53121526 Scientific Hindu Astrology by P S Sastri 1

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Transcript of 53121526 Scientific Hindu Astrology by P S Sastri 1

Page 1: 53121526 Scientific Hindu Astrology by P S Sastri 1

Text Book ofScrer.rrrFrc

Hrrnu AsrnoLocy

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Preface

here are many good books on Astrology written bydist inguished scholars and pract i t ioners in India.Dr. B.V. Raman, R. Santhanam, J.N. 6hasin, Dr. C.S.Kapoor, C.K. Ojha, Shil ponde, Dr. Satyanarayana Rao,Harihar Majumdar and many others have enriched ourknowledge of the subject. Yet there is a need for otherworks.

Most of the texts available speak of Hindu Astrology. Asa science, Astrology cannot be the copyright of any onenation. We do not have Russian chemistry, eerman physics,French Biology, British Mathematics, American Science, orMuslim Tajak. Each country contributed to each science. Weborrowed Tajaka from Tazhakistan.

Indians have been pioneers in Astrology, Astronomy,Mathematics, Medicine and other subjects. Our ancientsdid not have an insular outlook. Varahamihira refersto Manit tha (Manetha), an Alexandrian Creek, and heassimilated the views of the Buddhist Satya Kirti whom hespecifically called Bhadanta. It is clear that Varahamihira didnot write hison Astrology. Moreover, inclearly:

Gf6r R w-{r$tg q.q

' i as a purely Hindu workhis tJrilrat Sanrtrita he stated

qrrdtrq fum rTffisR fq+ fib fq{qRq Bq, rr(2.:o)'The Yavanas are of low origin (not Vedic Aryans). This

science was formerly established in their hands. Even theyare revered like our seers. How much more would a knowerof astrology who is a Dvija (twice-born) deserve at ourhands?

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The great Varahamihira has permitted to absorb an<lassimilate the findings of the foreigners into our system. yctsome of the modern Indian scholars maintain that HintluAstrology is self-contained and complete, and that it docsnot need any new incursions into the Hindu System of ,lAstrology. They forget or they do not know that no science i.s ;]icomplete and closed, and that it is always advancing by ilicorrecting some of the past findings and by assimilating then e w d i s c o v e r i e s . P t o I e m y w a s r e p l a c e d b y C o p e r n i c u sEuclid by Riemann, Newton by Dinstein. That is how science ',j

advances.

But some of the modern Indian astrologers refuse toconsider Uranus, Neptune, pluto and asteroids on the pleathat they have no place in the Hindu System of Astrolog5r $because they are western. But are these planets moving in ,$Zodiac or not? Are they influencing us or not? Were these $planets unknown to ancient Indians? ,:il

The rhahharata refers many times to the positions of :the planets before, during, and after the great war. On thebasis of the accurate scientific data scholars were able toarrive at the actual date of the war. The positions of somecelestial bodies mentioned in the text were ignored for wantof proper identification. We quote a few verses from thedefinitive edition of the Mahatrharata published by theBhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, pune.

In the third canto of Bhishma ?arva we read:

oTrfr' Ei.rd Ttrd qrgRsfi rsq IvH rrwen frai sqfrrnq ffi r r(r r) tThere was Sveta Craha then transiting the constellation

Chitra. In verse 15, there is a mention of ,Shyamo Craha,.Calculating backwards we find that this Sveta planet is noother than Neptune.

ffirti qti oftqR rfllrE: | (13)

The variant reading is 'Maha Patah'. This was no otherthan Uranus, which as the concluding part of this versestates, was in Sravana. The Shyama planet was shining white

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Rahu was in Jyeshtha. Then in Bhishma ?arva we read:

EFd-drg qeri qq IE[q-|6q qTflr $fls-gR-q Rero' | | (3.26)

At that time some planet was in Krittika' By calculatingbackwards we identify this as Pluto.

In the conversation between Karna and Krishna inUdyoga ?arva (Canto 145) Mahapata (Uranus) was said to bein Chitra. In Udyoga ?arva we read.

fqt'i"T R qTqq fu{i ffi rrd: | (l4l.e)

The variant reading is rf6:Mfd:. This is Uranus. The great

sage Vyasa knew about Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Indianswere the first to discover these extra-Satarnine planets.

Uranus and Pluto are also said to be violent.

That Uranus, Neptune and Pluto influenced the course ofevents was clearly stated by Vyasa. In course of time foreigni n v a s i o n s a n d t h e l i k e d i s r u p t e d o r d e s t r o y e dthe pursuit of these planets. No one can now say that we donot need them because they are found only in westernastrology.

The present work takes into consideration Uranus andNeptune. Pluto is kept out temporarity for want of adequateinformation. Without incorporating these into our system we

cannot accurately predict the events' Pluto refers to creativeand regenerative forces, enforced changes, underworlderuptions, volcanoes, earthquake, gangsters, terrorism, kid-napping and hijacking. Weymiss assigns Cancer to Pluto,Libra to Neptune and Scorpio to Uranus. But as per Bode'sLaw we ascribe Neptune to Pisces and Uranus to Aquarius.Pluto has greater affinity with Scorpio.

The present work does not claim to be exhaustive. But it

offers a systematic scientific account of predictive astrology.We have relied on our great texts like .lrrt.\ril<I Iior.r, lfu i,inrr

J. i r , , . i , lv . t ! i t . r i . r r !1 . t . . . Y. na Jataka, Shambhu

tlora, Deva Kerala, Satya Samhita, Mana Sagari, Jataka

Yarijata, Phala Dipika; Sanketa Nidhi, Jataka Tattva and

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.Jatakadesa Marga- We have also taken the help of westernauthorities like Alan Leo, Roland Carter. Above all we reliedon our own experience spread over six decades.

M/s Ranjan Publications richly deserve grateful thanks ofJhe author. They waited patiently and persuaded the authorto bring out this volume. The author thanks them profoundlyfor the neat get-up and printing of this work.

P.S. SASTRI

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Contents

l. Astrolory and llindu CultureConcept of culture. Hindu culture in Vedicl i te ra tu re . Per fo rmance o f r i tes andsacrifices in specific seasons. Role ofastronomy to determine seasons. AryaBhatta. Influence of stars and planets onhuman life. Origin of astrology. Goal of

. Hindu culture. Astrology integral element ofHindu culture and religion. Qood and badNakshatras. Astrology in Vedas, Brahmanasand Samhitas. Savants of lndian astrology:? a r a s a r a , G e m i n i , V a r a h a m i h i r a ,Yavaneshwa(a , Satyacharya , Man i tha ,Tajakas, Neelakantha, Qarga, KalyanaVarma, Mantreshwara, Y aidyanatha.

2. The Value of AstrologrEffects of Moon on human mind. Effects ofearth quakes. Role of constel lat ions,meteors, comets, shooting stars and ketus.Latest excursions of science in space.Ir i rportance of yogas. Observat ions ofIndian astrologers and Western scientists.Ultra-violet rays and radiations. Effects ofastronomical and meteorological condition-son criminal acts. Effects of solar radiationon heart , nervous system, circulatorysystems and blood carpuscles. Jupiter'sinfluence on river-flow. Astrology can betterpredict weather.

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5. Physics, Probability and hedictionsCausality and detcrmlnisnr. Six conclusionsd r a w n b y J e a n s . Q u a n t u m t h e o r y .Probab i l l t y and cer ta ln ty . Sc ience and

.reality. Elnstein's prlnciple. Living things,rad io -ac t iv i t y . Carbon-cyc le . M ind andmatter. Determinism and indeterminism.Idea of freedom. Heisenburg's principle ofuncertainty.

4. Astrology, Science and SuperstitionSupers t i t ion and re l ig ion way o f l i fe .Astrology and superstition. Real nature ofSuperstition. Reality of spirit. Superstitionversus precaution. Belief in Cod. Validity ofSuperstition. Attack on predictive science.Newly discovered planets. Copernicanrevolution. Action-reaction between starsa n d m a n . A s t r o l o g y , A s t r o l o g e r a n dprediction. Astrology not blind superstition.Role of intuition in astrology. Robert Mayer'stheory of intuition. Influence of solar systemon earth. Ownership of planets over signs ofzodiac. tte

5. Implications of AstrologyQua l i t ies essent ia l fo r an as t ro loger .lmportance of an astrologer for a ruler. Roleof intuition, 'divya-drishti or yoga-drislrtl ' lnastrology. Role of Philosophy and rellgion Inas t ro logy . Fores igh t fo r comnron man.Science of predict ion versus sclctrce ofm e d i c i n e . l m p o r t a n c e o f p l a r t t : t a r yi n f l u e n c e o n e v r : n t s . J u n g ' s p r l n c l p l e ,Accuracy o f p red ic t ion . As t ro logy a t t< lh u m a n n a t u r e . l n t e l l e c t a n d l n t u l t l o n ,Observations of Kraft. Experlments carrlc<tout by Symours, Robert Qleadow art<lDonald A. Bradley. TWln borns, AbrahantLincoln and " Charles Darwln. Planetary

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6.

configuration. Lagna manifestation karma.Observations of Bertrand Russel, Rutherfordand A.J. Pearce.

Technical TermsTithi, Nakshatra, Yoga, Karana, zodiac,Ecliptic, Axis, Muhurta, Lattitude, Longitude,Ce les t ia l equator , Equ inox , So ls t i ce ,Declination, Tropical (sayana) longitude,Sidereal longitude, Ayanamsa, Astangata,M.C., Solar month, Lunar month, Intercalarymonth, Sidereal time, Apparent Moon, RightAscention, tlour circle, Ceocentric position,N o d e s , M e r i d i a n , A s p e c t s , P l a n e t s ,Ret rogress ion , Apehe l ion , Per ihe l ion ,Perigee.

Planets and llouses:M u l a - t r i k o n a , D x a l t a t i o n , D e b i l i t a t i o n ,Movable signs, Fixed signs, Dwiswabhavasigns, Odd signs, Even signs, Shirshodayasigns, Pr ishthodaya signs, Ubhayodayas i g n s , K e n d r a s , K o n a s , P a n a p h a r a s ,Apoklimas, Upachayas, Apachayas, ExtraSaturnine planets, Rahu and Ketu, Benefics,Malefics, Sexes, Fiery signs, Watery signs,A i ry s igns , Dar thy s igns , Co lours ,Kalapurusha, Colours of planets, ?ower,Dut ies , Meta ls , D i rec t ions o f p lanets ,Elements, Castes, Trigunas, Bile, Phlegm,Wind, Anatomical parts, Dwelling places,Aspects, Tastes, Mutual relationship ofplanets, Vargottama, Where are the nineplanets?

Casting a chart: Ephemeris method:

Casting a chart: Ephemerismethod (Continued)South Indian method, North Indian method,Orissa and Eastern method.

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lO. VargasRas i , Hora , Drekkana, Navamsa,Dwadasamsa, Trimsamsa, Sapta-varga,Dasamsa, Shodasamsa, Shashtyamsa,Chaturthamsa, Vimsamsa, Siddhamsa,Bhamsa, Khavedamsa, Aksha Vedamsa.

ll. ShadbalasSthanabala, Dikbala, Kalabala, Chesta bala,Drig bala, Naisargika bala.

12. Some koblems7,odiac, Extention of constellations, Risingsign, Ayanamsa, Sayana versus Nirayana,Birth stars of Bhavas, Planetary Avasthas,Moods and states, Graha samaya.

15. Predictive methodsCombustion or Astangata, Principle ofBadhaka

14. Signs, Planets, ConstellationsSigns. Houses from lagna - dominant

, features. Dominant features of planets.Constellations - Nature, Conslellations andbodily parts.

f 5. Whnt the llouses Govern?

16. What the Planets Govem?

17. Planets in HousesPlanets in twe lve houses . P lanets inexaltation. Planets in Mula trikona' Planetsin own houses. Planets in friend's houses'Planets in the houses of enemies. Planets indebilitation. Good and bad planets forvarious lagnas.

18. Rahu and Ketu

19. Planetany AsPectsAspects o f n ine p lanets . Moon-Venusrelation. Mars. Jupiter-Venus relation. Lagna

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2 1 7

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and M.C. Uranus and Neptune. Aspects onLagna. Aspects on the tenth house.

2O. YogasPanchamahapurusha Yogas: Ruchaka,Bhadraka, tlansaka, Ylalavya, Shasha.Bhaskara yoga, Indra , Vayu, Budha,Kemadruma, Anapha, Sunapha, Durudhura,

, Shakata , ?ar i ja ta Chandradh i yoga,Lagnadhi yoga, Qajakesari, Amala, Vasi,Vesi, Ubhayachari, Kartari, Parvata, Rajayoga, Kala sarpa yoga, Khala, Chandra-Mangala yoga, Vipareeta R4jayoga, Mallika,Chamara , Shankha, Bher i , Mr idanga,Shrinatha, Sharad, Matsya, Kurma, Khaga,Laxami, Kusuma, Kalanidhi, Amsavatara,Hariharabrahma, Rajju, Musala, Nala, Cada,Shakata, Vihaga, Shringataka, tlala, Yajra,Yava, Kamala, Vapi, Yupa, Ishu, Shakt i ,D a n d a , N a u , K u t a - c h h a t r a , C h a p a ,Ardhachandra, Samudra, Chakra, Vallaki,Damini, Pasha, Kedara, Shula, Yuga, Cola.

21. LongevityShort life, Medium life, long life, Differentmethods.

22. Amsha and other Methods of LongevityCombust Mercury and longev i ty .Pindayurdaya, Naisargika-ayurdaya,Rashmija ayu, Kala chakra ayurdaya,Nakshatra ayurdaya, Ashtaka vargaayurdaya.

25. Dasa SystemsNavamsa dasa, Rashyamsa dasa,Kalachakra dasa, Chakra dasa, Charaparyaya dasa, Navamsa sthira dasa, Sthiradasa, Uttara dasa, Brahma dasa, KarakaQraha dasa, Manduka dasa, Kendra dasa,Karaka kendra dasa, Shula dasa, Nakshatradasa, Yogardha dasa, Drig dasa, Trikona

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dasa, Nakshatradi rasi dasa, Tara dasa,Varnada dasa, Pancha svara dasa, Yoginidasa, P inda, Amsa, Na isarg ika dasa,Ashtavarga dasa, Sandhya dasa.

24. Vimshottari Systemtlow many days make a year? The durationof the year for dasas.

25. Results of MahadasasMaha dasas of Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu,Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu and Venus.

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I

Astrology and tilinduCulture

f-\ ulture is a term which is used many a time by many a\./distinguished authority, and it is quite natural to findout that it has been abused in usage. Education, civiliza-tion, social etiquettes, good manners and many more termsare, sometimes, identified with this word by a good numberof writers and speakers. That there is an evident confusionin the usage, is manifest. Hence before we begin to pro-ceed. it is better to define the word.

Culture is "the refined state of understandlng, mannersand customs," felt along the blood and along the heart. Itincludes in itself the three immortal creations of the humanmind, viz.. Religion, Philosophy and Fine Arts. Philosophyhere stands for the metaphysical disquisitions besides his-tory, political theory and science. Fine Arts are well repre-sented by architecture, sculpture, paint ing, music, danceand poetry. These three are unified by one single motive.Following different paths these try to reveal to us Truth andBeauty and enable us to have the experience of Real i ty. l t isbut natural to presume that ultimately these lead a man toa sort of religious experience.

The tlindu, to whatever sect he belongs, believes firmlythat his religion is "embalmed and treasured up" in theVedic literature "on purpose for a life beyond life". The

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idea connoted by "Vedic literature" is too comprehensive.It includes the four Vedas, their Brahmanas, Aranyakas andUpanishadas. All these texts are viewed by our ancients asa single unit, as the various chapters of a mighty book.According to our ancients, it is not the belief in Cod thatmakes one theistic, but it is a belief in the validity and thesacredness of the Vedic literature. This is sound both inprinciple and in practice, for only thus unity can be fosteredamong all the Hindus. That is why the earlier Vaisheshika,Sankhya and Purva Mimamsa systems though all of themdisbelieved in Cod, as we understand Him, were regardedas theistic systems of philosophy. One has to rememberthat "unity first and unity last" was the great slogan andwatchword of our immortal seers, saints and scholars.

The Vedic literature in itself presents considerable diffi-culties when we begin to understand it. There is the ques-tion of language difficulty to begin with. To remove theseobstacles and to facilitate a proper understanding of thismighty literature six Vedangas have been, so to say, discov-ered. There are the Kalpa Sutras to enable an easy compre-hension of the elaborate and subtle technique of the rituals.There is Shiksha for the proper pronunciation of the letters.There is Vyakarana which is indispensable for every studentof a language. We have Nirukta or the science of etymologyto explain the meaning of words. We have Chhandas or thescience of prosody. Finally we have Jyotisha or Astronomyto regulate mainly the seasons to facilitate sacrifices.

There are certain passages in the Vedic text ordainingthe performances of some rites only in some specifiedseasons. A knowledge of these seasons can be obtainedonly through a knowledge of astronomy. Further the con-struction of the altar and other things required someacquaintance with the science of geometry. This also isincluded in astronomy. Thus the science of astronomycame into existence at the end of the Vedic period, thoughit is not difficult to postulate that such a thing actuallyexisted in the Vedic period itself.

We hear o f the precess ion o f the equ inoxes inSatapatha Brahmana, of the peculiar stars that are situated

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on the tracks of the planets, in the Samhitas, and eclipsesin the entire literature, and many more things. Theseand many other considerations force us to postulate thetheory that the Vedic literature represents the culminationof a great civilization and culture that were greatly sweptaway.

Before we actually make a study of the cultural aspectof the astral science it is better to know the importantlandmarks in the development of this science. The VedangaJyotisha marks the beginning of a great epoch of thesystematization of knowledge. Many siddhantas graduallyc a m e i n t o e x i s t e n c e . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e nvarious siddhantas are mainly due to the plain fact tlratthey represent certain phases in the evolution of thisscience.

That the earth is round is an accepted doctrine of faith.Aryabhatta proved conclusively, nearly fourteen centuriesago that the earth rotates around the Sun. The greatBhaskara worked out the problems concerning geometryand algebra, besides astronomy. The value of zero hasbeen discussed by him seven centuries ago. It is an estab-lished fact that the decimal system owes its origin to ourancient seers alone.

But, why did our ancients pay so much attention to thisastral science? Why were they fascinated by it? How did itserve them? How did it enable them to follow their ownsystems of thought? These are some of the innumerablequestions that will suggest even to the ordinary mind. llerewe have to note the essential factor, viz., our ancientsdivided all branches of knowledge only into four types.Every branch of knowledge has to promote either Dharma,Artha, Kama, or Moksha. Of all these the last is the mostimportant thing and it is said that the other three also, ifthey are followed righteously, will lead one to final emanci-pation. We have to consider how the astral science fits intothis scheme.

The prime puspose of the astral science for man was toacquaint him with a knowledge of the seasons and with the

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changes in nature. With the help of this, the rellgious manregulated his scheme of rituals, while the traders and theagriculturists regulated their business and crops respec-tively. Thus at a single stroke two things - Dharma andArtha were achieved. And this gradually came to have agreat bearing on the final purushartha ie moksha.

There are similarities between astronomy and retigion.As the astral science develops, man tends to adopt a sort ofmystical attitude. He horribly begins to feel his litUeness.This ought to lead him to a sort of pessimism. But one hasto remember that there is no touch of pessimism in anytheistic system of philosophy propounded by our seers.Man always tries to feel his identity with the inner movingforce of the universe, and herein his liti leness is completelysubmerged. There is a touch of genuine wonder at theinterrelated structure of the visible and the invisible uni-verses. The universe around him is proved to him throughthe astral science to be finite. Space and time, naturally,begin to lose their value and influence.

So far there is apparently a dualism with man on oneside, and the stars and planets on the other. Herein Astrol-oS/ comes to the rescue to bridge the gulf that seems toyawn betwixt them. Man and the stars and planets arerelated to one another. The latter are seen to influence hislife, to advise him, and to foster in him a greater spirit of co-operation. Man begins to vibrate at the movement of theother. The dualism thus ceases to exist and we exist as asingle system. The advent of the existence of such a systemis placed before Man, and so he is enabled to pursue his"pathway to Reality" in close co-operation with the bodiesthat move high above. The spirit of religion, of culture is nota figment of the imagination of Man. It is an establishedfact. The planets influence man in the field of aesthetics, ofmetaphysics, and of religion. All the other things are onlymeans to enable us to realise these ends.

It is a popular saying that 'Cod created stars in the sky,and fools on earth'. This is so utterly false on the face of itthat a little acquaintance with the workings of astrology,and with the implications of astronomy, will prove it absurd.

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The tlindu philosophy tells us that all the visible thingsaround, above and below, are only manifestations of Realityand of its existence. To believe rationally in the organicsystem, in the unity of the factors, is not tomfoolery. It is theacme of commonsense, of wisdom.

Before we conclude, a word about the implications ofHindu culture as revealed through the astral science isnecessary. The goal of Hindu culture is to realise Reality, torealise the best happiness to enable our neighbours to raisethemselves to this experience. This is the cardinal principleunderlying the notion that Reality is a unity, a system. Theastral science speaks of the solar systems, and tells us howall these are related to the Absolute Reality. The planets arelnterdependent, and at the same time are controlled by onechief planet. The Sun carries us away at a terrible speed and'we

are inhabiting a universe that floats in the open air andmoves, so to say, with wings. This clearly tells us that we arein a dynamic universe that is constantly changing. But weknow through commonsense that change is the feature ofthe ultimately unreal. It is not Becoming that is Real, butBeing. Being is the central force that is in the phenomenaand also beyond it. The unity or the system, which astralscience bequeaths to man as a legacy, is of the nature ofthis Being.

While astral science leads man to realise Being, to expe-rience the Real, astrology seryes an apparently differentpurpose. Our ancient seers never ignored the empiricaluniverse. We live in this universe and it is our duty to relatethis universe with all our experiences and flights. The influ-ence wielded by the planets simply means that they havemuch to say regarding phenomena. It implies that theyaccount for Becoming. They explain our dynamic universe.Hence it turns out to be that the direct purpose of the astralscience is to enable us to become cultured citizens of ourrespective Nations, and to make us fit to succeed in theempirical universe. Indirectly they lead us to the transcen-dental universe, the universe of Being which includes ourworld also in it besides something more.

