warehouse in Wadeville.GB