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From time immemorial astrology has been an Intr.,p;rlelement of the Hindu rel igion and culture. In order lo l rr t r . r-pret the Vedic texts and to enable the people to folkrw andpractise the Vedic injunctions there arose six anclllnry dls.ciplines called the Vedangas. One of these is Jyoil.sha whlchmeans both astronomy and astrolog5l. Literally tlrr: wordrefers to light, effulgence, Tripuratapini lJpanishaclcalls ilreSupreme Coddess 'Trijyotishanf' by which is meant theunity of the Sun, the Moon and Fire. On earth we worshlDfire not as a physical object but as the appearance o[ aspiritual reality. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad calls men Flreand also designates women as Fire.

Yosha va va gautama agnih, purusho va va gautama agnlh

Fire is a symbol of the soul.

Every branch of knowledge arose in India as an ex-tended application or an extension of a philosophical sys-tem. Charaka gives first an exposition of Sankhya phitoso-phy on which he developed Ayurueda. These systems ofphilosophy are not theoretical expositions, but darsanas.They have to be experienced, realised in actual life. tlenceeven the nakshatras which play a prominent part in astrol-ogy have presiding deities. Based on the nature of the rulingdeity the nakshatras are classified into good and bad. Forinstance the constellation of Anuradha is considered to bethe best for any auspicious function because the presidingdeity of this star is Mitra, a form of the Sun. That is, Hinduastrolog5l did not treat the planets and stars as mere mate-rial objects, but as forces charged with or radiating anenergy arising from a presiding deity. The same AbsoluteReality, says the famous hymn of Dirylhatma.s in the RigVeda (1.164), is cal led by var led narnes by thc wise. Thefirst distinguishing feature of tlirrdu astrololly Is, therefore,its reliance as a spiritual energy emanating from a Vedicdeity.

Purush Sukta (Rig Veda lO.9O) speaks of the Sun com-ing from the eye and of the Moon from the mlnd of theCosmic Creator. The significator (karaka) of the nrin<l is theMoon. The Sun is said to be the eye of the gods (chakshur

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devahitam) and to be the animating soul (surya atmajagatastasthushas cha) of the moving and unmoving Uni-verse. Even Plato, whose religion was closer to the Flindu-ism, spoke of the Sun as the visible embodiment of theSupreme Reality called the Cod. Astrological principles thusare based on a spiritualistic philosophy. The Sun as the souland the Moon as body are well known to all students ofastrolog5r.

That astrology has been an inalienable part of the Hindureligion and culture is also evident from its sources in Hindumythology and ethos. We have already seen that the Sunand the Moon are central figures governing the soul andbody, the spirit and mind, Purusha and Prakriti. Add tothese the two planets Jupiter and Venus. In the VedasJupiter (Brihaspati, Brahmanaspaf) is the deity of philoso-phy, knowfedge and wisdom. In Patanjali 's Mahabhashyahewas said to have taught grammar to Indra. In our mythologyhe is the teacher who tends to be spiritual. On the otherhand, Sukra (Venus) is said to be the teacher of the daityas,or devils, even though he is also a god, like Brihaspati. Trueto his association with the daityas, he contributes to thesensuous pleasures, to the entertainment provided by thefine arts, and to the creationtof these, The karakatvas ofthese two are embedded in our Vedas and mythology. Theyare not invented by our astrologers.

The Taittiriya Samhita and Brahmana refer to the tithis,to the waning and waxing Moon, and to the conjunctionwith and opposition to the Sun. Certain rites are prescribedfor certain days. Here is a principle of great significance.The waning Moon is inauspicious for certain rites and so aresome days near the conjunction of the Sun and the Moon.

Apart from these four we have Kuja (Mars), Budha (Yler-cury) and Sani (Saturn). Our mythology makes the earth andVishnu parents of Mars. Are not the physical/external as-pects of the earth present in the influences of Mars? Possi-bly one reason why the earth is not placed in the astrologi-cal charts is that the earth is represented by Lagna andMars. Next Mercury is the child of the Moon and Jupiter'swife. It shows clearly the nature of Mercury. He refers to

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education (Jupiter), vacillating mind (Moon) and instability(Tara, wife of Jupiter). Hence Mercury's influence varies asand when he is with or without other benefic or maleficbodies. Saturn is said to be the child of the Sun. The twohave much similarity and also differences. They are thusgiven moolatrikonas and own houses in opposing signs.Thus the planets that play a major role in astrology areintimately connected with Hinduism.

Next, why are certain houses said to be malefic bynature? Arising out of the Hindu philosophy and religion,astrology tahes into consideration the four main ends of life(purusharthas). The trines are benefic because they refer tothe spiritual activity (soul, contemplation, penance). lt isnot for nothing that the l2th house is designated as thehouse of moksha (final emancipation), the supreme end oflife. The concept of moksha is unique to tlinduism . Kama orlove, another purushartha, refers to houses 4, 7 and B.Dharma or righteous action, another end of life, is governedby houses 3 and 9. Artha or material prosperity is referredto houses 2, 6, I and I l. Of these the houses 6, 8 and 12are said to be malefic only because they govern the materi-alistic values, spirit over matter, that is, the motto of Hindu-ism from the Vedas onwards. The 5rd refers to the lowermind because it is ruled by the illegitimate child of theMoon. Jupiter, as a spiritual benefic planet, rules dharma(the 9th) and moksha (the l2th) of the natural zodiac. The7th is owned by the teacher of the rakshasas. This profoundsymbotism is of great significance if it is placed only in thecontext of Hinduism.

Why did the followers of the Vedas need Jyotisha? TheVedic texts tell us when the fires, the sacrificial fires, are tobe kindled for the first time in the year, when the sacriiiceshave to be performed, and which are the auspicious times..The Muhurtas have to be fixed with reference to the posi-tions of the planets. Vasante brahmana agnim adadhita-the Brahmana has to kindle the first fire as soon as springbegins. The astronomical positions have to be fixed. This isthe function served by astronomical calculations. Then theproper auspicious moment has to be fixed and this is the

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duty of the astrologer. We frequently hear of Brahm andAbhijit Muhurtas. The first begins a little before the sunriseand the second when the Sun is on the meridian. EvenPtolemy valued the second. Our ancestors did not considerthe moment of somebody's appearance as auspicious forbeginning an important activity. Rather the V.l.P. has to bepresent when the auspicious moment arises. The momentis auspicious only under certain astronomical and astrologi-cal factors indicated by the planets. Thus the wearing of thesacred thread is not allowed after the Sun has gone behindthe meridian; and marriages are not allowed when the Sunand the Moon are close to each other.

Astrolog;l is in fact a science. But it is an inseparableaspect of Hinduism. Every true Hindu has to accept astiol-ogy. If he denies astrolory and yet accepts Hinduism, he willbe like one swearing on Bhagavad Oita and yet denouncingthe concept of Chaturuarnya. Ancient tlindus have given usmany sciences and yet they refused to dissociate thesefrom religion. For, in flinduism the secular and the non-secular (religions) are the two sides of the same coin. Astrol-ogy from the earliest times has been studied in India as ascience with its ancestry in Hindu religion and with its goalln spiritual realisation of Highest Reality.

Indian Astrology has its roots in Indian Astronomy,which in its turn is imbedded in the Vedic culture andthought. Though the ancient people of the Vedic timesobserved many an astronomical phenomenon carefuly, mi-nutely and accurately, the compilation of this science hasbeen handed over to Ceometry and Physics. These two,Qeometry and Physics, are sciences of space. Ancientlhdian Philosophy was pre-occupied with discussions onthe nature of Space, Time and Causality. For manifoldreasons, the Upanishadic thinkers arrived at the formida-ble conclusion that these have an empirical validity, andhence are relatively real. Qeometry and Physics could notafford to ignore these metaphysical truths; and the burdenlay on these sciences either to prove or disprove thiscontention.

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The next dominent factor is the Ceometrical construc-tion of the altar and the like and the mathematical reduc-tion of the world into the sacrificial hall, which was in realitya microcosm of the Universe. Consequently the global na-ture of the Universe around us and the system of finitespace in which we live became the objects of enquiry.

A third factor is the observation and deduction of themathematical and scientific laws that govern nature; for,the sacrifices are to be performed on certain days in certainseasons. As a result, the rotation of the Earth, the move'ments of the Sun and the Moon, and the planetary motionshad to be studied. Thus arose Astronomy. The empiricaldata had its support in the observations made by the Vedicseers.

Once this has been achieved, a further problem arose;what is the relation between the planetary movements andthe sudden changes in nature? What is the bearing of theplanets on the movements on trarth? These questionsbrought the planets closer to human life' Yet no one couldadmit that the planets were all in all. The principle of Karmahas been grossly misinterpreted by many. It only means inan exaggerated way that 'Character is destiny'. That is,man's life is a continuous whole. Past, present and thefuture are vitally interrelated. One action leads to anotherand thus a link is formed. As a result action issues itself incharacter; and character issues itself in action. This makesup the personality of the individual. This, in short, is theprinciple of Karma, which no rational human being canafford to ignore. In such a case what part do the planetsplay on human life? The ancient Hindu thinkers and scien-tists were aware to this problem. They named the planet'Craha'. The planet only attracts. It never conditions or

determines our life. It only indicates that a particular line of

action may be taken up if certain things persist. Thus arose

Astrology with this background.

The sages like Parashara, Garga and Agastya took up

this branch of study' Parashara is the first system-builder in

Astrologr. His Hora Sastra, though we now possesses only a

summary of it, is an epoch-making work. It lays down the

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fundamental principles of the science. The allotment of theplanets to the signs of the Zodiac, the apportioning of thedegrees of exaltation and of debilitation cannot be simplypriori intuitions. The sage must have actually observed theconfiguration of the stars and the planets. In a particularcontext, a certain planet must have radiated its energy in atypical manner. The degrees of difference in this radiationof energy is the basis for assigning the houses intoSwakshetra, Mulatrikona, Uchcha Neecha, Mitrakshetra,Samakshetra, Satrukshetra and so on. This is the first great-est contribution to Astrology to the study of the planets inrelation to the stars. This is the basis for all types of predic-tive astrology, and for the development of Astronomy andPhysics as well.

Each planet differs from the other in its radiation ofenergy. This is graphically and pictorially represented underthe descriptive lists of the planets which assign Cender,Caste, Trigunas, Age and so on. These are not fancifulcreations of a fruitful imagination, but symbolic accounts ofthe different radiations of energy. And the system of?arashara is built on these solid rocks. The subsequentscience of astrology is based on these irrefutable truths.Thus without Parashara, lhere is no astrology.

A third contribution of Parashara is the theory of plan-etary aspects, which presupposes the Curvature Theory ofSpace. It is again a third aspect of the radiation of energy.It implies the gravitational pull and the relativity of motion.

To these three general laws are added three more sub-laws. The first is the allotment of the Karakatvas to theplanets. These Karakatvas reveal the nature of the object orobjects, things and thoughts of this Darth which correspondto the variations of energy based on the angular and rota-tory movements in this 'finite but unbounded Universe'.The second refers to the Karakatvas of the Bhauas. Startingwith Lagna or the personality, he ends with Moksha in thetwelfth. The twelve Bhavas, therefore, are a gradual revela-tlon of the human personality, its interests and desires, itshopes and achievements. The relation between these twoforms is an important basis of predictive astrologl.

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The third refers to the system of dasas based on theconstellations. In the ancient Samhitas we come across thelists of deities presiding over the constellations. But?arashara has apparently preferred not to accept it. But aminute examination will reveal that this is based on theaffinity and vibration between the star and the planet whose'dasa" is ascribed to it.

Thus Parashara's system presupposes a rich develop-ment in the fields of astronomy and physics. lt is based onsuch irrefutable principles that to doubt its claims to therank of a valid science is ridiculous. In short, he has givento astrology what is essential. Later writers have notchanged the basis, but only added a few thingp on thepredictive side.

Next to Parashara both in time and rank comes Jaimini,the second great formidable system-builder. He is unique inthe sense he departs from Parashara's system in all ways.ile is also the first to compose his work in the aphoristicstyle.

His greatest contribution to the growth and development of astrolog;l is the fact that we must not be satisfied byexamining only the Ascendant; but we must take into con-sideration the Karaka, Karakams a, llora, Drekkana, Arudhaand Upapada Lagnas. Of these, the most important are theKarakamsa, Arudha and Upapada. That is to say, the humanpersonality is to be viewed from three angles, viz.' innate,acquired and developed tendencies. Instinctual, emotionaland sentimental of intellectual considerations have to betaken up. Thus the first great contribution of Jaimini is thestudy of personality by splitting it into its fundamentals, byanalysing it into its constituents. This is an advance overParashara, for Parashara's l-agna is a synthesis of all theseaspects..

The next great contribution of Jaimini lies in hls analysis

of Parashara's twofold Karakatvas. According to Parashara,planets and bhavas as well have karakatvas that are perma-

nent. For every Lagna the planets come to acquire tempo-

rary Karakatvas by virtue of their ownership over the

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Bhavas. Now Jaimini has proceeded to fix up the limits ofthese Karakatvas. Thereby he facilitated the task of predic-tive astrologr to a great extent.

The third great contribution of Jaimini is an advanceover Parashara's theory of planetary aspects. If both planetsand bhavas have Karakatvas, then how is it only the planetshave aspects? Do not the Bhavas aspect? Now Jaiminisolves it by showing that Chara Rasis aspect all Sthira Rasisexcept the one next to them; Sthira Rasis aspect all theCharas except the one behind them; and DwisvabhavaRasis aspect all Dwisvabhava Rasis. Similarly the planetssituated in the Rasis aspect like the Rasis they occupy. Thisls really a formidable proposition. But what is the ratiorfalehere? It is based on the principle of three, for, the cardinalsaspect 5, 8 and I l, the fixed aspect 5, 6 and 9, and thecommon aspect 4, 7 and lO. The cardinals start with theangular aspect, the fixed with the sextile, and the commonwith the square. All ultimately resolve into relations basedon the square aspects. This can be termed as the law of theharmonic sequences of the square.

Thus Jaimini's system does not ultimately conflict withthat of Parashara. It is only an advance in the right direc-tlon. It takes the principles of Parashara to their logicalconsequences and completes the system by the methods ofanalysis and perfection.

The third great systematiser is Varaha Mihira, who is aneclectic thinker, astronomer and astrologer. tle has greatlyinfluenced the Western Astronomers and Astrologers; andin turn was influenced by them. As he tells us that theforeigners too are worth our respect if they possess thatwisdom which we do not have and which is desirable. Hehas taken the principles of Satyacharya, Yavaneswara,Manittha and others. He has codified them and checkedtheir results by observation and experiment. fle has incor-porated them into his own system and brought forth a newsystem of predictive astrologgr on the irrefutable basis laiddown by Parashara. This Catholic outlook of Varaha Mihirais largely responsible for the widening of outlook. He has

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brought forth a new and invigorating enquiry into the natureof the old problems in the light of the views of later think-ers. Thus he has re-oriented the system by offering us mod-ern exposition of the ancient system incorporating thetruths enunciated by all and sundry. Consequently he be-comes the father of Modem Astrology.

The fourth greatest contribution is the Tajika systemknown to us chiefly through the works of Nilakantha andKesava. This Tajika system is no other than the ProgressedHoroscope, which is held by some today as the contributionof the Westerners. The Progressed Horoscope or VarshaKundali is lndian in origin and outlook; for the method ofanalysis is one of the chief contributions of the ancientIndians to all scientific studies.

It is from the standpoints of these four schools thatIndian Astrolory is to be approached. It is an error ofjudgement to suppose that they are mutually exclusive. Thefundamental basis is the same in all and that is the systemof Parashara. The rest supplement one another and com-plete the system.

The Astrological literature of India is vast and profound.The world around is said to be 'finite but unbounded' byJeans and Fddington. The same holds good of our astrolog-ical treatises. An ordinary student of this science finds itdifficult to pick and choose; let alone be the difficulty of thelanguage. Consequently he becomes an easy prey to cheapprose versions and begins to pose at once as a 'very good'astrologer. This brings the science itself into disrepute.flence it is proposed here to introduce to the reader someof the brilliant works giving a brief resume of the contentsof each and the salient features therein. It is interesting topursue the study of the evolution of Indian Astrology. Butthe lack of proper chronological arrangement hinders sucha procedure.

It would be fitting to begin with Parashara and Oarga.But with Yaraha Mihira, they are too big and too great to bekept within the narrow confines of this chapter.

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Jaimini has a novel approach to the field of prediction.His system is different from that of Parashara. He followsthe Karaka Lagna and Karakamsa l,agna. By this is meantthat the l-agna is that which is occupied in Amsa by thatplanet who has traversed the greatest number of degrees inany particular house. One has to predict also from tloraLagna, Arudha l-agna and Upapada' The actual ascendantand the Sun and Moon cannot be ignored. The predictions

should be based on the cumulative evidence of all theselagnas. We can say that the Karaka l,agna gives the innatetendencies, Arudha gives the acquired, and Upapada gives

the developed. Similarly the Sun is on the mental or spiri'tual plane and the Moon on the physical or sensationisticplane. This is an important landmark in the evolution'ofIndian Astrolory. This reveals the manifold responsibilitiesof the various houses.

In the same way, Jaimini gives us the acquired and

natural responsibilities of the planets to show that the apparent multiplicity of the external universe can be easilyaccounted. As such it is not only the planets that aspect,but also the Rasis. The Chara Rasis (movable signs) aspect5, 8 and I l. This leads us to the computation of Ayus or

longevity. It is too complicated to be worked out in detail.

The longevity is to be determined from l-agna, Hora Lagna,

etc. So the Dasas are Darpana Dasa, Oochara Dasa' Brahma

Maheshwara Dasa, Atma Nadi Dasa' Sthira Dasa' Varnada

Dasa, Chara Paryaya Dasa' Atmano Bhavopamsa Dasa,

Jayabhavapamsa Dasa and Ttlkona Dasa. This system is

very subtle and very difficult to be clearly grasped. Conse-quently very few astrologers have taken it up later on.

The Jataka naiiya of Singayarya follows the system of

Jaimini and is clearer than the latter's aphorisms, though

not as comprehensive and profound. Here we are told that

Jupiter is a full benefic, Venus is 3/4 benefic, and full Moon

a complete benef ic ' Saturn and Kethu are complete

malefics, Mars is 3/4, Sun is l/2, waning Moon 3/4 and

Mercury associated with malefic,s 3/4. sun in sagittarius is

the same as Jupiter. Sun and Moon combination is the

same as Satum. Moon in debilitation, or Moon aspected by

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Saturn, is identical with Saturn. Full Moon plus Ytercury orVenus is identical with Jupiter. If the waning Moon isaspected by the Malefics and the benefics too, he can betaken as a benefic. Moon in Sagittarius, Pisces or Cancer isthe same as Jupiter.

Singayarya accepts the aspect of Jaimini and ofParashara as well. The Dasas are those of Jaimini. But healso deals with Vimshottari. He is slightly influenced byYahara Mihira too. Thus he presents more or less a synthe-sis of the divergent schools of thought.

9arauali of Kalyana Varma is an important treatise. Hementions Yaraha Mihira as having done yeoman service byremoving the chaff and offering us the fruit.

He informs us that he is giving an exposition of theessentials of previous writings with particular reference toVaraha, Yavana and others. Bhattotpala quotes him in hiscommentary on Brihat Jataka.

Kalyana Varma tells us that with the pure eye of Astrol-ogr the astrologer has to make manifest that which is en-graved on the forehead by the Creator.

Therefore he interprets "flora" as a critical expositionof the divine working ('Daiva Vimarsana')-a peep into thedivine or the hidden.

From the kendras (angles) we get a glimpse into theearly life. In.the youth the panapharas (succeedent houses)play a part. In old age, we have to take up the apoklimas(cadent houses).

The first seven chapters deal with fundamentals. Theeighth deals with conception, ninth with delivery, and tenthwith Arishtas. "lf Sun is in the l2th, the right eye has to go,and if Moon the left eye," observes the author.

The next two chapters give an account of the Arishtabhangas (neutralisation of affliction). The thirteenth and thefourteenth emphasise the fact that there must be a planet atleast on one side of both the Sun and the Moon.This isabsolutely essential.

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Next five chapters deal with the combinations of two ormore planets. Then he gives about Pravrajya, and selects52 Nabhas Yogas out of the l,8OO given by the Yavanas.Nine chapters are devoted to the planets and the Bhavas.Then come Drishty Antara Yogas, Bhagya Chinta, Lokayatraand Raja Yogas. The 56th chapter is Rashmi Chinta and heis indebted to Manitha. He tells us Ylaya, Manitha andBadarayana have done much in Mahendra Sastra.

The 37th chapter deals with 'Pancha maha PurushaLakshand and, here he mentions one Deva Kirti Raja. NextRajayoga bhangasare given. He rejects Manitha in favour ofSatyacharya and the computation of Ayus (longevity) andDasas. Then Dasarishtas, Uchchaphala, Strijataka, Nirydna,Nashta Jataka, flora, Drekkana and Navamsa phalas aregiven. He takes Ashtaka Varga from the Yavanas, andViyonijanma (non-human birth) from lfanakacharya. The54th chapter gives an account of the results of AshtakaVarga.

Thus it will be seen that Sarauali is very comprehensiveand that it crystallises into a single volume the fundamentalrational views of all previous astrologers, whether they areIndian or foreigner. This is the formative influence ofVaraha Mihira on Kalyana Varman and on Indian mind.

Vriddha Parashara gives in a plain and Simple way thegeneral results of the Dasas of planets and their bhuktis.ltis comprehensive in outline. tlere begin the computationsof Dasas based on constellations at birth.

Of a similar, but of more comprehensive nature is UduDasa Fradipika. The author adores Vishnu, Dakshinamurthi,Vighneswara, Sarasvat i and the planets. He mentionsParashara and Yavaneshwara. It is in eleven chapters. Thefirst deals with the fundamentals. The second gives RajaYogas, while the third deals with poverty. If there are noplanets on any side of the Moon, then too it is a case ofpoverty. Then two chapters dealwith Dasas and Antardasas.The causes of death are next related as referring to thesixth, eighth and twelfth houses. Troubles and the conse-quent death are elaborately worked out with reference to

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the lagnas Cancer and Scorpio, Capricorn and Pisces. Thetenth chapter gives a list of the causes leading to death.Houses 5, 6, A and I I have a responsibility here. Rahu andKethu in 8 or l2 destroy life. Emphasis is laid on the periodof the lord of the Khaga Drekkana, and of the lords ofCapricorn and Pisces. The last chapter deals with Oochara.

Mantreshwara's Phaladipika is in 26 chapters. First hegives the elements, Rqia Yogas, the nature of the Rasis andBhavas. A retrograde planet is equated with an exalted one.Then there is Bhava Chinta Vidhi which is very important asit lays down general principles of approach to a horoscope.Dasa Phala, Chara Phala, Kala Chakra Dasa, Utpanna Dasa,Maha Dasa, Nisarga Dasa, Amsa Dasa and UchchaNeechamsa Dasa are given in detail. He gives the results ofnot only Ashtaka Varga, but also Culika. None can afford toignore this masterly survey of the science offered byMantreshwara.

Shripati Paddhatiis another small, but highly interestingwork in 156 verses giving an account of the Bhava Phala,Aspects, Shadbalas, Ishta and Kashta Phala, Amsayurdaya'Arishta and Arishta Bhanga, and benefic and malefic re-

sults. He emphasises the part played by Karma and the

remedial use of AstrologY.

IJttara Katamrita offers an experimental study of thescience. The planets, the author insists, are to be accuratelyposited. They must be sphuta grahas and it must be throughDrig ganita. tle gives some principles of rectification. Mandi

and Gulika are dealt with following Mandavya. Amsayu and

other types of Ayus are stated ' Oraha Bhava Bala and

Karakatvas are stated. He gives not only the Nakshatra

Dasa, but also deals with the progressed horoscope, with

which we are familiar in Tajika. He has a place for florary

Astrolory too. About the first wife, we are asked to predict

from the seventh house; about the second from the eighth;

about the third from the third; and about the fourth from the

ninth and so on. We cannot neglect in this connection

IJpapadarudha and Dararudha. Dducation and mental de-

rangement are allotted to the third house.

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Jataka Parijatha of Vaidyanatha is a fine compendiumthat should be missed by none. It is in eighteen chaptersand may be said to be modelled on Varaha Mihira andI{alyana Varma. After dealing with the fundamentals, ViyoniJanma, l.ongevity, Rqja Yogas, combinations of planets andAshtaka Varga, he devotes five chapters for a comprehen-sive account of Bhava phalas. One chapter is on femalehoroscopy, another in l{ala Chakra Rasis, and the last oneon Dasas and Antaras.

Of a similar nature is Venkatesha Daivajna's SaruarthaChintamani. Readers should be well acquainted with theexposition of this work by the late Prof. B. Suryanarain Rao.This work forms a comprehensive introduction to the fibldof astrology. After giving the definitions and explanations ofthe essential elements, he offers a general treatment of thehouses and planets. Then follow six chapters dealing withthe various Bhavas. Then comes to the yogas, longevity,Arishta, ?ravrajya and a detailed account of the Dasas. Thetreatment is original and masterly.

Ganesa Daivajna's Jatakalankara is important in manyways. tle is the son of Gopala Pandita, and disciple of ShivaCuru. He composed the work in Suryapuram in the monthof Bhadrapada in Vikrama era 1555 (= 1478 AD). He in-forms us that he has composed works on Prosody andRhetorics and also wrote some kavyas.

tle deals with Bhava Phalas and Yogas in an interestingmanner. We are told that a girl bom in Ashlesha, Krittika orShatabhisha, when it is a Sunday, Saturday or Tuestay, andwhen it is Dvitiya, Saptami or Dwadasi, will become a VishaKanya (poison girl). That is, Ashlesha on a Sunday which isDvitiya (2nd lunar day) is one combination. A second isKrittika on a Saturday which is Saptami (7th lunar day) isone combination. The third one is Shatabhisha on a Tues-day which is a Dwadasi (l2th lunar day). Simitarly whenthere are two benefics and one malefic in the Ascendant,and when there are two malefics in tenth and sixth, thentoo we can have a Visha Kanya. A Saturday with Dvitiyaand Ashlesha, a Tuesday with Saptami and Shatabhisha, a

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TEXT BOOI{ OF SCIENTInIC flNDU ASTROLAOY

Sunday with Vishakha and Dwadasi are other combinationsfor the same. The same holds good when Mars is in theninth, Saturn is in the Ascendant, and Sun is in the fifth. Butwhen the lord of the seventh from the ascendant or theMoon is a benefic, or when there is a benefic in that seventhwe cannot predict a Visha Kanya.

About longevity he gives some interesting paradoxesand they are given here for what they are worth. If the lordof the Ascendant is in the kendras and with benefics, thenwe can speak of Pumayus (full-life). If the lord of the Ascen-dant having great power becomes Mercury, or Venus orJupiter and occupies his own place, or if he is Moon occu-pyrng Taurus, then too the longevity is for sixty years.Benefics in quadrants, Jupiter in l-agna, and tenth auspi-cious, assure seventy years. A strong Mercury in kendra(quadrant) with no planet in the eighth gives thirty years. Ifeighth is aspected by benefics or by Mercury forty years. IfJupiter is in Swakshetra and Sva-Drekkana,27 years. Moonin Cancer or Lagna with benefics in the seventh gives sixtyyears. If the eighth lord is in the ninth, when the lord oflagna is in the eighth aspected by malefics then 24 years.The lords of one and eighth in the eighth give 27 years. lfJupiter is in lagna along with malefics and is aspected byMoon, when there is a planet in the eighth, we can speak of22 years. Saturn in the ninth, and Moon in the twelfth orninth give hundred years. When malefics are in kendras andkonas, and when Jupiter or Venus is associated withbenefics and is in the lagnas of Sagittarius or Pisces, thenwe can speak of a hundred years. When there are no plan-ets in the eighth from lagna and Moon, and when Jupiterand Venus are powerful, then l2O years. Lord of lagna ineighth, Moon in tenth, a strong Jupiter, and the other plan-ets in the ninth give lOO years. When the Sun, Mars andSaturn occupy kendras or kona (trine), Jupiter is in lagnaand no planets are in the eighth, then 85 years. Whenbenefics are in lagna and when there is no aspect to lagna,while the lord of eighth is in the eighth, 2O years. Lords oflagna and eighth in kendras without strength assure of thirtyyears. When Moon is powerless in 5, 6 and 12, then 32

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ASTROLOOY AND TIINDU CULruBE

years. The Sun in lagna that has malefic 'Argala' gives 5lyears. Lord of eighth in lagna with no good planets in theeighth gives 4O years. The Sun and Saturn in Capricom,with the lord of eighth in kendras, gives 44 years. Saturn inthe second for a Dvisvabhava lagna, while the lords ofeighth and twelfth have no strength, give 2E years. The Sunin Cancer, Moon with malefics in the tenth, and Jupiter inkendra assure of 5 years. Mercury in the tenth, Moon infourth, and Jupiter and Venus together in eighth or twelfthgive 5O years. If the lord of lagna and the Moon are togetherin 6, 8 or 12 occupying the Navamsa of Saturn, then b8years.

Bhavartha Chandrtka gives a general treatment of thelagnas, yogas and bhavas. Many verses belonging to theUdu Dasa Pradipika appear here verbatim. There are somelnteresting tips here. For Aries Jupiter in tenth is a Maraka(death-causing) while Venus in the twelfth is a benefic. Healso gives the melefic aspect of the lagna. As regards edu-cation, Venus in the 4th gives music, Mercury astrology. TheSun and Rahu, or Mercury and Rahu in the fifth give astrol-ogy and Vlsha Vaidya. The Sun and Mercury in the secondpromote astrolory. If these two are aspected by Saturn,then mathematics. The Sun and Mars in the second pro-mote logic. The Sun, Saturn and Mercury in the fifth givephilosophy. Mathematics is from the Sun and Mercury occu-p y i n g l , 4 , 7 , 1 O , 5 , 9 o r l l . V e n u s i n t h e s e c o n d m a k e sone a poet. Jupiter in the 2nd gives a knowledge of theVedas and Vedangas, Mars gives logic; Mars and Moonmake one a sacrificer,. Moon gives the knowledge of KamaShastra; Moon and Kethu make one Mavavadi. Rahu in thefifth makes one a g?odha bhavarthauJd (W))

If the lords of the fifth and the ninth mutually aspect oneanother, then it is a case of childlessness. If Moon, Mars andVenus are powerless in 2, 4,7,8 and 12, i t is a case of twomarriages. Mercury is Karma Karaka.

When Jupiter and Venus are in Scorpio, Venus is moreauspicious. In Jupiter-Saturn combination Saturn is thebest; similarly Mars in Mars-Jupiter combination, and Moonin Moon-Jupiter combination are best.

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38 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC ITINDU ASTEOLOOY

Jyotisharnavapiyusha is in the form of a dialogue be-tween Shiva and Parvathi, and is said to be a part of AgastyaSamhita. Here are given some principles of rectification.Multiply the time of birth in ghatis and vighatis by 4 and addthe ascendant, counting it from Aries. Divide it by 27. Theremainder when counted from Ashwini, or Magha or Mulamust agree with the constellation at birth. Divide the time ofbirth in ghatis by 2 and add the number of the star occupiedby the Sun. This will be the lagna when counted from Aries.Multiply the time in ghatis by 6 and add the days andmonths elapsed. Then divide it by 5O. Count the remainderfrom the house next to that occupied by the Sun and youwill get the lagna. The lagna can be the same as thatoccupied by Moon, or the seventh from Moon, or the fifth orninth to that seventh. The same method can be appliedeven to the lord of the sign occupied by the Moon.

, Saturn in the Amsa of Mars and aspected by Mars orRahu gives a longevity of one year. Saturn in the Amsa ofVenus and aspected by Venus or Kethu gives three years.Saturn in Mercury's Amsa, seen by Mercury or Sun, givesthree years. Saturn in Sun's Amsa and seen by the Sun orVenus gives four years. Saturn in Moon's Amsa, seen byMoon or lord of lagna, gives six to eight years. Saturn inJupiter's Amsa, seen by Jupiter or Moon, gives four years.Rahu in the fourth, seen by malefics, gives ten to sixteenyears.

The Sun in the twelfth with Saturn, Kethu and Moon inthe seventh causes death to father. If they are seen bybenefics, it will be after three years. Death to both parentswill take place if Sun, Moon and Saturn are together in 5 or7 or 12. Mars in the eighth deprives of one of his ma[ernaluncles. Sun and Mars together or separately in l, 12,9, or8 cause death to father. Kethu in the fourth seen bymalefics brings about the same result. The same result willfollow if 5 and 9 are seen by malefics. Rahu in the fifth orninth seen by malefics ruins the family on the father's side.If Mars occupying the seventh house is aspected by debili-tated and retrograde Saturn, the father will die in foreignlands. Planets in the fifth are generally said to be Arishtal{arakas.

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The Value of Astrology

,T t't" Zodiac is symbolic of a primal unity which manifosts^ at the outset as a dualism. We thus speak of the odd

and even signs, of the two horas of each sign. This dualismcentres round the Sun and the Moon in astrological lan-guage; and it provides a base for the dualism of spirit andmatter, life and form, male and female, good and evil, dayand night, will and imagination. This dualism which seeks topresent as an abstraction the primal unity finds its consum-mation and synthesis in the emergence of the third. Restand motion are synthesised in the common or mutablesigns (dwisvabhava rasi); and within the sign we have thedrekkana.

The Sun and the Moon are exalted in the signs of Marsand Venus respectively, their respective debilitation signsbeing those of Venus and Mars. Owning a fixed sign, theSun is exalted and debilitated in a cardinal sign; and theMoon owns a cardinal sign but is exalted and debilitated ina fixed sign. This unity is the source of the third form calledthe common or mutable sign.

The cardinal sign implies activity, while the fixed refersto a state of feeling, a mood, or an attitude. The commonsign unites them into thought. The cardinal is active andpurposeful, or restless, dominating and changing. It embod-ies r4ias. The fixed is reserved, conservative and intense, orstubborn, stupid, tyrannical and indolent. It has tamas. The

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40 TEXT BOOIT OF SCIENTIFIC I|INDU ASTROLOOY

common sign, embodying sattva, is adaptable and intelli-

gent, or under affliction it is unreliable and indecisive'

The r4jasik signs refer to possessions, to what one ac-

quires. Taurus speaks of the essential material possessions,

while Leo controls luxuries. scorpio tells of what we lose

physically and gain spiritually. Aquarius has friends and

atties anO organised knowledge. It is not for nothing that

astrologers derive their prognostications about communism

and the like from Aquarius.

The cardinal signs reveal the forces that go in search of

the possessions. we get the raw material of the fixed signs

h e r e . K a r l l ' t a r x , w e m a y n o t e , i s s u e d h i s g r e a t w o r k f r o mEngland which is ruled by the cardinal sign Aries' The com-

mo-n signs seek to reconcile the two, and the ruling sign of

India is the common sign Virgo while that of the U'S'A' is

another common sign Cemini. Virgo has steady work which

presents a synthesis of the indolence of Taurus and the

iestlessness of Capricorn. Two common signs are owned by

Mercury the Redeemer, and the other two by Jupiter the

Preserver.

The three gunas which are in Prakriti aPpear in their

evolutes which are the five gross elements (Pancha maha

bhutas). Astrologli gives up akasa when it classifies the

signs of the zodiac into four modes' Fire' air' earth and

.rult". regulate three signs each' Akasa being all-pervasive is

present i-n each; and i6 primal manifestation being a sound'

it oo." not regulate any one sign as such' Now four is a

symmetrical number, an emblem of the square; and in

altrolory is found its vogue because of the equinoxes and

the soliiices, the four directions, and the four parts of the

day.

Fire is a symbol of the spirit' It is the analogue of life as

the outward l,ooking ener!ry that enters the universe, and it

seeks to maintain itself. It is an affirmation' The fiery signs

are full of the animal spirits' They reveal courage' endur-

ance, optimism, and the will to live' The persons or lands

governed by them may even destroy themselves when af-

ffi.t"a, they tend to make one uncontrolled' wild' reckless'

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TTTE VAWE OF ASTROLOOY

passionate self-indulgent,and extravagant. Vanity, love ofpomp and egotism follow. But if the fiery signs are weak,one lacks enthusiasm. The extreme form of self-assertionappears in Aries. Leo, on the other hand, reveals a love ofenterprise and a warmth of heart, or vain glory and conceit.The other fiery sign Sagittarius embodies a progressive evo-lution, a clinging to hope, and a religio-philosophical activ-ity. The Sagittarian holds fast to the belief in immortality.These fiery signs are significantly owned by Mars, the Sunand Jupiter.

The watery signs Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces are ownedby the Moon, Mars and Jupiter. Water preserves and sus-tains life. Under the influence of this element one becomgscautious, wary, and even suspicious. In order to preservelife, one may even sacrifice his or her own life. Underafflictions, these signs may even bring about disaster. Sincethese are the 4th, 8th and l2th signs of the fixed zodiac,the traditional accounts speak of the Bth and l2th housesat least as being disastrous.

On the other hand, the flery signs in lst, Sth and 9thhouses of the zodiac, are said to be benefic; and they arecalled trlnes (Konas). The watery signs tell us also of wars,floods, earthquakes and other disasters. Even mental defi-ciency comes under the watery signs when they happen tobe the 5rd house of a nativity. Water mixes freely and itassimilates. Those under the influence of the watery signsare mostly the artists who have a symphathetic experienceand understanding of others. Treachery and diplomacy toocome under these signs because Mars rules one of these.The beneficient aspects appear because these are the exal-tation signs of Jupiter and Venus.

Moreover, the watery signs being the 4th, 8th and l2thsigns of the fixed zodiac, in astrological terminology, thesehouses are associated with a retreat from society. The 4thstands for the home. Death is referred to by the 8th, whilethe l2th indicates the place of retirement. The element ofwater is related to the instincts, to intuition and to imagina-tion.

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42 TEXT BOOK OT SCIENTIFIC ilNDU ASTROLOOY

The earthy signs are Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn. Theflame needs a ground so that it can rise higher, and it needsfuel. The material necessities are provided by the 2nd, 6thand loth houses of the fixed zodiac. In astrological lan-guage these houses respectively govern money, health anddebt, and profession. The ruler of the self-protective waterysign Cancer is exalted in Taurus which seeks to resolve allanxiety by offering contentment. The love of pleasure indi-cated by Leo has to be realised and maintained by Virgo,the ruling sign of our country. Virgo attempts an analysisand understanding of the processes of nature; whence it isnatural that the earliest and best logical and metaphysicalenquiries into the nature of the universe began in India.This also explains why the medical science was fully devel-oped in lndia even in the dim past. This sign makes onepatient and discerning, careful and meticulous. Capricorntends to control and organise the processes of naturewhence Mars is said to be exalted here. The earthy signshave a sense of concreteness, and they care for hard facts.

Final ly we have the airy signs Cemini, Libra andAquarius which are the Srd,7th and I lth signs of the fixedzodiac. These signs have a reference to the intellect whichseeks to improve life and to bring about co-operation. TheU.S.A. comes under Cemini, whi le the U'S.S'R' fal ls underAquarius. The 5rd, 7th and I lth houses are said to governrespectively brothers and sisters, partner, and gains andfriends. Cemini is quick-eyed; Libra is impartial and baFanced; and Aquarius offers a system of knowledge andscience. When afflicted these signs may make one isolated,dissolve the marriage or partnership, or break up friend-ship. The element air is flexible and it adapts itself to theenvironment. tt seeks a compromise. The afflicted airy signsresult in maladjustments, discord or disharmony.

Let us take a look at a few examples. When Mars entersLeo gold, copper and the red coloured objects will be inabundance; and this will increase the business activity, say

our texts. Mars enters Leo after every 54O days. One may

observe the trends then. There is also another importantaspect to this planet, altd it is that of war' Mars is the god of

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TND VALUE OF ASTROLOOY

war in Qreek mythologl; and the earlier intuition of theIndian sages beheld Mars as the planet of war. The RussoTurkish war that began on April 24, 1877 was a significantreminder of the old truth. Early in April of that year Marsentered his exaltation sign Capricorn. At the time of Chi-nese af5lression Mars was in Cancer, his debilitation. Thelord of the 8th house debilitated brought forth the disaster;but since it is the I I th from the ruling sign of India we couldescape the severity. But at the time of the Pakistan adven-ture, Mars was in Scorpio, the 5rd house which emphasisesthe fratricidal nature of the war. Instances like this caneasily be multiplied to show that a little attention to astrol-ogy can enable our rulers to foresee the nature and direc-tion of the trouble that is likely to overtake us. lt is all goodto talk of Panchashila; but the facts demand a realisticapproach and here astrologl can be of great help in fore-seeing the future and forestalling the enemy. A look at ourshastras will reveal the importance attached to such thingsin ancient India.

In recent times we are almost wearied by the unendingsernons at home and abroad of the need for family plan-ning. Without going into the ethics or the logistics of thiscry, we may point out that astrolog5l speaks of the influenceof Mars and the Moon on the menstrual cycle, and thesignificance of bijasphuta and kshetra-sphuta regarding thebirth of children. With a little knowledge of, or assistancefrom astrologl one can prepare a kii:d of time-table forbegetting or for not begetting children. Only one needs thecharts of both the husband and wife. Astrology can come tothe aid of the planners even in this sphere by giving in detailthe safe and the unsafe periods.

When the planeis are conjunct, square and in opposi-tion, we have magnetic storms which affect the short'wavereception. These magnetic disturbances are more or lessabsent when Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are equally spacedabout the Sun, says J.H. Nelson. The days of the full Moonand new Moon and the two days that precede and follow aredangerous for health, as per the reported statistics. This isa perfectly valid example of astrological principles. The

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u TETT EOOK Of SCIENNFIC TTTNDU ASTBOT.OOY

psychiatrists know that the sexual urge is more prevalentduring the full Moon in all organisms. Even the hard shellsbecome soft at the full Moon. In astrological language skindiseases, lunacy and epilepsy come under the influence ofthe Moon. Even the great earthquakes appear sometimesround about the full or new Moon who is conjunct with twoor more planets. The Quetta eafthquake of May 51, 1955came just a day prior to the new Moon. Another earthquakein Westem India on December ll, 1967 was on the tenthday of the bright fortnight. The Moon was transiting throughRevati having a conjunction with Satum in the 7th sign fromour ruling sign. The earthquake falling on a day when theMoon transits Revati belongs to the circle of the Varuna,says Varahamihira.

qu-s-dkrgmuFrslR qqfu 16t{rFrff iqg-{rTh"il{gFTI:lae-Wrnmaet q|-{rg'€tr'il ulEfEI: | | 32/20-21

iii'lts symptoms are: huge clouds resembling the blue

lily, bees, and collyrium, rumble softy; they shine withstreaks of lightning, and send down slender lines of waterresembling sharp sProuts."

The sky was actually overcast with clouds on the lothDecember, and the rain started in the night and continuedexactly as Varahamihira explains. tle continues:

@f{qdAr1"This earthquake of the Varuna circle destroys those

that depend on the seas and rivers, and it yields excessiverain; and people will forget their mutual enmity.'

There was the Koyana project, and the river Koyanahad its demands. The earthquake of the Varuna cycle shows

the area to an extent of l8O yojanas - gftfcTqfr{:fffr-

ggd t 32/31. If there be another earthquake on the third,

fourth, or seventh day, or at the end of a fortnight, month,

or three fortnights, it brings about the destruction of promi-

nent rulers or kings qqft t 32/32. That is in

the 52nd chapter of the Brthat Samhita- Satum conjunct the

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TT|E VALUE Of ASTBOI.OOY

Moon refers to the location of the disaster in 'paschimo

desalf (16.51)-western part of the country.

The earthquake of August 15, l95O was the severestand it shook Assam. It was the second day after the newMoon. Satum was transiting Leo 260 then. It is the l2thsign from India's ruling sign and the constellation wasPurva-Phalguni. There was an earthquake in Kutch onMay 18, 1955. It was the eleventh day of the dark fortnight,and Saturn was in Libra 25o and the Moon was inUttarabhadrapada. The great earthquake of the Andamanstook place in June 26, 1941. It was the second day afterthe new Moon. Satum was in the first degree of Taurus,while Mars was in Pisces and the Moon was in Punarvasu(Qemini). The great Bihar earthquake took place onJune 15, 1954. lt was the third day after the new Moon,and the constellation was Punarvasu. Saturn was inAquarius 50.

The scientists have no method to predict the earth-quakes. Possibly they can hope to explain why and howthey take place. Let us look at Varahamihira who says:

oTffirsR{ f+ra: fdrd} Tr{ srs=i 6'trerd I@ ngrmrof:n 3z/2.Some hold that the earthquake is caused by the atmo-

spheric wind colliding with another and falling to the earthwith a booming sound. Others attribute it to unseen pow-ers. Varahamihira classifies the earthquakes into fourgroups, taking into consideration their origin. They arecaused by anila (wind), dahana (firel, surapafi (lndra), andVaruna. Under each casual factor, seven constellations aregrouped. Studying the afflictions to these constellations andrelating them to the ruling sign of the countries, one canpredict the earthquakes. The 1954 quake came in the wakeof an affliction of Virgo by Jupiter (Virgo 2Oo), while the 5thhouse (that of children) was spoilt. In 1955 Virgo was af-flicted by Mars, lord of the 5rd and the 8th, with the 5thhouse spoilt again. In l95O the lord of Viryo, Mercury, wasafflicted by Saturn in the l2th house. In l94l the afflictionto Viryo came from Mars again.

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46 TEXT BOOT{ Of SCIEITTInIC TIINDU ASTBOLOOY

Closely allied to the earthquakes are the meteors, thecomets and the shooting stars. Varahamihira discussesthese in detail and the chapters demand a close and carefulstudy, if only to overcome the popular unscientific preju-dices of the scientists and others. He classifies these intoignescerrt bdlls (dhishnya), meteors (ulka), thunder-bolts(asanU, lightning (vidWt) and shooting stars (tara). Theircharacteristics are defined in unmistakable terms. and theireffects are outlined clearlY.

In addition to these he speaks of comets (Ketu) ingreater detail. The orbit of the earth is in reality over-whelmed by a network of cometary orbits. Their numberseems to be unlimited, if we listen to what the scientistssay. Neptune's orbit alone seems to traverse through the

orbits of seventeen lakhs of comets' Our solar system issaid to have five hundred billion comets.

There is a popular superstition that the appearance ofcomets portends bad luck; and the so-called enlightenedpersons use this as a handy weapon against astrolory.Varahamihira in the eleventh chapter of his Brthat Samhitarefers to the works on comets (Ketu) written by the sages

Oarga, Parashara, Asita, and Devala. According to them

there are three kinds of comets---celestial, atmospheric, and

terrestrial. Parashara was said to have spoken of lol com-

ets, while Garga enumerated a thousand. One kind of

comet, says Varahamihira, is "gfteTdC{II.|6:" it brings abun-

dance and happiness. Another variety is not auspicious-"n

gr|.D'{:". We are given the principles to distinguish the

malefic from the benefic comet. We find 25 comets derived

from the Sun, 25 from fire (hutasana sutah), 25 from Mrityu,

22 from the Earth, three from the Moon, and one from the

creator. Of these, the three from the Moon are said to be

auspicious. Venus gives 84 comets, Satum 60, Jupiter 65,

Meicury 51, and Mars 6O. Then 55 comets aPPear on the

discs of the Sun and the Moon' The god of fire sends l20,

the god Vayu sends 77, Pr4japati discharyes eight, and

Brahma 2O4. Yaruna has 32. The 96 comets of Kala are

benefic. The intermediate directions produce nine comets'

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ME VALUE OF ASTROLOAY 47

Then Varahamihira proceeds to describe the character-istics of these different comets. They are given beautifulnames like Vasu, Shastr4 Kapala, Raudra. Chala, Sveta,Kal, Rashmi, Dhruva. Kumuda, Mani, Jala. Bhava, Padma,Avarta and Samvarta. These names speak of their aPpear-ances too. The time taken for the emergence of the resultsis also recorded in the text. In the light of this exhaustiveaccount given by Varahamihira, we can only sympathisewith the scoffers for their colossal ignorance.

European history provides valuable examples of theresults indicated by the aPpearance of the comets. DanielDefoe ref,ers to a blazing comet seen in London in 1665;and that year witnessed a terrific plague. Before the CreatFire in London in 1666, another comet appeared there. Thecomet that appeared in Pisces in 185 B.C. was followed bythe death of Scipio Africanus. The comet of 7l A.D' atJerusalem in the sign of Virgo was succeeded by the takingover of that city by Titus. Constantine's victory overLucinius in 323 A.D. and his death in 557 A.D. were pre-

ceded by the aPpearance of two different comets in Virgoand Aries respectively. Rome had a comet in 592 A'D. and

that very night Valentinian was strangled' The comet of1456 June appeared a l i t t le before the surrender of

Constantinople to the Turks. This marks the end of a great

centre of learning and culture, and also the dawn of theDuropean Renaissance. This was tlailley's comet. It againappeared in l55l and there was an epidemic of spottedfever all over Europe. The same comet appearing in 1759witnessed a series of earthquakes. lt was there in 19O9, and

Edward VII died shortly after. There was another comet in1947 followed by the assassination of Gandhiji. The unrea-soning critic may laugh at astrolog5r taking his view from the

flimsy observations and opinions of persons that do not

count. But astrology offers a systematic account of the data

which science has only begun to accept grudgingly.

Let us look at some of the latest excursions of sciencewhich reveal the grouping adventurism' The recent probes

in[o space have revealed to the scientists the existence of

solar wind. The ancient seers of India talked of pravaha

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48 TEXT BOOK Of SCIDNTTnTC TTINDU ASTROLOOY

which we now find to be a strong breeze of protons. Whenit encounters the magnetic field of the earth it causeschanges in weather and brings about mass upsurges andearthquakes. This solar wind is affected by the interiorconjunctions of Venus and Mercury, and by the Moon. Onlytoday science has begun to accept what astrologl discov-ered long ago. The gravitational forces of the inner planetsare capable of producing gravitational jerks. Even space,we find from our ancient texts, is filled with forces andradiations.

One distinctive feature of Indian astrology is the de-tailed examination of what are called yogas. These yogasare geometrical configurations which are indicative of thepatterns of life available to the individuals. tlere a study ofthe yoga patterns in a horoscope can be of great help to thestudents in advising them about the courses of study theyshould profitably pursue. Student guidance bureaus can actmore confidently.

The modern astrologers sadly ignore the considerationof these yogas. But when it is a case of five or six or eightheavenly bodies gathering together at the same angle, ahue and cry rands the sky. If nothing happens as a result ofthis grouping, the scoffers claim one more point. That happened in Febuary 1962, when eight bodies assembled inCapricorn. What did Varahamihira say?

qftr{e} q-$: w+n{ ffiirlq n6I 6g: Iqftr|ftq: qlsvqalr{qrt: ffiqr{ t t

-Tffiifif,dr Qo/4)

The modern scientist who claims to be rational consid-ers that what is inexplicable and meaningless to him mustbe inexplicable and meaningless to everyone. He takes hisexperience to be the norm and in the same breath deniesthe validity of an experience of another if he cannot have it'Thus he would deny reality and value to the experience ofthe religious. But what is experienced by anyone cannot beblindly dismissed as unreal or fantastic, even if it were to benegated by the same individual at a later stage. Yogic train-

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:TITE VALUD Of ASTROLOOY 49

lng and intuition enabled the ancient sages of India todivine certain mysteries of the universe. They saw that theIndividual is a reflection of the universe and that one valu-able approach to an understanding of the universe is thatoffered by astrolory. In other words, there are importantaspects of the universe which are amenable to the tech-niques of modern science. As Plank put it, "knowable reali-ties of nature cannot be exhaustively discovered by anybranch of science", for "science is never in a positioncompletely and exhaustively to explain the problems it hasto face". We wish that the lesser scientists pay attention towhat the great scientist Max Planck has admitted. Unfortu-nately the lesser fry who make much noise do not seem torecognise the limitations of science.

tleisenberg obsered: "Ylany of the abstractions thatare characteristic of modern theoretical physics are to befound discussed in the philosophy of past centuries. At thattime these abstractions could be disregarded, as mere men-tal exercise by those scientists..., but today we are com-pelled by the refinement of experimental art to considerthem seriously". More significant is the observation of L.J.Benditt and P.D. ?ayne in their This World and That : "Weare faced either with the fact that the extraordinarily accu-rate readings of astrological maps without the astrologerever having seen the person are purely psychic or intuitive,or else with a mystery which goes deep down into thequestion of the relationship of man with the seeming objec-tive world.... The fact, nevertheless, remains that even or-thodox psychologists, and psychoanalysts have foundthemselves forced to realize that an expert astrologer canbe of very real value in assessing the type and capacity of aperson whose horoscope he had made."

Prof. Piccardi, Director of Florence University, con-ducted many experiments in his laboratory and saw thatcertain chemical reactions differed considerably from dayto day. He learnt that these differences had nothing to dowith the water or with the chemicals. He then placed ametal screen over his test tubes; and then the irregularreactions stopped. This led him to believe that the irregular'

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5(, TEXT BOOK OF SCTENTInIC I1INDU ASTROLOOY

ity arose from the influence coming from outer space. Thechemical reactions are disturbed, he held, as the earthpassed through galactic fields of force. The great naturalforces of the cosmos do shape the course of events on theearth. The human body has certain elements which Piccardihad in his test tubes. The human organism has 60 per centof water. The earth in her journey encounters the cosmicstorms which have the greatest effect on water.

Cosmic rays enter the atmosphere of the earth at afantaslic speed. In this process they pass through the hu-man body too. As the American biologist, C.E. Levengoodof Michigan University showed, the vinegar fly is very sensi-tive to these rays. The cycle or reproduction depends on theamount of cosmic radiation received by the earth.

In a letter dated 6th September, 1967, C.C. Jung wroteto Dr. B.V. Raman: "ln cases of difficult psychological diag-nosis, I usually get a horoscoPe in order to have a furtherpoint of view from an entirely different angle. I must say thatI very often found that the astrological data elucidatedcertain points which otherwise I would have been unable toundersland. From such experiences I formed the opinionthat astrology is of particular interest to the psychologist,since it contains a sort of psychological experience whichwe call 'projected'-this means that we find the psychologi-cal fact, as it were, in the constellations." The psychologicalfactors are derived from and related to, the stars.

The causal and mechanistic concepts may be of great

help in studying physical phenomena. tsut the study of maninvolves psychic concepts as well. And Jung said: "there

are psychic parallelisms which cannot be related to eachother casually, but which must be connected through an-

other sequence of events." There is a simultaneity of occur-rence "in cases of the coincident appearance of identical

thoughts, symbols or psychic conditions"' This synchronis-tic principle of Jung is "based on the formative potency of

the moment". tlere Jung does recognise the importance

attached to the moment in astrology, to the moment of birth

or to the muhurta. The idea of the moment in relation to theplanetary movements and positions brings into a unity the

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factors called time, space, matter, and personality. Thisunity needs a set of laws that can be freely applied tobiological, physiological and spiritual realms. Such are thelaws found in astrology.

Now the muhurta has an importance in electional astrol-oggr. The appropriate moment is to be selected for theproper fulfilment of the intention. An unfortunate momentmay bring about a serious disaster. In the name of secular-ism we find our politicians and statesmen undedaking im-portant activities and launching vital proiects at any timethey or their followers choose. The results were the prodi-gious loss of life at the Nagarjunasagar project, the earth-quake at Koyana Project, the disaster at Bhakra and otferplaces.

Vidyaranya, we read, fixed an auspicious moment forthe construction of the City of Vijayanagar. The momentwas to be given at the flexed time by blowing the conch;and the city would live for ever as the capital of a free State.But a wandering beggar blew his conch before the fixedmoment, and the masons started their work. WhenVidyaranya blew it, the workmen were puzzled and theyapproached him in great fear. Then Vidyaranya was re-ported to have informed them that the empire will remainfor only a little over two centuries.

A similar instance comes from the life of the great

astronomer-astrologer Bhaskara, who fixed a muhurta forthe marriage of his daughter Lilavati. The bell was soundedearlier and she lost her husband, though we have two textson mathematics.

Let us come back to modern science' Mr. J.H' Nelson,who was a scientist and not an astrologer, showed thatthere is a close connection between the ionospheric distur-bances over the North Atlantic and the planetary configura-tions which in our language are called aspects. In The

Nature of lluman Personality' Mr. Tyrell states, "that not

only astrology, but the occult generally, is an obscurepointer to an aspect of the Universe above, and beyond the

spatio'temporal causal framework and the world of sense-

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52 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIaIC I1INDIJ ASTROLOOY

perception on which science has hitherto relled In lts at-tempts to describe the objective Universe". There are. varl-ous mysterious forces at work in the Universe; and theseare revealed to mgrn through the celestial phenomena orthrough the yogic intuition. The astral world has a powerfulimpact on this earth of ours.

The biologist and physicist Qeoryes t_akhovsky aclmltsthat radiations from stars and planets at the tlme of conception and birth do influence the future of an Indlvl<tual. Weare reminded of the importance attached to adhana lagnain astrolory. Again we are back with the problem of theimportance of muhurta. It is not for nothing that we havebeen padicular in undertaking any important activlty at anauspicious moment. The planetary configuratlon ol a 11lvenmoment has a remarkable influence on the executlon of theplan concerned. A work begun at an inauspiclous momentis not likely to be easy or successful.

Mr. Arnold Meyer of the British Assoclatlon for the Ad-vancement of Science, observes that "when the Sun andthe Moon are in conjunction they are both con<:entratlngtheir forces on the same part of the globe at the .same time,.this accounts for the abnormal conditlons. Under normalconditions, there is always a high tide at London flfty min-utes after the Moon has passed the meridlan ...... Thisconjunction does definitely affect a child born durlng condi-tions of this nature. For, within our own bodles. we haveinnumerable glands whose work is the secretion of hor-mones. These are for ever adjusting themselves in harmonywith our chemically changing environment and are respon-sible for our emotions, desires, mental balance rate ofgrowth, and length of life on this planet". The conjunctionof the two luminaries is so powerful that the traditionalistsdeclare it to be a day for anadhyayana or non-teaching.Special rites are enjoined on the individual on the full Moonday when the Sun and the Moon are l8O degrees apart, andon the new Moon day when they occupy the same position.Activities undertaken on the new Moon day particularly arefaced with obstacles. Since important rites too begin onsuch a day, the conjunction of the Sun and the Moon is not

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always a bad one. Hence we have the popular saying thatone born on Amavasya will be grand thief or a great genius.But it is undeniable that the conjunction radiates greatenergy.

The studies made in the Intemational geo-physical yearshowed that the Moon has a considerable influence on theearth's magnetic field. The observations by satellites haveshown that the Moon deflects and transforms the outbrustsof solar radiation directed towards the earth.

Dr. Leonard J. Ravitz found that the inmates of hismental hospital had to be kept under close surveillanceduring some of the phases of the Moon. tle sought tomeasure the differences in the electrical potential of theheads and breasts of his patients at such times. This ledhim to assert that the Moon influences the electro-magneticforces of the universe, and that this can lead to an increaseIn mental instability.

The American surgeon Edson J. Andrews discussed thepost-operative haemorrhages in the Journal of the FloidaMedical Associatlon. He states that a patient is in the great-est danger at the time of the full Moon. This led him toundertake operations, as far as possible, only when theMoon is in its first or last quarter.

Prof. Frank A. Brown of the North Western Unlversity hasexperi-'iented with oysters. These are known to open andclose according to the rhythm of the tides. In his laboratory,their walves opened and closed in relation with the phasesof the Moon. Prof. Brown also saw that caged rats becamegreatly agitated at times, and these moments are just beforethe Moon rose above the horizon, even though the rats wereunable to see it. The animals are able to sense and react tothe signals coming from the solar system.

Prof. Hull of the University of California saw that a ratwas able to detect the presence of gamma rays by meansof a "radiation meter" in its brain. Prof. flull is now tryingto know whether the human bra in too has s imi la rcapabilities. Astrologlt would help him here in unravellingthe mystery.

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The positions of the Sun and the Moon affect the sea-water. Surprisingly enough, hur4an blood has the composi-tion similar to the salts dissolved in the ocean. lt has 8o/osodium, 4olo calcium, and 4o/o potassium. The sea and hu-man life are linked together. Possibly the Matsyavatara re-fers to this truth. The sea plays a great part in our myths andrituals. The apparent entry of the Sun into the sign Karka(Cancer) a sign occupied by the Moon, marks the beginningof the dakshinayana which is also the traditional beginningof the rainy season. The Sun and the Moon have together abearing on water and on the human blood.

The eighth day (Ashtami) is said to cure diseases ac-cording to Ayurveda. On this day the Sun and the Moon are90 degrees apart, and their influence on the fluids is then atthe lowest. The eighth day is ruled by the Vasus; and thethird, eighth, and thirteenth tithisare called Vijaya. trven thetaking up of arms and the like can be undertaken onAshtami. We have also Durgashtami. Each day has a certainkind of radiation, from the Sun. The variations of solarradiations have an influence on weather. The sunspots ex-amined exhaustively by Varahamihira have a periodicity ofI I . I years. The sunspot cycle made Dr. Abott predict 1975to be a year of drought in U.S.A. Varahamihira enumerates55 sunspots called by him tamasa kilakaswhich have differ-ent colours, forms and positions. He defines them and alsogives us the results of these spots in great detail.', Some of the ultra-violet rays are clearly bactericidal, andthese are the "death rays" to bacteria. As the sunspotsincrease, these rays reach a low point. And Stetson ob-serves: "lt seems entirely possible that such changes astake place in the Sun that result in its producing more ultra-violet light and so stir up the solar atmosphere that sun-spots are naturally concomitant circumstances". Thesevariations have an impact on the health and behaviour ofman. If the sunspot emerges in the form of a stick, itportends the death of the ruler. If it is like a headless body,epidemics break forth. If it looks like a wedge, faminerages; and if it is like a crow, thieves multiply. ,

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Proceeding in this way Varahamihira also speaks of thecolours of these spots. Moreover, we are told of the naturalcolour of the Sun in the different seasons. If in a certainseason the Sun appears in a colour of another season,there are serious consequences. Similar prognostication ismade with reference to the different colours appearing inthe Sun at different times of the day. The all-powerful influ-ence of the Sun is recorded even in the Vedic statement:

qgfi-f,s qourw qrri:

The sunspots are the great electro-magnetic distur-bances on the surface of the Sun. When these are active,the Sun emits huge quantities of radiation. This interfereswith terrestrial magnetism. In its turn, this has an effect.onorganisms having a weak physical resistance. The mentallyill are specially prone to receive this impact. The electro-magnetic waves from the Sun are capable of upsetting thebalance of the human body. At times some even tend tolose consciousness.

As Prof. Tchijevsky of Moscow University remarked,"the time is fast approaching when a iury, assessing theguilt of an accused person, will have to take into accountthe astronomical and meteorological conditions which pre-vailed when the crime was committed. lf it happened duringa period of intense solar activity then the accused cannotbe held wholly responsible for his actions."

Our nervous and circulatory systems and our heart areinfluenced by solar radiation. As the Soviet scientist NicolasSchu lz showed, human b lood undergoes s ign i f i can tchanges in proportion to the intensity of cosmic radiation.Blood samples from l2O,OOO subjects, taken since 1954,showed that the Sun's behaviour was responsible for theincrease or decrease of the white corpuscles. It was alsoshown that the agitation of the blood by the solar radiationcould result in coronary ailments.

Prof. Tchijevsky showed that the epidemic of influenzahas an average period of ll.2 years, and that the epidermicbegins roughly three years after the sunspot maximum. Thisfinding is not scientifically exact since the sunspot cycle is

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56 TEXT AOOK OF SCIENTIFTC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

closer to the cycle of Jupiter.who takes nearly twelve yearsto move round the Sun. The sunspots are related to theJupitarian revolution. It is Jupiter's movement which fixesthe pushkara year of the Indian r ivers. f lere is anindoubtable proof that the movement of Jupiter into a signbrings forth the maximum flow of the river indicated by thesign.

ln astrology, gold comes under the Sun. Dr. Koliskoconducted some interesting experiments. She writesr "aone pei cent solution of the metallic salt or salts to bestudied was placed in an open vessel and a cylinder of filter-paper was left standing in it untill all the solution had beenabsorbed by capillary attraction. A 'picture' was thusformed upon the filter-paper which showed that each solu-tion had its characteristic forms and colours. Gold chlorideshowed consistently the same forms and the same cheerfulyellow colour except during an eclipse of the Sun, when theforms were spoilt and the colour changed to purple". Herewe have a rationale for the prohibition about eating anddrinking during an eclipse and also for some time prior tothe eclipse.

Astrologically, the Moon has an influence over the hu-man mind. This is accepted by the man in the street. Evento scholastic who introduced the word lunatic knew it. Thisidea goes back to the Purusha Sukta where we read:

qqql qq-fil qrd: I

The Moon was born of the mind of the cosmic spirit. TheSun indicates the condition and nature of the soul, andeven that of the body. Then in astrological parlance, theSun and the Moon together with the ascending degree re-veal everything about the human Personality. Hence lheastrologer is asked to examine a chart by considering notonly the l-agna but also the signs occupied by the Sun andthe Moon.

Astrology derives measles, small pox and the like fromMars. The tropical year of Mars is 1.88 years. These epidem-ics appear when Mars comes closest to the earth. When

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Jupiter comes closest to the Sun, we get other epide'mics.That happened in September lBSO releasing spinal menin-gitis in an epidemic form in 1881. A close study of thesephenomena can place our public health services on asounder footing to tackle the epidemics successfully.

More significant is the question of forecasting the weath-er. Our weather-bulletins are notorious. The actual weatherseems determined to disprove these bulletins. When one isprepared to be guided by astrological principles, the fore-casting of weather becomes easy and trustworthy. If Mars isstationary in a sign, there is scarcity of rain for as manymonths as he is stationary. This was proved a few yearsback. Varahamihira gives in delail the rules to predict rain-fall by observing the plants and the planets. Thus he speaksof Rohini, Swati and Ashadha Yogas. Observing the celestialpattern on the day of the Moon enters Rohini in the monthof Ashadha, one can predict the weather at a given place forthe next four months.

Which science is superior to this astrological sciencethat can determine the exact time of rain? For by knowingthis science alone, one acquires the power of visualisingthe past, present, and future even in this age of Kali thatdestroys all good things.

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Physics, Probabilityand Prediction

f[ifodern developments in Physics have revealed certain^ rglaring principles in our knowledge of the working ofthe universe. The physicist tries to obtain a knowledge ofthe internal state of the atom. To this end he causes it todischarge a full quantum of radiation. This brings about agreat change in the whole motion of the atom resulting in apractically new atom. Now a mere succession of quantumcan only yield little bits of information about the variousstages of the atom. They cannot offer any record of continu-ous change since "every departure of a quantum breaks thecontinuity". The motion of the atom does not then seem toconform to any causal law. A causal law can operate onlywithin a given framework of an objectively existing uni-verse; and this universe must be independent of the ob-server. This very picture seems to be denied by the modernadvances in physical theory. And when the causal law isrejected, it is doubtful whether there can be any strictdeterminism operating in the world; and with determinismwe may have to give up all prediction. The physicist is led tothis conclusion precisely because he does not and cannotaccept any distinction between the observer and the ob-served; and in such a case every observation that he makesis bound to influence the future course of the system.Hence we may say with Jeans 'that the law of causality

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acquires a meaning for us only if we have infinitesimals atour disposal with which to obserue the system wi[houtdisturbing it." When there is an immense number of theseinfinitesimal entities like the protons and the electrons,classical mechanics can show that causality cannot beavoided. In the other systems causality may control thepattern of events; but it is impossible for an observer toknow it. This argument led Jeans to draw six major conclu-sions. These are: -(l) So far as the phenomena are con-cerned, the uniformity of nature disappears. (2) Preciseknowledge of the outer world becomes impossible for us,(5) The pro/.ess of nature cannot be adequately representedwithin a framework of space and time. (4) The divisionbetween subject and object is no longer definite or preci6e.(5) So far as our knowledge is concemed, causality be-comes meaningless. (6) lf we stil l wish to think of thehappenings in the phenomenal world as govemed by acausal law, we must suppose that these happenings aredetermined in some substratum of the world which liesbeyond the world of phenomena, and also beyond ouraccess" (Physics and Philosophy, ?. 145).

This conclusion is ominous in that it restores chaos. Isthe world really so disorganised, discontinuous and contin-gent? If so, there is no room for any adequate predictioneven in physical reality. But the indeterminism revealed bythe quantum theory is fortunately confined only to a fewprocesses of nature. And even these interminate events areactually governed, are seen to be governed, by certainstatistical laws. And where statistical laws are admitted.there we enter the realm of probability. Only, the probabilityhere appears to approach a fair degree of certainty. Phe-nomena can therefore be predicted with a fair degree ofaccuracy. But this accuracy does not apply to each entitytaken by itself; for, all statistical observations refer to enti'ties taken in groups. It is in the realm of the infinitesimal, ofthe particular, that science is failing, at least theoretically,in substantiating the causal law.

Physics then postulates a world which is hidden fromour view. And causality does not vanish even there, if we

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have to believe what the New Quantum Theory has to say.The mathematical equations of this theory are purely deter-ministic; and the future seems to be a ruthless unfolding ofthe past. But this applies not to the actual course of theevents, but to our knowledge of these events. In otherwords, causality reigns supreme in our knowledge. thoughnot in the events. And since the modern physicist feels thathe cannot proceed from his knowledge of events to theactual events, he cannot say whether these events are gov-erned by the causal law. We cannot have then any definiteknowledge about the nature of reality. We can know onlyabout our own observations. This is the road to solipsism.Yet we are given a series of pictures which are designed tomake reality intelligible to us. Some of these pictures aremutually exclusive like the particle-picture and the wave-picture. The former brings in contingency, indeterminism;while the latter, which is said to be more trustworthy, offerscomplete determinism, though this determinism controlsonly our knowledge of events. As Jeans observed: "Thewave-picture does not show the future following inexorablyfrom the present, but the imperfections of our future knowl-edge following inexorably from the imperfections of ourpresent knowledge."

Physicists are torn in between these two pictures, andthe causal law which alone can enable us to predict is injeopardy. The particle-picture errs in attributing indetermin-ism to nature; for, this is at best only a feature of ourattitude to nature. We have to recognize the truth that theconcepts of determinism and indeterminism are applicableonly to the individuals who operate. And this factor ac-quires greater strength from the characteristic mark of ourreasoning which lies in probability. If science is nothing buta correlation of phenomena, it can tell us nothing aboutthat which underlies this phenomena. If science tries to gobeyond this, it will have to introduce cedain hypothesesabout reality. In either way it appears as though we cannothave any definite knowledge of reality. We can thereforeunderstand the physical universe and construct our picture

of it only in terms of probabilities. These probabilities can

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be amended, modified and even corrected in the light offurther advances and observations. This does not meanthat there is no order in the universe. On the contrary, asEinstein remarked: "In every important advance the physi-cist finds that the fundamental laws are simplified moreand more as experimental research advances. tte isastonished to notice how sublime order emerges fromthat appeared to be chaos. And this cannot be traced backto the workings of his own mind but is due to a quality thatis inherent in the world of perception". There is then acertain harmony between our minds and the workings ofnature. There is a certain similarity between these two, andthis makes the mind or consciousness of the individualsubject to those laws which operate in the given physicalreality. lf physical reality is deterministic and indeterminis-tic at the same time, this conclusion must hold good for thelife of the individual also; for, mind and nature s€em to befunctioning like parallel series. These considerations makethe problem of physical determinism important.

Conf i rmatory ev idence comes f rom the r€centresearches of Prof. W.F. Libby of the University of Chicago.tle has found out that all living thingp are radioactivity.This radioactivity is "derived in the first instance fromwhatever cataclysm in stars or space give rise to cosmicradiation". Prof. Libby's work emphasises the reality of the'carbon cycle" which alone is the ultimate basis andground of life, as biologically conceived. This evidence atleast partly reveals that if a law is operating in the universe,it must be common to the physical and conscious entitiesas well.

However, physical science has not succeeded in un-earthing the law since it proceeds on certain hypothesis andaccepts certain statistical averages in itS findings and con-clusions. Thus for instance, we do not know what electricityis. Nor do we know the stuff of which neutrons are com-posed. These cannot be explained, are not so far explainedin terms of anything more fundamental. Yet the physicistsare able to surmise of a beginning and an end to theprocess. The physical universe appears to have had a

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62 TU(T BOOT( Of SCIENNFTC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

beginning in time and it is quite likely that it will end at acertain point in time. Such a state clearly implies the realityof a principle operating in it, and it is only in terms of thisprinciple that any explanation can be found for the courseof events. It is only when this principle is known that we cananswer satisfactorily whether the universe is deterministicor not. Then alone can we convert our statistical probabili-

ties into certainties. Jeans surmises "that the cumulativeevidence of various pieces of probable reasoning makes itseem more and more likely that reality is better describedas mental than as material'"

Mind and matter then are of the same general nature.The particle-theory gives an independent status to eachproton. In the wave-theory these protons are integral mem-

bers of a single coherent whole' Here the electrons too lose

their separate individuality. Whatever theory we have, dis-

tinct individuals occuPy sPace and time: and when we pro-

ceed from this world of phenomena to reality, we find no

individuals but a coherent whole govemed by a community

of interests. The finite individuals too in the sphere of reality

can be correctly conceived as being ingradients of a single

continuous stream of consciousness.

This analysis does not answer our more fundamentalquestions of deter.minism versus indeterminism. ls there a

causal law operating on life and matter alike? Those who

answer'yes' to this question are the determinists' Leaving

aside the answers given by famous thinkers, we can under-

stand the problem better by focussing our attention on the

common man. This individual wants freedom for himself

and thinks that he is free to do anything he likes; and he

does not want others to enjoy this privilege' Even this

freedom he wants for the present acts, not for the past'

When most of us say that if we are again given the past we

would choose differently, we actually mean that we would

choose differentty only if the present mental equipment

were present then. That is, we are prepared to re-live the

past, not with the mental equipment of that period but with

inut of the present. This is surely an impossibility. And the

freedom that we demand is the freedom of the weighing

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PTTYSrc', PROBABTLITY AND PBEDICTION 63

scale to lean to the heavier side. This is nothing but deter-

minism. In other words, we are consciously demanding

freedom and accepting determinism. And the problem then

is between conscious and unconscious determinism. All the

while we seem to be confusing the latter with free-will'

The doctrine of indeterminism, on the other hand, be-

lieves that chance plays a part in the series of events'

Modem Physics does recognise that indeterminism applies

only to our interpretation of the universe. As Clerk Maxwell

argued, the human body may be compared to a railway

train. It arrives at a junction where apPear alternative

courses and it can move in any one particular direction by

the action of the mind, the mind playing the role of the

pointsman. Why the pointsman should move in this manner

in or,. specific direction, is itself an inexplicable problem.

One can easily discover everywhere the operation of a

causal law. And Max Planck extends the principle of causal-

ity even to the highest achievements of the human soul'

AnO ninstein obserues: "Honestly I cannot understand what

people mean when they talk about the freedom of the will '

i feet that I will l ight my pipe and I do it, but how can I

connect this up with the idea of freedom? What is behind

the act of willing to light the pipe? Another act of willing?

Schopenhauer once saidt 'Der Mensch kann was er will; er

kann aber nicht wollen was will'." This brings us back to the

contention that as far as modern physicist is concerned,

there is no problem of free-will versus determinism' but the

problem of conscious versus unconscious determinism'

Still we think that we are free. This cannot be lightly

brushed aside. Spinoza said that a stone in the air, if it can

think would consider itself free if only it could forget the

hand that had sent it up. But our awareness of freedom is

not of this nature. We only observe a certain determinism

operating in the physical world of material bodies and we

then transfer this idea to the mental world' We cannot

imagine free-will operating in things or in the plant life; and

t h i s i n a b i l i t y i s t h e S o u r c e o f t h e i d e a t h a t w e l i v e i n adetermin is t i cun iverse 'Butmodernphys ic is t i sd isabus ingour minds of such a notion. We are told by the physicists

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that we cannot know the actual positions of particles or ofelements of radiation; and if at all we can know them. eventhen we cannot predict what will happen in future, And thisleads us to the conclusion that the idea of determinism isnothing but a working hypothesis. It is a hypothesis whichcan explain the phenomenal world of time and space; but itcannot be said to explain the substratum of this world.

D v e n w i t h i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l f i e l d w e h a v eHeisenberg's principle of uncertainty. Heisenberg showedthat it is not possible to fix the position and the speed aswell of the electron. A reduction of the uncertainty in onewould at once increase it in another. The product of thesetwo uncertainties cannot be reduced to below a certainminimum. "Thus our measurements of position and speedmust be regarded as indicating probabilities rather thancertain facts". The mathematical wave of de Broglie andSchrondinger were interpreted by Born as simple graphswhich reveal 'the probabilities of electrons being at thevarious points of space. And as Physics advances, we getmore and more quantitative measurements of the observedand calculated phenomena. These quantities themselvesare relative to the observers and to the means or instru-ments employed. Thus in the end, physics can offer us, onthis road, only certain probabilities which may agree with,or fit into, the facts. This, however, should not blind us tothe pure hypothetical nature of these findings. All talk ofcausality here is hypothetical. The appeal to science cannottherefore solve the problem of free-will.

Prof. Dirac has offered us a valuable clue to get out ofthis maze. He argued that the fundamental processes ofnature cannot be explained as simple happenings in spaceand time. Over and above which we observe there is asubstratum of events which cannot be represented as ahapperring in space and time. When these events come tothe surface of the substratum, then they can be representedin space and time, when alone they can affect our sensesand our instruments. ln a sense, then, physics deals withthese appearances and not with the reality or the substra-tum to which alone these appearances can be related. This

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substratum demands an examination; and though it is diffi,cult to enquire into its nature, Jeans arrives at a certainform of metalism. Such a solution will again tell us that acertain determinism may be valid with reference to thephenomena and not with reference to the reality of mindunderlying the phenomena. And we have also seen thatwhat the plain man actually means by free-will is no otherthan unconscious determinism. And this at least enables usto conclude that there cannot be any relation of mutualexclusion between determinism and indeterminism. Thesetwo one-sided concepts can be taken as the partial truths ofa principle which is different from either. And then freedomcannot be opposed to determinism. The two move togetherand are complementary to one another.

The reign of law in nature has been narrowed down bythe modern physicists. This law is necessity operating in theheaft of things. The choice once made by man determineshis future, and it is in its turn the fruit of the individual,spast. This choice is actually ratified by the supreme orderwhose appearance is the world of phenomena. That is,human choice is the direct consequence of a given situa-tion; and it functions within this framework. The one freeapt of choice that we have, is thus the daily responsibility ofthe individual soul. This responsbility again takes us to theworld of necessity. What this necessity is, that we havefouncl out on the basis of the advances in physics. It is anecessity in the sense that it is seen to conform on apar t i cu la r p robab i l i t y -sequence. Th is p robab i l i t y ap-proaches a fair degree of certainty, and yet it is not adefinite fact or principle. lt is not a fact or principle becausethat which determines the phenomena in space and time,viz., the substratum as expressed in the new quantum phys,ics, is not yet definitely known. Till this is actually knownand comprehended, the problem of freewill versus deter-minism remains un'solved, at least in physics.

When this complexily of the situation is recognised, it iseasier to comprehend the fact that all prediction about thefuture can be given only in the light of certain statisticalaverages. These averages can enable us only to speak con-

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66 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

fidently within the framework of probability. We cannotpredict in the sense that the future will follow a patternvisualised by us. This pattern is always open to correctionand change since it is at best a hypothesis. But as long asit fits into the facts and explains them satisfactorily, so longit can be accepted as true. There is nothing unalterable andrigid, therefore, about our scientific principles includingthose of predict ion. We can safely predict , foretel l ,visualise, ceftain broad tendencies; and on the basis of ourinductive conclusions we can actually intuit and arrive atcertain predictions. If these predictions come true, we cantentatively arrive at some laws or principles; only we shouldnot forget that they are oPen to correction and even rejec-tion. If they do not come true, then we have either to reviseour inductive conclusions or to analyse the situation care-fully in the light of certain known facts. It is only in thisframework of probability that we can admit of determinism.And yet the principle of determinism need not, and doesnot, operate wiLh reference to every individual in an identi-cal manner.

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Astrology, Scienceand Superstition

ur age prides itself in proclaiming its own enlighten-ment. We are all enlightened in the sense that we are

said to be no longer the victims of the blind belief thatdevoured our ancestors who unfortunately lived in the pre-scientific age. The superstitious beliefs and practices are inreality the expressions in actual conduct of certain specificattitudes and states of mind. lf we are no longer supersti-tlous, it can only mean that those states of mind do notexist any longer. Moreoever, by a superstitious being weunderstand one who has a certain religious way of life; andhe is said to be superstitious because his habits and prac-tices appear to be irrational. Thus the conception of super-stition appears to be wedded to the fetish and magic whichis easily liable to be misconstrued as religion. And whenreligion was under the spell of decadent formalism, themagical practices were exploited in the name of religion.This does not mean that all superstitions are magical. Yet,some elites proclaim loudly that the Hindu society is riddenwith a host of superstitions and that astrology is oneamongst them. Even bathing in the sacred rivers on festiveoccasions is said to be a superstitious act. These utterancesof so called modernists social and religious and intellectualmatters compel us to go into the nature of the superstitionsin general and into that of astrology in parLicular.

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68 TDff BOOK OF SCIENTIEIC ITINDU ASTBOLOOY

We have now a huge pantheon of non-religious fetisheswhich do not mean anything beyond themselves and whichdo not have even a remote association with any religiousconception to sanctify them. We have mascots, billikensand swastikas besides many more; and they are all popularduring times of national crisis. The belief in spirits has givenplace to a stronger belief in bacilli. The very name of amicrobe conjures up a devil in our minds and we are moreafraid of the microbes than our ancestors used to be ofdevils. We stand as on the brink of a volcano as soon as wehear of the germs; and then instead of the old religiousrites, we practise a series of antiseptic rites to exercisethese personifications of evil. One may argue that thegerms are scientifically proved to exist while science ishelpless in determining the existence of the devils. But inboth cases what matters is belief. As Aldous Huxley said,"There are mothers who find it necessary to sterilise thehandkerchieves that come back from the laundry; who,when their children scratch their finger on a bramble, inter-rupt their walk and hurry home in search of iodine; who boiland distil the native virtue out of every particle of food ordrink. One is reminded irresistibly of the ritual washingsand fumigations, the incessant preoccupation with uncleanfoods, unlucky days, and inauspicious places, so commonamong all the primitive peoples. The forms change, but thesubstance remain". We have brought forth the new super-stition of science and here we place our credence in whatthe scientist tells us. And then we are prepared to see all thegerms because we are inclined to believe in their existence.Having acquired this belief we suspect all the elements andall the natural products. The new superstition has thusbrought forth suspicion which forms the nucleus of ourmodem life. With this suspicion we introduce a veritablehell into our life and call it enlightenment. One wonderswhether this is really an age of enlightenment.

Yet, the modern scientific temper is disinclined to at-tach any importance or value to the things of the spirit, itdenies the validity of the spiritual experiences because it isunable to measqre and qualify the spirit in the laboratory.

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A'TBOI.OOY SCIENCE AND S UPEBSTTTION

But we cannot afford to forget the truth that whatever isexperienced is a fact and that it has a real existence. If thescientist believes in the bacilli because of certain conse'quential experimental tests, the religious individual too hasa right to believe in the reality of the spirit and other alliedconsequences because they are facts of his experience. Ifthe spirit is not a fact of my experience, I cannot reject itsreality merely on this plea; for, in such a case, I would haveto reject the reality of the protons, electrons and the likewhich are not facts of my direct experience. In other words,a great many have to rely only on faith in the religious andscientific fields as well.

There are certain superstitions. In the earlier times theremust have been cases where the passing of a certain figdrecorresponded with failure; walking underneath a ladderwith death due to the slipping of the ladder. These can becases of imperfect enumeration and therefore they may behasty generalisations. Such superstitions may have arisenas guides or precautions to the future, much in the sameway as proverbs. tsut there are other superstitions whichhave been rampant throughout human history, and thesecannot satisfactorily be explained. One such is the fact thatwe do exist; another is that we think. llow can we prove thatwe exist or think or do both? Then some of us believe inGod's existence, though all the logical proofs for the exist-ence of Cod are found to be defective. Again we believethat there is some essential goodness in man, for otherwisethere can be no society. We know that we cannot livewithout these beliefs.

A belief is always beyond reason. Faith does not comebefore, but after reason. The innermost core of our exist-ence is permeated by a justification by faith, because thereis an unexplainable residue in human life and because thisresidue has a vital significance to man. In such a context,we use the word faith as against superstition. Hence toequate the word superstition with what is foolish or sillybetrays a lack of insight into human life. After all, we arriveat the object of faith or superstition not from an enumera'tion of experiences, but through the penetrating insight and

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70 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIFIC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

imagination. And most of the so-called superstitions exhibittheir validity which may be said to arise in two ways. In thefirst place, every rational human being must have the will tobelieve if he means living. Once we have the will to believe,our actions are shaped according to our beliefs; and there-fore we create the circumstances necessary for the effectiveworking of these beliefs. Secondly, since some of the super-stitions are truths based on experience, they have valueand validity.

With all this, we have to meet the attack on the predic-tive sciences hurled by the politicians and even by themeteorologists. Such persons take upon themselves theonerous task of declaring that sciences are purely descrip-tive. The major objection comes from those who ask: Nowthat three new planets have been discovered, have they anyinfluence on human life? lf so, how would you account forthe alleged veracity of the predictions based on the olderplanets only? Do not the new planets make a difference tothe predictive principles? The analogy from the physicalsciences will show how ill-conceived this objection is? Be-fore the Copernican revolution all the physicists explainedthe universe by taking the earth to be the centre roundwhich everything else moved. They had calculations andobservations and all accepted them to be true. And thepost-Copernicans too are explaining the same taking theSun to be the centre. In both cases the verifiable incidentspractically tallied. The history of the sciences shows thatcertain doctrines were totally reversed with the advancingknowledge, and that certain others were amended. Similaris the case with astrolory. Till the new planets were discov-ered, everything was explained with the help of the oldplanets, as the universe was once explained by the scien-tists on the basis of the atomic theory. Now electro-magne-tism explains everything, but it incorporates in itself thefundamentals of the previous theories. In the same way,astrology now accepts the new planets, studies whetherthey have any influence on human life because they arevery remotely situated, and then tries to connect them withthe vital principles of the existing data.

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ASTBOLOOY, SCTENCE AND SUPERSTITTON

What do the planets say? Do they determine anythingcasually? If the planets are said to coexist when certainchanges take place on the earth, it means that there is aninteraction amongst the various elements of the solar sys-tem. The stars have something to say and man has equallysomething else to say on his side. tlere we znake it clearthat the planets do not determine strictly, but that theyindicate what is likely to happen if.the given conditionscontinue to remain the same. Man can resist the working ofthe planets, he can shape his destiny as he likes. But first hemust know how the stars will work out their plan if he doesnot resist; and this knowledge comes only from astrology tomost of us. And a belief in the planetary influences is not ablind superstition. We cannot convict astrolog;l of being asuperstition merely because some of the predictions havenot come true. An analog5l from the other sciences willexplain the error involved in this argument. Along with thecorpuscular theory, there is another theory to explain themovement of light. Certain facts are explained well by onetheory, and certain others by the other. Which is false?Newton's gravitation can stil l explain some phenomenawhere relativity has not made much headway. Relativity canexplain some which cannot be satisfactorily handled bygravitation. Can we say that this science or that scientist isin the wrong? The root cause of the disagreement steps inwhen the scientists try to combine the descriptive role of ascience with the role of passing a judgement on facts. Themistake lies in our understanding, and not in the science.Likewise, if an astrologer fails, it is his fault and not that ofhis science. As a matter of fact, errors in astrology arisefrom one or two or three factors. There can be an errorarising from the faulty time given to the astrologer or com-puting the chart. Here the fault lies with the person whogives the time. Secondly, an error can arise from a wrongjudgement of the planetary positions and their inter-rela-tions. This is no doubt a fault of the astrologer; but it is nota defect of the science of astrology. It is a case of wrong ora faul ty diagnosis. Thirdly, an error can ar ise frommalobservation or from non-observation of the relevantfacts. This too, belongs only to the individual and not to thescience.

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72 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENT-IEIC I|INDU ASTROLOOY

It is therefore clear that astrology cannot be treated as ab l ind supers t i t ion . I t i s a sc ience coming f rom animmemorable antiquity and it has stood the test of time.This principle can be extended to most of the so-calledreligious superstitions. It is generally believed, for example,that the rivers in India are in full swing once in twelveyears and that bathing in them during those occasions issacred. This cannot be lightly brushed aside though wemay not attach any religious meaning to the custom. Thewaters in the rivers are vested with some properties thatpurify the physiological system; and these properties aremore manifest once in twelve years. A scientific investiga-tion of this phenomenon will convince any one of the valueof such practices. It is no use condemning them beforeinvestigating. Astrology at least is on a sounder and scien-tific footing when compared with some of the so-calledsuperstitions. Astrology has its basis in certain scientificprinciples, and these principles can stand the test ofscrutiny.

The scientific procedure can be either deductive or in-ductive. In the former case we start with a set of axioms andpostulates which are said to be self-evident. But asRiemann and others did, such axioms can be laid low bymore intensive observations and experiments. Besides thedeductive procedure science can be based on a definiteinductive reasoning. This is an argument from particularfacts and observations to general principles or laws. Fromthe observed causal connections we arrive at certain gen-eral laws expressive of these connections. These generallaws are in the beginning of the enquiry mere hypotheses,and they set the whole enquiry into motion. In astrologSl too,we have certain hypotheses. The first one refers to theattribution of the planets to the various houses of the zo-diac and the second refers to the karakatvas given to eachplanet. These hypotheses are the two powerful intuitions ofthe ancient astrologers. By intuition is meant the keen eyewhich can be translated as "the observed habit, the alertmind, the appetised intelligence, the inquisitive spirit,which notices whatever is unusual" (J.A, Thomson). RobertMayer arrived at the theory of energy in a purely intuitive

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ASTROLOAY. SCIENCE AND SUPERSTITION 73

manner when he was in Java in the summer of 1840. Thisintuition presupposes a laborious toil in the collection ofthe data or facts. As A.D. Taylor tells us, this means the"experiences which we cannot altogether fashion as weplease to suit our own convenience, or our own sense ofwhat is fitting or desirable, but have largely to accept asthey come to us". The facts are to be observed carefullyand precisely. The facts in the present case are the horo-scopes of the individuals and the lives of those individuals.These are to be correlated carefully and classified. The

examination of these horoscopes in the light of the past

known lives of the individuals gives rise to certain clues.These clues provide the rules of interpretation.

As in the physical and natural sciences so in astroloiy

too, the arrangement of the data is equally laborious and

important. The facts do not immediately give rise to the

laws or principles. They have to be classified from different

points of view; and as Thomson observes, the object of this

arrangement is to discover correlations and uniformities of

sequence. The scientist has also to analyse the data and to

,.d,r"" it to sirnpler terms. He attempts an understanding of

the given fact in the light of a simpler element or fact which

is already known to be more fundamental. Thus arranging

the combinations of the planets in all possible ways, he

must analyse each combination and reduce it to the simpler

elements. tle has to arrive inductively at the probable con-

sequences of a certain location of a certain planet and then

relate it to the consequences of another planet which is

also arrived at inductively. From an examination of a series

of hori)scopes where the planets are posited singly, and

keep iu mind the events in the lives of these individuals,

one can arraive at certain conclusions regarding the nature

of the influences exerted by these planets in the given

posilions. Then extending this inquiry one can determine

their results in groups or combinations.

Here one may raise a more fundamental question' Do

the planets have any influence on human life? We have only

to point out the nature ol the system in which we have our

Ueing. We live on the earth which is a member of the solar

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74 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTInIC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

system. There are many planets in this system and some ofthese have satellites of their own. This system is condi-tioned in the sense that each member of this system isinfluenced by the others, and each influences the others.This is represented in the law of gravitation. It is a mutuallydetermining system and as such it is an organic system. Inan organic system each one is necessary to the other. Theabsence of one upsets the nature of the rest. One memberfulfils that function in the system which no other membercan fulfil. In such a system the system is not a mere summa-tion of its members. It is not a mere collection of its parts.It is greater than the sum of its parts, for it is an organicsystem. As such the system has a spirit or nature which ispresent in each member. The parts, as it has been well said,breathe the spirit of the whole.

The earth is a member of such system. And it is not amechanical system; and this much is clgarly implicit in thegravitational law of mutual attraction and repulsion. It isprecisely due to the action and interaction of the membersof the system, and due to the working spirit of the system,that we are able to account for the diurnal revolutions, forthe change of seasons, for the growth of organic life. Ifhuman life was denied by some astronomers on the planetMars, it is due to the fact that the planet between Mars andJupiter which maintained the balance of forces was re-duced to the status of the asteroids. The place of the earthin the solar system then determines the origins, growth anddevelopment of the organic and inorganic existents. Oncewe grant the influence on the vegetation, we cannot affordto deny the influence on life as such.

This influence of the solar system on the earth and onthe things and being living on (in) the earth is one of thecausal determinism from within. It is the spirit of the wholesystem that determines the functioning of the elementsthereof. Yet, this is no pure mechanism since the system isnot a mere mechanic aggregate of the parts. In a mechani-cal system there is only the action of the whole with refer'ence to which its parts function. But in an organic systemthe parts act on one another and are influenced by the

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' ' 75ASTBOLOOY SCIENCE AND SUPEBSTITION

whole. The determinism operating in such a system is oneof self-determination. It is this self-determinism that is to beobserved in the workings of the system. All these membersco-operate with one another in such a way that they enablethe spirit of the whole, symbolised by the Sun, to carry thesystem beyond it. In this carrying beyond lies their comple-tion and fulfilment.

Having arrived at the influence of the solar system onthe earth, we can proceed to an examination of the twohypotheses we mentioned. On a close examination it willturn out that these are no hypotheses pure and simple. Theyare grounded in facts. The zodiac appeared to the earlierobservers in the forms of the beingp with whom they wereacquainted on the earth. And for convenience they dividedthe zodiac into twelve signs after the ram, bull, couple,cancer, lion, virgin, balance, scorpion, and so on. As Mr.flector MacPherson observes, the position of the Sun at thesummer solstice was in the Leo group of stars, and thisgave to Leo or Simha and its chief star a certain primacy.The older l-atin name for this was Rex; Ptolemy called itBasilikus, and the Arabs named it Malikiyy; the cuneiforminscriptions refer to it as the star of the king. As Maunderobserves, "lt is its place, however, and not its brilliancewhich has gained for Regulus this distinction, for almost allthe first magnitude stars are its superiors in brilliance". Thecommon attributes of "Simha" or the lion also led theancients to refer this house of the zodiac to the Sun. Thereis another and more important point in this connection. TheKali Yuga was reported to have begun when the SaptaRishis (The Great Bear) was in Makha or Regulus, the mostprominent star of the Leo group. This historic fact waslinked up with the Sun's lordship over Simha. Moreover, theSun is taking us all away to an imaginary point in theconstellation Herculus; and from Herculus this Simha appears to be midheaven. These factors which are in them-selves sound led to assigning Simha as the house of theSun.

Astronomically the Moon is different from the Sun andalso from the planets. But from the standpoint of the beings

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on the earth the Moon is on par with the Sun in that theMoon gives us light by night. Though it is only the reflectedlight, yet it is a light with which lhe earth is closely con'nected; and as such the Moon was allotted Karkataka thesign immediately preceding Simha.

Then there remain ten houses of the zodiac and five

known and observed planets. Their distances from the Sun

vary. The nearest to the Sun is Mercury or Budha who is

therefore given lordship over the houses very near the sign

of the Sun. Thus Mithuna and Kanya came to be the houses

of Budha. Next in order of distance come Venus or Sukra

who is given the next two houses of Vrishabha and Thula. ln

this manner Kuja or Mars was alotted Mesha and Vrischika,

Curu or Jupiter was given Meena and Dhanus and Shani or

Saturn was assigned Kumbha and Makara' Thus there is an

important rationale in allotting the houses of the zodiac to

the various planets. Each planet gets two houses. One is a

positive sign and the other is a negative one. The astrolo-

gers of the past did not worry much about the undiscovered

or unknown or distant planets for a variety of reasons' One

important reason might be that the greatness of the dis-

tance from the earth removes any perceptible influence on

the lives of the beings living on the earth. However modern

western astrologers have been trying to estimate the value

of the influence exerted by these distant planets, and such

studies are purely inductive. As we have said earlier, even

the influence exerted by the other planets and the heavenly

bodies were determined in the past through a series of

inductive investigations aided by intuition.

ln this connection there is a curious factor to which

attention may be drawn. The earth does not figure in the

horoscopic charts; and the movements of the Sun are not

only recorded but are considered to be of vital importance.

This is not because the ancients took the earth to be sta-

tionary, but because they took the Sun to represent both

the Sun and the Earth. llence if we turn to the 'Karakatvas'

of the Sun we find a good deal about our physiological

oryanism represented therein' The brain, the nervous sys-

tem, ttre circulatory and the respiratory systems are all said

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ASTROLOOY, SCIENCE AND SUPERSTITION

to be the responsibilities of the Sun. These are in reality the

functions fulfilled by the earth as related to the Sun. This

cannot be over-emphasized. And the Sun as the centre of

the system becomes the lifegiver, the Atmakaraka; and he

also represents father, public life, the bodily organ of light,

life and such other activities that are truely vital to the being

of individual.

Next in importance comes the Moon whose influence

over the tides and the mind is well-known both as a literary

tradition and as a common matter of faith. The Moon as a

speck of the earth taken out continues to exert a profound

influence on the minds and lives of the individuals' These

considerations explain why and how the Moon stands for

the mother, lungs, mind, herbs and the like. The part played

by the Moon is so great in actual life-apart from astrology-

that the astrologers were tempted to consider even the

nodes of the Moon under the names of Rahu and Kethu'

These nodes in reality represent the positive and negative

characteristics arising from the unification of the earth, Sun

and Moon. It is this unification that has a certain symbolic

meaning which is drawn explicitly under the names of Rahu

and Kethu. In a sense then our horoscopes rePresent to us

the influence of the earth on ourselves to as much an extent

as the influence of the other planets. one-third of the total

influence of the system, if not one half of the total, is taken

Into account in the horoscope as emanating from the earth

and the Moon, and from the Sun as related to these two'

Mars is on one side of the Earth and Venus is on the

other. This points out that the influence exerted by these

planets on the earth must be immediate and also closer to,

si-ilar to, that of the earth on the native. Mars as the outer

planet influences the out side, the external relations, attach-

ments and activities; Venus, on the other, being the inner

planet influences the inner relations, attachments and ac'

iiuiti.". Venus thus has an influence on the mental plane,

with reference to the desires, passions and tastes of the

individual. Venus governs love and the completion of the

individual as a domestic entity. Mars makes him a social

being. He regulates the relations with brothers and sisters,

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the dealings with other more external relations. An exten-sion of this principle brings forth private property, landsand houses. On the other hand, Venus regulates the purelypersonal property, tastes and the like.

Moreover, the appearance of Mars as fiery and red-hotplanet has given rise to the conception of Mars being theplanet of war. Venus as the brightest amongst planets hasgiven forth the idea of Venus as the planet of love andbeauty. These deductions might have been originally basedon mere appearances; but when they were later confirmedby experimental studies, they were incorporated in theirKarakatvas. Venus is close to the orbit of the earth and assuch reveals phases similar to the Moon; and it is not fornothing that we find a general similarity in the Karakatvas ofVenus and the Moon.

Mercury is another innner planet, nearer to the Sun thanVenus; while Jupiter is the outer planet lying beyond Mars'Mercury too exhibits phases like VenuS and the Moon, and

it passes through the series of changes in a very short time.From this rapidity we gather that it is agile and quick. It

exhibits something of the shrewdness and quickness of the. mind. And it is a short iump from this to conclude to its

influence on business, trade and other such matters.

Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in our

system, though in its apparent brightness it comes next to

Venus. One complete revolution of this planet takes I 1.86years, and it is thus an indicator of the year. This fact led to

ihe ..tupiterian year being reckoned in certain parts of the

country. This planet provides us with a broad rule whereby

we can divide time into years. It has a visible reference to

time, to the passing away of years. It is not a mere accident

that the student in ancient times spent a period of nearly

twelve years in the Curukula. flere is the origin for the

Vidyakarakatva of this planet. From education as one of the

functions govemed by this planet, one can deduce its influ-

ence on the intellect, mind and spirit.

Saturn is farther away and is a slow moving planet

whence it is designated Manda. This slowness is one of its

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ASTROI,OOY. SCIENCE AND S UPEfrSTITION

dominent characteristics. The native born under the influ-ence of this planet is thus given a certain indolent disposi-tion. Dven the yellow light of this planet is dull.

Starting with these primary Karakatvas, the ancientscame to attribute other Karakatvas as time passed by. Moreadequate observations and examinations of the planetarypositions in the horoscopes gave rise to further knowledge;and the ancient astrologers through an inductive process

began to add new Karakatvas to the original ones. Theoriginal Karakatvas are based on the primary observed po'

sitions and relations of the planets to one another and to

the earth in the solar system. The later ones are derivedfrom an inductive study of the horoscopes. There is thusnothing mystic or imaginary about these Karakatvas. Theyare all based on the observed facts. The Western astrolo-gers of the present day are doing the same for the otherplanets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. In so doing they areproceeding on the lines followed by the ancients.

When a person ridiculed Newton about his belief in

astrology, the great scientist retorted firmly: "l have studied

the matter; you have not". This is the genuine scientific

attitude and approach. The true scientist alone knows that

he cannot pronounce a judgement on a subject about

which he is ignorant.

But now a days we have persons who claim to be

omniscient scientists, without knowing what it is to be sci-

entific. These persons become charlatans when they pro-

nounce judgemen[s on subjects which they do not know'

But they pronounce unscientific judgements to be in Lhe

good books of non-scientific politicians and the so-called

rationalists.

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Implications ofAstrology

1n the second chapter of his Brihat Samhita VarahamihiraI describes the astrologer thus:

r* ffisfrqrd: ffi-i ffiq; {crrqTq-Jws': rrrr: r

The astrologer should have a noble descent, goodlooks, modest disposition, truthful nature, absence of mal-ice, and be impartial.

gHar: cqe* Erfr sfusq tflsrdf+( ffi q .rf{*fr{:q{rdtqe-fr ftgqrffifld: s6-Tqqffiqirq;

...... . TilTFm€filfld{u=qTd}tfr r

tle must be pure, capable, bold and eloquent. He musthave a ready wit or intuition having a grasp of the details ofspace and time. He must be satvika, well-trained, and freefrom vices. tle should be engaged in religious worship,obseruing fasts and penances. He is one gifted with thepowers resulting from the marvellous achievements of hisscientific knowledge. tle must be thoroughly conversantwith works that deal with the calculations of the positions ofthe planets. He should know the Samhita and the science ofprediction.

Next Varahamihira demands a knowledge of variousaspects and divisions of time and also a knowledge of the

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IMPLI CA NONS O f ASTRO LO O Y

ecliptic (Kshetra). ln short, the astrologer must be a soundastronomer and philosoPher.

t-ffi"rr*r*qroSrtfi Tm'qs<Tqrf tTF{+$r'srdffiI-

u-ctrr*5-r++ vtr€:rer qmr r+S rrqfrt

The true astrologer is one who can understand the ob-

Jections and points of difference and meet them with a clear

and convincing language. Then he could Prove the truth of

the science just as one separates pure gold by bringing it

under the touchstone, and enables it to retain its pure

value.

T FFq 4regwrgcE]"iffi rl+'ifiElfdq{RfTsrfr cK{l

Vishnugupta says: It ls not possible for a non-sage to

reach even mentally the other shore of the great ocean of

astrology. Being non-sages we cannot claim any infallible

lntuitions. But as lnterested students of astrology we can at

best seek to understand the intuitions of the masters'

Varahamihlra's definition of the astrologer is so strict that

many who clalm to be astrologers are no astrologers at all'

At the same time he does observe that an astrologer ls an

absolute necessity in a wellgoverned state:

sTnd-qr qqruffi rTgII ?|t{: I

qu'sq.{€il {qr qErfl?cr fqrqfrrt

As the night does not reveal anything without a lamp

and the sky without the Sun, so will the ruler having no

astrologer to guide him will have pitfalls like a blind person'

Hence arose the institution of Raj4jyotishis. With its

disappearance, the world has become aware of the great

blunders committed by our rulers who want to come before

us as pure rationalists. But we have the advice.

clq|s-€k$ tfr e*a-A qfrft5w-ottqg{fr fd q}s .... rl

lf you desire prosperity, avoid living in place where

there is no astrologer, for he is the eye as it were:

a1

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82 TEXT BOOI{ Of SCIENT'IFIC ilNDU ASTROLOOY

" r d+6ld Tyt' ft-c, qrfi er swiserqr ge(rgq{ilsfrT@ qg{r tdtrcrq: RqEFr tqfuquNo one, even a father, mother, relative, or friend will be

so solicltous for the welfare of the ruler and his followers,as a trustworthy astrologer who seeks only the unsulliedfame of his science. In other words, our tradition explicitlystates that astrology has to be studied and pursued in aspirit of disinterestedness. It is a disinterested endeavour.

The astrological principles were discovered by the an-cient sages intuitively and also observationally. The instru-ment of discovery is called divya-drishti or yoga-drishti. Theintuitive cognition carries with it an intrinsic certainty andconviction. Spinoza, we may recall considered scientiaintuitiva to be the highest form of cognition. At a certainlevel of spiritual attainment, says Patanjali, the yogi canhave a direct communion with the different heavenlv bod-ies.

Here is the real centre of being for Indian astrology. TheIndian tradition demands that a good astrologer must be atrue philosopher, a moralist, and a yogi. He must have aprofound religious consciousness. In short, he must be asage, a seer. lle would explain why in course of time withthe loss of the high standards set for this branch of knowl-edge, it fell into ignominy.

Creat mathematicians and astronomers like Garga,?arashara, Bhrigu and Varahamihira pursued the study ofastrolory with a view to the advancement of knowledge;and they were seers. In this exploration they discovered theutilitarianism that offers an insight into the womb of thefuture. To succeed in achieving foresight and wisdom, theseenable him to grasp the influences at work at a given timeand to understand the nature of the environment andthe circumstances. Most of us do not have this foresight.We may remember Sri Shankara's saying " pasu adibhischa viseshat". ln so far as human behaviour is concerned,man is not different from the animals. The animal hasneither an insight nor a foresight. Man may be slightly

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better. But the vast majority is always in need of guidanceand help, It is here that astrology aids the individual byoffering him the equivalent of foresight.

The basis of astrology is in astronomy and mathematics.The data with which and at which it operates are open andpositive. There is nothing occult or secretive here. As it ispractised, the normal astrologer does not enquire into thewhy; but he seeks to explain the causal process in terms ofthe how. It has been fashionable to cry down astrology as asuperstition and our so-called enlightened persons call itunscientific. But science has not been able to destroy itbecause it is not an unscientific subject of study.

As Sri Aurobindo put it, "lt is not indeed the habit of,educated Indians to profess explicitly their belief in it, theyfeel shy of that as a rule, but it is largely consulted bynumbers of them, as also by many Europeans. This is ananomalous position which ought to be corrected. E,itherastrology is a true science and should be investigated,proved, improved where defective and generally rehabili-tated in opinion, or else it is a pseudo-science and shouldbe investigated and disproved so as to cut the ground awayfinally from all secret belief or open credulity".

That is fair. That is scientific. But the scientist, whoknows that he can pronounce a judgement on anything onlyafter the studies and examines it thoroughly, does not be-stow any attention to study and examine astrology.

So far astrology has not been scientifically disproved.No rational arguments have been advanced for treating it asa pseudo-science. A certain intellectual atmosphere at agiven period turns men's minds against it as a superstition.Some at[ack it because they happen to know that the as-trologers within their knowledge are charlatans. But charla-tanism is not the monopoly of astrology alone. Don't wehave quacks in medicine, or even in the teaching profes-sion? The quacks so pervaded the medical field once thatthe enlightened agreed with Moliere that medicine is a grosspseudo-science an elaborate humbug. But that view did notinvalidate the underlying truth of the science of medicine.

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The survival of a science depends on its intrinsic meritswhich usually come to the limelight in a paradoxical way.The Charlatans and the ill-informed critics enable it to over-come them.

The plentary influences are said to determine the entirecourse of human life. Here the important factor is time, themoment of birth or the moment when one undertakes anactivity. What is the influence of time on man? How can thepattern of planetary positions at the moment of birth influ-ence the future life of the individual? This is the basicquestion raised by astrology. The mutual positions of theSun and the planets with regard to the earth and each otherare taken to be the effective indications of the future courseof physical and psychical events. The new time conditionsemerging later are related to the moment of birth in findingout the future course of events. This question cannot bebrushed aside on purely a priori grounds because pastexperience resulted in the formulation of rules and theoriesof astrologl. In the physical facts; but in the psycho-physicalfield, the same logic compels us to accept that there areastrological facts. Acceptance of a different set of factsbased on the experiences of isolated individuals had led tothe establishing of the Society for Psychical Research.

We are today in need of a Society for Astrological Re-search where again we have to pool together the experi-ences of isolated individuals. At the same time there is anurgent need for the standard edition of the classics enunci-ated. These classics will reveal the rules, principles andtheories with which one has to work so that he does not falla prey to unenquiring prejudice. At the same time we haveto collect the evidence in order to examine empirically thetruth that astrology claims. llere a body of disinterestedworkers is needed. We need prediction in all its detailsalong with the rules on which it is based; and each eventhas to be compared with each detail of the prediction,

Astrologl is called flora-sastra, the science of time. It isJyotisha, that which reveals light, The God of time is Ylaha-kala, one of whose famous manifestations is Jyotirlinga.Everything we see around us is conditioned by time. In

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astrology we deal with time which radiates from the Sun. Welive in a world of vibrating energies which provide themeans of creating, sustaining, and destroying life. The plan-

etary rays, says astrology, are the unseen vibrations thataffect the physical processes. These energies have theirgreat centre and source in the Sun. The ancient seers dis-

covered the nature of these energies and handed themdown to posterity. They knew that energy generated bysidereal activity is the first manifestation of time. The Sun,Moon and planets being the signatures of time, their move-

ments enable us to grasp the creative and destructiveforces implicit at any given moment.

As Jung observed : "Whatever is bom or done at this

moment of time has the quatlities of this moment of time".

This leads us to enquire intc the nature of muhurta. But

more of that later.

Sometimes the attack arises from the fact that many

predictions a person received did not come true. So do the

medical practioners fail to heal diseases many a time; and

yet medicine is not a pseudo-science. The falsity of a predic-

lion does not imply the falsity of the science on which it is

allegedly based. But it implies that the defect is with the

mind and experience of the individual who predicts.

A more potent attack comes from those who hold to a

so-called rational theory of the universe. They believe that

the planets cannot have any influence at human life' But

consider the facts. Medical science has debated for some

time on the probable influence or otherwise of herbs and

metals on the human body' The method of trial and error

came to the rescue of the physician. The argument about

the rational theory of the universe is a prtori. The solar

system we may argue, is closely linked together. It is more

o.1."" a closed system which occasionally admits into itself

elements from outside' In a closely linked system, we have

to admit there are mutual influences of the planets on each

other. The beings of a particular planet are bound to be

influenced by the influences from the other planets in the

same system. According to astrology these influences affect

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the body and also the psychic being of the individual. Nowthe materialist, who claims to be the true rationalist, takesthe mind to be a product of matter; and then the variousstages in the development of the mind are determined bymatter. In such a case there is nothing irrational when wespeak of the planetary influences on the minds and bodiesof organisms.

Mind and matter, the rationalists of another sort tooadmit, have been inf luencing each other. Hence SriAurobindo observes in his criticism of the rationalist view :"here too, given a universal mind and matter so actingupon individual matter and mind, the movements of theplanetary system may be one or even the first modus oftheir activities, and the assertions of astrolory become atleast primarily credible". We presume on logical and meta-physical grounds that man is organically related to every-thing in the universe. It is a kind of bio-physics with aspiritual nexus that can study man; and astrologr offerssuch an avenue.

The ancients considered Jyotisha to be one of theVedangas. It is true that the Jyotisha which is a Vedangarefers to astronomy primarily. But the astronomical studieswere directed even in the past for predictive and utilitarianpurposes. The change of seasons had to be ascertained forpurposes of sacrifices. More than that the ancients had toknow when they could initiate a ritual so that it can besuccessfully carried out. The constellations were observedand examined; and each constellation was interpreted inthe light of its presiding deity (adhidevata). Out of this arosethe various Shantikarmas, propitiatory rites. lt is thereforenot possible to brush aside the Vedanga Jyotisha as if itreferred only to astronomy.

Astrology is a serious discipline which not only seeks tounderstand human nature, but which endeavours to knowsomething about the value and destiny of the individual. Itis the meeting point of the physical, mental, and naturalsciences. Like every other science, it has its own basicconcepts and categories.

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Astrolog;l is the most ancient science which seeks tocomprehend the operation of the subtle and mysteriousforces at work in the universe. It does not recognise thevalidity of the schism between intellect and intuition whichis so fashionable in academic circle since Bergson. It is notbased on any set of hypothetical principles or assumptionsthat characterise most activities in the so-called enlightenedsciences of the day. Our classic texts in astrology provideprinciples which can guide us in our understanding; andthese principles have to be substantiated with reference tothe actual horoscopes.

Kraft published his Astro-physiologie in 1928. There heoffers a list of 72 persons who were born at about the sametime. All these died at the same age and in a similar way.This cannot be dismissed as mere coincidence.

Symours examined the charts of more than a hundredcentenarians; and he found that many had Aries or Leorising, that the 8th house was not generally tenented, andthe Sun and the Moon had only the benefic-aspects ofJupiter and Venus.

Rufert Gleadow made a systematic study of the horo-scopes of 6960 eminent personalities. Of the 55O poets,only a bare 59 had the Sun in Aries, though it i"' the signof exaltation for the Sun. Many had the Sun in Pisces. Of891 politicians a large number has the Sun in Aries andLibra, followed by Aquarius as a close second. Of 554historians, 65 had the Sun in Capricorn. Many novelists hadthe Sun in Aquarius, while the mathematicians had it inPisces. The Aquarian period is not congenial to the mathe-maticians. The learned professions seem to be partial toCapricorn.

Donald A. Bradley published an important work calledProfession and Birthdafe. It is a statistical analysis of theplanetary positions found in the charts of 2492 eminentclergymen. He has shown beyond doubt that the positionsof the Sun, the Moon, and the planets at the moment ofbirth have an important bearing on the personality of theindividual and on his future.

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These studies have been undertaken by individuals un-aided by any academic or governmental institution. Such alabour o[ love is almost unparalleled even in our universi-ties. Here we have rich data substantiating some of theprinciples discovered in the past. The data also reveals thenecessity of interpreting afresh the ancient concepts and

categories. Such an interpretation readjusts and reorientsthe science to the changing situations and circumstances of

the present age. This was done in the past many a time; andit is time the astrologers co-ordinated their findings again

today.

In our search for an empirical justification let us look at

the cases of twins born with a slight differnece in time.

There are also cases of persons born on the same day. We

do find a remarkable parallelism in the lives of these. From

Detroit we hear of two girls born on September 22, 1920, at

two differnet places and at an interval of two hours. They

had the same names, similar appearance, and common

skill at playing the piano and swimming. Emerson was born

at l - l8 p.m. at Boston, and Lytton at B.OO a.m. in 'London

on the same day. They were moulded by their mothers.

Both entered the field of literature. Dmerson had Mercury in

the loth in his own sign, with JupiLer in the ascendant'

Lytton had Venus in the lOth, with the Moon in the ascen-

dant. This differnece ted to a major difference in their

outlooks and activities. Emerson developed philosophically

and he moulded the future of American literature. Lytton

dabbled only in literature and looked to the man in the

street for his audience. Emerson became a preacher in

l12g, while Lytton came to light in 1828. The former lost

his wife in 1857, while the latter got separated from his wife

in 1.851. Dmerson's health started failing in L872 and he

died ten years later. Lytton died in 1875. The similarities

emphasise the importance attached to the position of the

Moon, th.e Janma rasi.

Differences result from different times which give rise to

different lagnas ascending at birth' Abraham Lincoln and

Charles Darwin were born on the same day. We have here

again pronounced similarities and differences.

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TMPLICATIONS Of ASTROLOOY

The planetary configuration at the moment of birth isindicative of the karma accumulated in the past birth orbirths; and it also reveals the pattern determined by thepast. It is only the pattern, not the details; only the tendencyof manifestation. This karma accumulated because of whatthe individual intended and did, not because of an externalfate or destiny. Such a concept of karma does contribute Loa careful planning of one's life when the potentiality of themoment of birth is astrologically interpreted and under-stood.

One of the curious manifestations of Karma is to befound in a certain similarity appearing in a number of horo'scopes that share the same heredity to some extent. Whenyou consider the horoscopes of all the members of a givenfamily, you will find a remarkable similarity. The astrologicalfactors get repeated, thus emphasising the part played byheredity. I give just one instance of an individual to showhow this appears. For purposes of illustration I refer to thepositions of the luminaries and of the ascendants. Thisindividual was born when Pisces 28th degree was risingwhile the Sun Bo and the Moon 2Oo were in Capricorn. Hisfather has Scorpio rising, the 9th house or hosue of fatherfrom his l.agna; and the Moon was in Cancer 25o, the 5thfrom his Lagna and the 7th from his Moon-the housesindicative of children/mind and partners respectively. Hismother has Cancer rising, the sign occupied by the father'sMoon. A sister had Scorpio rising, the same as the father'sascendant. flis wife has again Scorpio 29o as the ascen-dant, and so is a daughter who shows also the Moon at 28oScorpio. Two of his sons show the Sun and the Moon placedin his ascendant. One of his daughters had the Moon at 2Boof Sagittarius, the ruler of both Sagittarius and Pisces beingthe same Jupiter. Another son has his ascendant in Virgo,the 7th from his own Lagna; and here the Moon appears inCancer, a sign which appears to be pronounced in manycharts of the same family. One of his daughters has Canceras the lagna. Another daughter has the Lagna in Sagittarius,the owner being that of her own Lagna; and her Moon is inTaurus. the Sth from that of his own Moon. Still anotherdaughter has her own Lagna, with the Moon again in Tau-

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rus. One of his brothers has Sagittarius rising with the Moonin Pisces; another brother has Virgo rising with the Moon inScorpio; and a sister has Taurus rising.

llere are a set of facts involving the I st, 5th, 7th and 9thhouses from the individual's ascendant; the 5th, 7th, gth,

and I lth houses from his Moon; and the lord of his ascen-dant. These facts cannot be lightly dismissed as mere acci'dents. They show a pattern of interrelationships. Possiblythey imply a collective karma which is what we seek tointerpret in the national charts of the countries. This ex-plains why good astrologers insist on examining all thehoroscopes of a family before they predict something abouta given map. It is technically called samvada'

Sripati in his great work Sripati Paddhati observes:"Since the fruit of the past karma, which is of many forms,is being experienced momentarily and in various ways bylarge numbers of human beings, the same has to be ascer-tained through the dasas and bhuktis the native has toundergo". The horoscope does reveal the consequences ofthe past actions. It is in man's Power to know the evil hemay do and put an end to it before it takes root.

It is better to take note of the statement in JatakaChandrika "Those who know astrologl can only indicatewhat will happen. Only the creator can say with certaintywhat will actually happen." In other words, astrology doesnot imply any fatalism or rigid determinism. It is only a

science that indicates the tendencies. It indicates, but does

not ordain. When we know that such and such a thing is

likely to happen, with a little effort and preparation we can

modify it, alter it, or channel it properly. It is likely that an

incident like death may not be amenable to such a transfor-

mation.

In such cases astrologl offers two ways of approach. On

the one hand one may fortify himself and prepare for the

eventuality. On the other hand, such a contingency can be

avoided, say our texts, if one takes to renunciation,

samnyasa. Thus if a chart is to be examined properly, for an

individual we need also the chart erected for the time of his

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IM PLI CATIO NS O f ASTRO LO OY

upanayana; and if this be a woman, we insist also uponlooking at the chart erected for the time when she has herfirst menstrual course. The same holds good of the momentof samnyasa.

The acceptance of astrologr does not imply the accep-tance of complete determinism. The Indian concept ofkarma leaves enough room for determination by the humanwill and endeavour. We hold to the synthesis of purusha-kara with daivakara. Karma is the determination by one'sown past action; and it can be negatived by a new will andaction. The strongest karma known as prarabdha is, how-ever, imprerative. But when one renounces, has entered aspiritual life, this prarabdha becomes ineffective. To iHus-trate from astrologl, a convict, a soldier, an artist and amillionaire may show in their charts the same aspect be-tween two planets operating; but the results of this aspectwill not be indentical because the astrological context inwhich it appears is different in each case. This is analogousto the social station of the individual and the duties thatflow therefrom.

Some do indeed argue that our nativities have "come tous without our inviting them". Such a view sets both reasonand justice aside. lt implies that the Universe is indifferentto those ideals and values to which we seek to conform.There is a certain uniformity in the Universe which led evenllaldane to speak of "a very high degree of accuracy in theprediction both of physical and social happenings".

In his Analysis of Matter Bertrand Russel argues thaL "acorrelation which has been found true in a number ofcases, and has never been found false, has at least acertain assignable degree of probability of being alwaystrue". If there is a "degree of probability", what we have isnot a mere "correlation" but a causal relation. Such arelation denies the reality of chance or accident. This is arigorous relation which admits of no exceptions. Some ofour scientists have been trying to extend this concept evento the sphere of human life. This has led them to dismissthe freedom of the human wi l l as unintel l ig ible. ButRutherford saw that "atoms at times disintegratb them-

9 1

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selves spontaneously and at times behave in a different

way". Bohr found that "the electron of the atom does not

travel uniformly in continuous stream but by Jumps"'

The law of uniformity seems to disappear from the Uni-

verse. The scientist appears to return to earlier concepts

and theories, while at the same time he holds to "determin-

ism of a statistical kind". But as Russel puts it, statistics"differ from other laws only in being about groups, not

about individuals". In other words the scientist cannot ex-

tend to the spehre of the individual his concept of statistical

determinism. The doctrine of karma presupposed by astrol-

o15r rejects this determinism.

As Dr. A.J. Pearce puts it : "So far from a belief in

astrologl leading to fatality, it is the neglect of astrology that

tends to ratatity. for the laws of nature go on working until

the catastrophe arrives which might have been foreseen'

and its effects mitigated, has the warnings of the heavens

been attended to by statesmen and philosophers"'

If an astrologer fails, it would mean that his method of

approach is largely empirical or that the rules and theories

aie aefective. The empirical stage is a necessary state in the

development of any science. In its march, every science

accumulates many hasty and faulty generalizaLions, incor-

rect theories, and imperfect rules, which it begins to give up

only gradually. This process is necessary in modern times

because of many complex and complicating factors that

have croPPed uP.

Inthissi tuat ionweshouldnotforgetonebasicfact.Thechief business of the astrologer is to analyse' understand

andexplainthemediathroughwhichthehoroscopicforcesare likely to be expressed. These forces cannot be escaped'

but they can be channeted. Usually we find persons going to

the astrologer seeking advice on a variety of subjects that

d o n o t f a l | w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f h i s s t u d y . l l e r e t h e n o r m a lastrologeroverstePsthel imitsofhisscience'andtheresult-ing so-Ltted predictions may go wrong' The blame then

do"es not tie it the door of astrologJr, but at that of the

astrologer who speaks of non-astrological facts in the name

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IM PLTCA TIO NS O f ASTKO LO O Y 93

of astrologl. Actually what astrolory can do is to enable usto face our problems in an understanding spirit. We get toknow what is likely to come our way, and thereby we canadjust ourselves to the situation. It is a form of foresight.And if a trial is ahead of us, we will be able to face itbravely. This in itself converts the trial into a blessing. Butunfortunately our politicians and others have been paying adeaf ear to the warnings given by astrologl.

As early as 1957 The Astrologicial Magzine warned thegreat powers of the possibility of ltaly, Qermany and Japan"breaking with impunity the public law of the world". Thejuly 1945 number of the same Magazine predicted thetragedy of Mussolini placing it between October 1944 andJuly 1945. The Septermber 1945 number of the same jour-nal placed the end of tlitler between 1944 October and1945 July. The April 1947 number of the same predictedthe "assassination... of a respected mass leader of thiscountry". We mourned and continue to mourn the tragedythat befall Gandhiji on January 30, 194A. Turning to a stil learlier period we find that the March l9l4 number predict-lng the outbreak of the World War in August and Septemberof l9l4 as a result of " two deaths among the Europeanroyalties," one of them being "from violence and treach'ery". Similar accurate predictions were made about theChinese aggression, about the danger from Pakistan, andeven about our last general elections. There was the writingon the wall.

Let us look at a few charges levelled against astrologrby the thinking and the unthinking alike. We are at timestold that the personal factor is involved in prognostication.This may not apply to the good astrologers. But it has anelement of truth, and all the sciences have a share of it. Weknow that Heisenberg showed that the "investigator doesaffect the investigation and that there is no getting awayfrom this fact". Even in normal life we do observe a physi-cian consulting a fellowprofessional in the case of an ail-ment of a member of his own family. It only shows howextremely difficult it is to interpret the map of the heavens.It is this difficulty that Varahamihira sought to overcome

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when he laid down rigorous qualifications for an astrologer;and this was overcome by the fact that the founders of thisscience in ancient India were the sages.

The disrepute to which this science has fallen is due toa variety of factors which the subject ilself does not entail.Dvery now and then we find some newspapers and maga-zines-the professed policy of some of these is highly anti-astrological-sparing a column entitled "tlow is this week foryou?" or "How is this month for you" or "What the starssay". Such columns indulge in pious platitudes and vaguegeneralizations, which are unscientific. They classify allhuman beings into twelve groups alone, while astrologytells you that the chart of any individual is entirely differentfrom that of any other.

Another factor emerges from the keenness of the Indianastrologer to incorporate the extra-Satumine planets; and

this leads him to great pitfalls. This is so because theseoutermost planets have a bearing probably on the physical

conditions. Some times they do aPpear to affect nationaland international activities. But their influence on individuallives has not yet been proved beyond a shadow of doubt.These planets do not bring anything new that is not coveredby the older Planets.

Next, we find some busy with the Sayana or tropical

zodiac. There may be nothing wrong with it. But astrologers

like Cyril Fagan and Donald A. Bradley have shown conclu-

sively why the western tropical zodiac has to be rejected in

favour of the Indian sidereal (Nirayana) zodiac' The chief

trouble with these is that they seek to apply the principles of

the Nirayana zodiac to the Sayana zodiac. Again a fruitfulground for error.

The phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes

makes the first point of the zodiac a shifting one' Our

tradition accepted the constellational zodiac. That part of

the zodiac covered by Aswini, Bharani and the first quarter

of Krittika make up our Aries, whose owner is Mars' The

zodiacal sign is formed by the constellations' The western

astrologers have been busy with the moving zodiac; and

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IMPLICATIOTIS OF ASTNOLOOY 95

their Aries includes the last 22 or 25 degrees of our Pisces.Then where we treat the owner of a sign to be Jupiter, theywould lend to assign it to Mars. flere is a source of confu-sion which paves the way for other confusions. While someof the westerners are returning to the Indian concept of thezodiac, some of our countrymen are playing with the west-ern zodiac. No wonder their predictions go doubly wrong.

Then again we have astrologers who follow differentvalues of ayanamsa. Leaving the astrological implicationaside, I may draw your attention to the rich confusion thatis prevailing. A few years back our astronomer'astrologersquarelled bitterly as to the identity of Kshaya-masa. lt wa-vered from one month to another. Moreover, in certainparts of the country Makara-Samkramana or Uttarayana. isbeing obserued on I lth or l2th of January. Here again thelmpact on the castlng of a horoscope and the timing of theevents would give rise to serious discrepancies. Then theblame is put on astrologt and not on the arbitrary or faultyvalue of ayanamsa accepted by the blooming astrologers.

Another source of trouble arises from a queer mixtureof methods. Jaimini's system of prediction is differentfrom that of Parasara. Some combine the two,' and where

they err is in applying the principles of Parasara in themethod of Jaimini. There are others who employ the

Nakshatra system.

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Technical Terms

here are some technical terms of astronomy which areof value in astrologpl. A brief explanation of this is

necessary.

Tithi : It is the distance from the Sun to the Moondivided by twelve. The product plus one gives the date ofthe lunar month counted from the first day of the bright halfof the lunar month.

Nakshatra : There are 27 nakshatras or constellations.These are distributed among the twelve signs from Mesha(Aries) on words. Dach Nakshatra has four quarters. Dachsign has nine quarters. Mesha (Aries) starts with the firstquarter of Ashvini and the last quarter of Ashlesha ends inKarka (Cancer). The first quarter of Magha is at the begin-ning of Simha (l,eo) and the last quarter of Jyeshtha endswith Vrischika (Scorpio). Dhanush (Sagittarius) begins withthe first quarter of Mula and the last quarter of Revati endswith Mina (Pisces). Each Nakshatra has a uniform span ofl3o 20'. Thus each quarter has 50 2O'.

Yoga : There are 27 yogas. These are: Vishkambha,Pr i t i , Ayushman, Saubhagya, Shobhana, A t iganda,Sukarma, Dhriti, Shula, Ganda, Vriddhi, Dhruva, Vyaghata,Harshana, Ya1ra, Siddhi, Vyatipala, Variyan, ?artgha, Shiva,Siddha, Sadhya, Shubha, Shukla, Brahma, Indra, andVaidhriti. Add the nirayana longitudes of the Sun and theMoon. Divide the sum by l5o 2O'. The product plus one

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TECITNICAL TEBTIS 97

gives the yoga counted from Vishkambha.

Karana : Note the distance of the Moon from the Sun,and divide it by six degrees. In each tithi there are twoKaranas.

Trldiac : It is a band in heavens extending to ninedegrees on each side of the ecliptic. This is calledBhachakra. It contains all the twelve signs. It revolves on itsaxis once a day. The planets and the Moon move within thisbelt.

Ecliptlc: It is the path of the Sun. It p.rssess through thecentre of the zodiac.It is a great circle cutting the celestialequator at an angle of 25Yzo, This angle varies from 2l o 59'lo 24o 36',

Axis: It is the diameter about which it rotates from west

to east. The poles of the earth are the points where the axisof the earLh meets its surface.

Yoga and Karana

For predictive purpose most people ignore the impor-

tance of Yoga and Karana. The sum of the longitudes of the,Sun and the Moon (in minutes) divided by 8OO gives aquotient which indicates the number of the expired Yoga.

There are twentY seven Yogas.

Jataka Parijata (9.97-lOO) gives a brief account of the

results of the Yogas under which one is born. We here

summarise the text. (l\ Vishkambha - conquers foes, pos-

sesses wealth and cattle. (2) Priti - controlled by the will of

the wives of others. (3) Ayushman 'has long life and good

health. (4) Saubhagta - haPpy. (5) Shobhana - Voluptuous'(6) Atiganda- homicidal, murderous tendency. (7) Sukarma

Virtuous. (8) Dhriti - takes away the woman and wealth of

another (9) Shuta - angry and quarrelsome. (lO) Oanda -

addicted to evil acts. ( I I ) Vriddhi - discourses wisely'(12\ Dhruva - wealthy. ( l5) Vyaghata - ferocious'(14) Ilarshana'wise and famous. (15) V4ira- wealthy and

lustful. (16) Siddhi - protects all and controls them'(17) VyatiPata - deceltful (18) Variyan - lustful or has sinful

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desires. (19) Parigha - inimical, wealthy. (2O\ Shiva well'versed in Shastras, wealthy, calm, and loved by the rulers.(21) Siddha - Virtuous and performs sacrifices. (22) SadhyaRighteous. (23) Shubha - beautiful, wealthy, passionate,and phlegmatic. (241 Shukla - Virtuous, orator, irritable,angry, fickle-minded and scholar. (25) Bmhma - great senseof honour and self-respect, hidden wealth, liberal and ca-pable of sound judgment. (26) Indra - beneficent, compre-hensive intellect, wealthy. (271 Vaidhrtil - cunning, abusesothers, powerful, liberal and wealthy.

A careful analysis of these results will show which Yogasare benefic. This will help proPer fixing up of auspiciousMuhuftas.

The Panchanga (Indian Calender) is so named becauseit has five (pancha) vital limbs (anga), These are the lunardays (tithr), the weekdays (vara), the constellation(Nakshatra), the Sun-Moon nexus giving rise to Yoga andl{arana.

Karana is half of a lunar day. The distance between theSun and the Moon is divided by six. The first seven Karanasare beneficiat, while the next five are not good. As Dr.Raman explains : "The first seven come by rotation eighttimes ln a lunar month, commencing with the second halfof the firsr lunar day. The last four ... occur in order with thesecond half of the 29th lunar day" (Muhurta' p.l5).

Vaidyanatha (9.lOO-lO5) gives a brief account of theresults of the Karanas under which one is born. We

summarise these. (ll Bava - engages in juvenile activities,valiant. (2) Batava - modestly dressed, respected by therulers. (3) Kautava - has horses and elephants, engaged in

handsome activities. (4) Taitila - Virtuous, speaks softly and

impressively. (5) Our4ia - Powerful, has no foes. (6) Vqira'skilled speaker, loses himself in the company of prostitutes.(7) Vishti - opposed to everyone, given to sinful deeds,

censured by the public, self-reliant, honoured by his follow-

ers. (8) Shakuna - astrologer or astronomer (Kalainah)'

enjoys steady prosperity. (9) Chatushpada - faces many

misfortunes, acquainted with many activities, gentle,

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TECITNICAL TERMS 99

intelligent, famous and wealthy' (lO) Nagava - dignified,rich, strong, and boastful. (l l) Kinstughna - works for oth'

ers, fickle mind, and fond of humour.

The Karanas should always be taken into consideratineither for an indepth study of the nature of the native or for

fixing up a Muhurta.

Muhurta

Muhurta plays an important part in human life. It is the

auspicious moment when a significant act is to be per-

formed. We require an auspicious lunar day (tithi)' week-

day, constellation, yoga and karana. We are not to take up

any important work at any moment we like. Those who have

scant regard for Hindu traditions, beliefs and customs'fix

their own times; and the results may prove disastrous' Our

eighth President was swom in at 12.16 noon on July 25'

tgeZ. lt was a Saturday, a prohibited one. The lunar day

was Amavasya (new moon). A worse moment is not pos-

sible. The Lagna was Libra 604'wlth Venus, Moon, Sun and

Mars in the lOth. The yogawas vaira and the karanawas

chatushpada which is inauspicious being a bad karana'

A detailed account of the auspicious times for various

acts is to be found in Dr. B.V. Raman's valuable book

Muhurta (7th ed., 1986). tlere we draw the attention of the

readers to a few important facts only.

First is the Lagna. In its entirety no l-agna is auspicious'

There is a pushkara kala for each Lagna and that alone is

auspicious. nrom Aries onwards these times fall at th follow-

lng degrees approximately: 2lo q', 15" 54', 24o 6" 70 3"

zo" sa" 150 56" 240 56" 24" O'! 2lo 2" 150 56" 230 57',

and 6048'. The Navamsas ftll-ifr'Taurus forTaurus, Cemini'

Viryo, Libra, Capricorn and Aquarius Lagnas; in Libra for

AriEs, Leo and Sagittarius; in Virgo for Cancer, Scorpio and

Pisces. Only three Navamsas are said to be auspicious and

these tre .Lled by Venus and Mercury alone' Only for Tau-

rus l-agna we get the same Navamsa'

There are twenty'seven yogas starting with Vishkambha

and ending with Vaidhriti' Add the longitude of the Sun to

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that of the Moon, and divide it by 8OO minutes. The productshows the number of the yoga that has elapsed. The 6th(atiganda), 9th (shula), loth (ganda), LTth (vyatipata) andthe 27th (vaidhiti) are inauspicious.

Karana is half of a lunar day. Of the eleven karanas thelast five are not auspicious. These are vishti, Shakuna.Chatushpada, Nagava and Kinstughna.

Of the tithis (lunar days) 4, 8, 9, 14 of both the fort-nights and Amavasya are inauspicious. The first padas ofAshwini, Magha and Moola, and the last padas of Ashlesha,Jyeshta and Revati are to be avoided.

The first and the last twenty-four minutes of a lunar dayand constellation and the first and Iast two minutes of asign are to be avoided.

Other factors to be avoided for any auspicious functionare (l) Three days from an eclipse; (2) Mrityu and Dagdhayogas; (5) the time when malefics rise in Lagna or aspect it;(4) just before or after sunset; (5) the time of the solaringress; (6) the ruling constellation being 5, 5 and 7 fromthat at the time of birth. The Notes on Prasna Marga 2. l6 to20 given by Dr. B.V. Raman explain these in detail.

Tuesday and Saturday are not auspicious. Bharani andKrittika are to be avoided.

Mrityu Yogas arise when the weekdays from Sunday toSaturday show the Moon respectively in Magha, Vishakha,Aridra, Moola, Shatabhisha, Rohini, and Poorvashadha.Dagdha Yogas arise when the weekdays from Sunday on-wards coincide respectively with the lunar days 12, ll, 5,2,6, 8 and 9. There are also Vishaghatika portions for eachNakshatra. These are known as tyajyakalas, the time to beavoided. One-fifteenth part of the duration of a Nakshatra isthe prohibited time from the commencement of thisghati. When the duration of a constellation is sixty ghatis,the beginning of tyajyakala for the constellations fromAshwin i a re : 5O, 24 , 30 ,40 , 14 , 11 , 50 , 20 , 52 ,30 ,20 , La ,2 2 , 2 0 , L 4 , t 4 , r O , 1 4 , 2 0 , 2 4 , 2 0 , r O , l O , 1 8 , 1 6 , 2 4 , 5 0ghatis.

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TECTTNICAL TERMS 1()1

This shows how difficult it is to fix a really goodMuhurta. This is being set aside by our politicians and bythose who want only ministers to inaugurate their work. Letus not ignore the wisdom of the sages.

Latitude : The latitude of a place is its distance from theequator. It can be south or north of the equator. It iscounted in degrees, minutes and seconds.

Longitude : The longitude of a place is the distanceeast or west from the Creenwhich meridian. The Hinduscounted it from Ujjain (Now 75o 46' E and 23o I l 'N)' lt iscounted in degrees, minutes and seconds. trvery degreemeans four minutes of clock.

Celestial Equator : The angular distance of a heavehlybody from the ecliptic. It is drawn half way between thepoles. It is the great circle wherein the earth's equator cutsthe celestial sphere.

E(uinox : Where the ecliptic intersects the celestialequator we get two points on the celestial sphere' When thelongitude of the Sun is zero, it is vernal equinox; when l8O"it is Autumnal equinox.

Solstice : When the Sun is on 9Oo it is summer solstice,when 27Oo it is winter solstice. For those in the northernhemisphere the day is largest on the summer solistice day;it is shortest on the winter solistice day.

Declination : The angular distance of a heavenly bodyfrom the celestical equator. If the celestial body is in thenorthern hemisphere, it is positive.

Tropical (sayana) longitude : lt is the arc of the eclip-tic intercepted between the first point of Aries and a perPen-dicular arc to the ecliptic. It is measured from the point ofvernal equinox. The equinoctial point always moves back-wards at the rate of 50.5" per year. This longitude increasesevery year.

Sidereal longitude (nirayana) : In Indian astronomy thetongitude is always measured from the first point of Asvini,the first point of the fixed Mesha (Aries).

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Ayanamsa: See later

Astangata (Combustion) : see later

Ascendant : It is the point of intersection of the eclipticat a given time with the eastern horizon of the place. It isthe rising sign in the eastern horizon.

M.C. : This is the tenth house from the ascendant. lt isthe point of intersection of the ecliptic of the given timewith the meridian of the place. It is called Medium Coeli,Mid heaven.

Solar month : It begins from the day when the Sunenters a sign of the Zodiac.

Lunar month : It begins at the end of the dark fortnight(amavasya); and in certain parts of India it beings at the endof the bright fortnight (Purnima).

Intercala4r (adhi or mala) month : When the Sun doesnot move f rom one s ign to another be tween twoamavasyas. When the Sun moves into two signs betweentwo amavasyas, it is called l{shaya masA.

The lunar months are: Chaitra, Vaishakha, Jyeshtha,Ashadha, Shravana, Bhadrapada, Ashv ina , Kar t i ka ,Margasira (Agrahayana), Pausha, Magha and Phalguna.

Sidereal Time : It is time measured by the diurnalmotion of the vernal equinox. It is the hour angle of thefirst point of Aries from the upper meridian of the place.The duration of the sidereal day in the mean solar time is25h. 56m. 4 .O9 ls .

Apparent Noon : The local mean time of the meridianpassage of the Sun.

Right Ascension : It is "the angular distance on thecelestial sphere measured eastward along the celestialequator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle passingthrough the celestial object".

Ilour Circle : A great circle on the celestial sphere,passing through the celestial poles.

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TECNNICAL TERMS 103

Geocentric position : Observations with reference tothe centre of the earth. Those with reference to the centre ofthe Sun are heliocentric.

Nodes : These are the two points on the celestial sphereat which the plane of an orbit of a rotating body, interesectsa reference plane". The Moon's northern or ascending nodeis called Rahu (Dragon's head) and the descending node isKetu (Dragon's tail).

Meridian : It is a great circle which passes through thezenith and the celestial poles. It agrees with the geographi-cal longitude of a place.

Aspects : When the celestial longitudgs of two bodiesare the same, it is conjunction. When they are lSOo apart,it is opposition. When they are l2Oo or 24Oo away, it istrine. When the distance is 9Oo or 27Oo it is square. Whenthey are 45o or 5l50 away it is semisquare. Conjunction andopposition cover eight degrees before or after; Trine orsqu ee de(GEs,Ascmfive degrees. Sextile (600 0r 5000)covers six degrees. Sesqui-quadrate (155o) and Quincux(l5Oo or 55Oo) have three degrees. There are also Quintile(72" , or 2880), Biquint i le (144o), Tredeci le (108o), Deci le(56"), and vigint i le ( l80).

Planets: Plantets between the earth and Sun are inter-nal or inferior planets. These are Budha and Shukra. Thoseoutside the orbit of the earth (Kuja or Mangal or Angaraka,Guru or Brihaspati, Shani, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto) areexternal or Superior planets. Sun is a stq| Moon is a satel-lite. These two are treated as planets for the sake of conve-nience. Rahu and Ketu are Chhaya grahas (Shadowy plan-

ets).

Retrogression : The planets always move in the samedirection round the Sun. But as seen from the earth it isnot always in the same forward direction. Sometimes theyappear as if moving in the backward direction. The planetis retrograde (Vakri). After some time it becomes direct(Margi).

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TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTInIC ITINDU ASTfrOI.OOY

Apehelion: When the planet's orbit is at the greatestdistance from the Sun.

Perihelion: When the planet's orbit is at the least dis-tance from the Sun.

Perige€ : When a body in orbit around the earth is atthe least distance from the earth. When it is at the greatestdistance, it is called apogee.

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Planets and llouses

[1here are twelve signs of the zodiac. These are: MeshaI (Aries), Vrishabha (Taurus), Mithuna (Cemini), Karka or

Kataka or Karkataka (Cancer), Simha lLeo), Kanya (Virgo),Tula (Libra), Vrishchika (Scorpio), Dhanush (Sagittarius),Makara (Capricorn), Kumbha (Aquarius), and Mina (Pisces).

The Sun owns Leo and the Moon Cancer. Budha (Mer-cury) owns Mithuna and Kanya, Shukra (Venus) hasVr ishabha and Tu la , Ku ja (Mars) ru les Mesha andVrishchika, Quru (Jupiter) has Dhanush and Mina, andShani owns Makara and Kumbha. Each sign has a durationof 5O degrees.

The nakshatras are distributed among the twelve signsas under :

Mesha : Ashvini, Bharani, Krittika I

Vrishabha : Krittika 2, 3,4, Rohini, Mrigasira l, 2,

Mithuna : Mrigarsira 3, 4, Ardra, Punarvasu l, 2, 3,

Karka : Punarvasu 4, Pushyami, Ashlesha

Simha : Magha, Purva Phalguni, Uttara Pha. l,

Kanya : Uttara ?ha. 2, 3, 4, tlasta, Chitra |, 2,

Tula : Chitra 5, 4, Svati, Vishakha |, 2, 5,

Vrishchika : Vishakha 4, Anuradha, Jyeshtha,

Dhanush : Mula, Purvashadha, Uttarashadha l,

Makara : Uttarashadha 2, 5,4, Sravara, Dhanishtha l,2,

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106 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTInIC IIINDU ASTROLOAY

Kumbha : Dhanishtha 3, 4, Shatabhisha, Purvabhadra |.2 , 3 .

Mina : Purvabhadra 4, Uttarabhadra, Revati.

The planets have mulatrikona signs and exaltationsigns. The debilitation sign is 18Oo away from the exaltationdegree.

llulatrikona Exattation DebilitationSun Simha Oo to 2Oo Mesha loo Tula lO"Moon Vrishabha 40 to 2Oo Vrishabha 50 Vrishchika 50Mars Aries OO"-l2o MakaraZSo Karka 28oMercury Kanya 160 to 2Oo Kanya l5o Mina l5oJupiter Sagittarius Oo to loo Karka 5" Makara 50Venus Libra Oo to l5o Plina 27o Kanya 27oSaturn Kumbha Oo to 2Oo Tula 2Oo Mesha 2OoRahu Mithuna 2lo Dhanush 2loKetu Dhanush 60 Mithuna 60

Movable (Chara) Signs: Mesha, Karka, Tula, Makara.

Fixed (Sthira) signs : Vrishabha, Simha, Vrischika,Kumbha.

Dwisvabhava (common) signs: Mithuna, l{anya,Dhanush, Mina.

Odd sign: Mesha, Mithuna, Simha, Tula, Dhanush,Kumbha.

Even signs: Varishadha, Karka, Kanya, Vrishchika,Makara, Mina.

Shirshodaya Signs (Those rising with the head) :Mithuna, Simha, Kanya, Tula, Vrishchika, and Kumbha. trx-cept Mithuna these are strong in the day time.

Prishthodaya Signs (Those rising with back part) :Mesha, Vrishabha, Karka, Dhanush and Makara. Thesealong with Mithuna are strong in the night.

LJbhayodaya Signs : Mithuna and Mina.

Kendras z 1,4,7, and lO from lagna. These are calledquadrants or squares. They are also called Kantaka.

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PI.ANETS AND TTOUSES 1()7

Konas : l, 5 and 9 from lagna. These are called trines.

Panapharas : These are succeedent houses 2, 5,8 andI l. They succeed or follow kendras.

Apoklimas : These are 3,6, 9 and 12. They are cadenthouses. They come after panapharas.

Upachayas : These are houses 5, 6, lO and I I fromlagna. They are beneficial.

A p a c h a y a s z 2 , 4 . 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , a n d 1 2

Extra Saturnine Planets : These are the planetsbeyond Shani. These are Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.Uranus owns Kumbha, fleptune rules Mina and Pluto hasVrishchika.

Rahu and Ketu : According to some Rahu is exalted inVrishabha and Ketu in Vrishchika. We hold that Rahu ownsKumbha and is exalted in Mithuna; and that Ketu ownsVrishchika and is exalted in Dhanush.

Benefics : Guru, Shukra, waxing Moon (from the eighthday of the bright lunar fortnight (Shukla Paksha), to theseventh day of the dark lunar fortnight, and Mercury notassociated with malefics. We are inclined to include Ketualso here. Neptune can be treated as a benefic.

Malefics : Sun is an ordinary malefic; and so are thewaning Moon (from the eighth day of the lunar dark fort-night to the seventh day of the lunar bright fortnight), andMercury associated with malefics. The most powerful orcruel malefics are Kuja, Shani, Rahu, Uranus, and Pluto.

Sexes : Masculine planets are the Sun, Mars and Jupi-ter. The feminine planets are Moon and Venus. The rest areeither male or female eunuch.

Fiery Signs : Mesha, Simha, Dhanush.

Earthy Signs : Vrishabha, Kanya, Makara.

Airy Signs : Mithuna, Tula, Kumbha.

Watery Signs : Karka, Vrishchika, Mina.

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Colours : Mesha is bloodred, Vrishabha is white,Mithuna - green - colour of a parrot, Karka - white andred, Simha - grey, Kanya - mixed. Tula ' blue, Vrischika -

golden yellow, Dhanush - Kapila, Makara - white with blue,Kumbha - black and white. Mina - Pure.

Kala hrrusha : The various parts of the body are dis-tributed among the twelve signs beginning with Mesha.These have to be treated from the birth ascendant also.They are head, face, neck, chest, heart, stomach, lowerabdomen, private parts, thighs, joints (and knees), anklesand feet.

Colours of planets : Sun - red and blue; Moon - white;Kuja - red and white; Budha- green; Guru - white or yellow ;Shukra - white; Shani - blue or black.

The luminaries and the planets have been given specialpowers or duties, castes and the like. We tabulate these as

under :

Powers Duties

Sun Soul Kshatriya

lloon Mind KshatriYa

Mars Strength Commander

Mercury Speech Prince

Jupiter Knowledge Minister

Venus Love Minister

Shani Sorrow Servant

Rahu

El€ments: Kuja - fire; Budha - Earth; Curu - Akash;

Moon and Shukra - water ; Shani - Vayu (wind).

Castes: Brahmanas - Quru and Shukra; Sun and Mars -

Kshatriyas; Vaisya - Moon ; Shudra - Budha; Shani - other

castes; Rahu - Mlechha (all Westemers).

Tligunas: Sattva - Ravi, Chandra, Curu.

lletals

Copper

Preciousstones

Oold

Bronze

Silver

Pearls

Lead

Directions

East

North-West

South

North

North-East

South-trast

West

South-West

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PT,ANETS AND NOUSES 109

Rajas - Budha, Shukra.

. Tamas - Kqja, Shani.

Bile (Pitta) - Sun, Kaja, Budha.

Phlegm (Sleshma) -Moon, Budha, Curu, Shukra.

Wind (Vata) - Moon, Budha, Shukra, Shani.

Anatomical parts: Shani - nerues orsnayu; Sun-bones;Moon-blood; Budha - skin; Shukra- sperm, Kuja - dhatu.

Actually Budha rules the nervous system, while Shanicontrols skin.

Dwelllng Places I Sun - religious places; Moon - bath-rooms; Kuja-kitchen; Budha - playgrounds; Quru - room withiron safe ; Shukra - bedroom; Shanl - floor.

Aspects : All planets aspect the seventh from wherethey are posited. In addition Kqia, Guru and Shani havespecial aspects. Kuja aspects 4 and 8 from his natal posi-

tlon. Curu aspects 5 and 9, Shani aspects 5 and lO. Actu-af ly al l p lanets aspect 3, 4,5,7,8,9, lO and I I f rom where

they are posited.

The aspect on 5 and I O is a quarter; on 5 and 9 it is

half; on 4 and 8 it is three quarters ; and on the seventh it

is ful l . Rahus aspects on5,7,9 and 12 is ful l ; at 2 and lOIt is half; and on 5 and 6 it is a quarter. Shani has a shadowyaspect on 2 and 12, while Guru has it on 5 and ll.

Tastes : Sun - hot, Moon - salt, Kuja- sour, Budha mixed

tastes, Guru - sweet, Shukra - acid, Shani - Kashaya.

Mutual Relatlonships (friends etc.) of planets : Note

the mulatrikona of a planet. Planets 2, 12' 5' 9, 4 and 8

signs from that sign are friends of that planet. But such aplanet must own two houses. If it owns only one sign, it is

neutral (sama). The exceptions are the Sun and the Moon,because they own only one sign each. If houses 2' 12, 5,9

4 and I are not owned by any, such a planet is its enemy.

Exceptions also involve signs of exaltation. We tabulatethus :

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Ftiends Neutrals EnemiesSun Chandra, Kuja, Budha Shani, Shukra

Quru

Moon Ravi, Budha Kuja, Guru, noneShukra, Shani

Kqia Ravi, Chandra, Shukra, Shani BudhaGuru

Budha Ravi, Shukra Kuja, Guru, Shani Chandracuru Ravi, Chandra, Shani Budha, Shukra

Kuja

ShukraBudha, Shani Kuja, Ouru Bavi, ChandraShani Budha, Shukra Quru Ravi, Chandra,

Kuja

There are temporary friendships for each planetfrom the place it is situated. Planet, situated in 2, 3, 4, lO,I I and 12 from its natal position are its temporary friends.Those combined with the natural relations will give theresult of the fivefold relationships. We tabulate the resultsthus:

Natural friend + Temporary friend = Adhimitra

Natural foe + Temp. friend - Sama (Neutral)

Natural neutral + Temp. friend = Mitra (friend)

Temporary foe + Naisargika friend = Sama (Neutral)

Temporary foe + Naisaryika Satru = Adhisatru

Temporary foe + Naisaryika Sama = Satru (Enemy)

Yavanesvara classifies the relationships only intofriends and foes. The friends of the planets are:

Sun Guru

; ltloon - Quru and BudhaKuja Budha and ShukraBudha All except the Sun

Guru - All except Kuja

:, Shuhra - Kuja, Budha, Guru, Shani

Shani Budha, Guru, and Shukra

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PI,ANETS AND ITOUSES 111

This classification appears to be sound regardingKuja and Curu. According to Yavanesvara (Sphujidhvaja),a planet is friendly to another situated in its sign ofexaltation.

Just as a planet is debilitated when it is lSOo away fromits exaltation point, so is a planet weak when it is lBO" awayfrom its mulatrikona position.

Vargottama: A planet occupying the same sign in Rasiand navamsa is said to be Vargottama. About navamsa wewill explain in the chapter on Vargas.

In Mrichhakatika Shudraka holds that Guru (Jupiter) isthe enemy of Angaral(a (Mars) : '

Yavancharya states: "C g tilq qn-Ae qdl" Except Kuja,all others are the friends of Curu. As per this view planetsare friends or enemies of one another, and there are noneutrals. The opinion of Shudraka backed by Yavanacharyaappears to have some good reasoning behind it. Mars isdebilitated where Jupiter is exalted and Jupiter is debili-tated where Mars is exalted. Naturally they cannot befriends. According to this ancient view planets have friendsand foes: Sun-Jupiter; Moon-Jupiter and Mercury; Mars-Venus and Mercury; Mercury- all except the Sun. Jupiter-allexcept Mars; Venus-all except the Sun; and the Moon;Saturn-Venus, Mercury and Jupiter. Here though Budha andShukra are mutual friends, their exaltation and debilitationsigns are opposed. It is worth noting from actual experiencethat the conjunction of Mars and Jupiter has always spoiltone planet. For a Capricorn lagna with Kuja and Curu inthe 8th, the native lost everything in the major period ofMars, and managed to live honourably in Curu mahadasa.The chart is an interesting one in that these two are in veryclose conjunction and these appear in the sixth and eighthhouses.

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1 4Sukra

Budha 26Ravi 29

\ t (

13.7-1 897

-1

Ketu{ q

Rahu 15L 9

Kuja 11Guru 16

21Moon

2Sat (R)

He lost his father at the beginning of Moon's period, lostall in Kuja's period, and passed away in the sub-period ofVenus in Guru. Such instances are numerous and theycompel us to pay serious attention to the views reiected bySatyakirti and Varahamihira. One also wonders how Mooncan have her mulatrikona in a house of Venus when, evenaccording to Satyakirti and Varahamihira, Moon is an en-emy of Venus. No other has his mulatrikona in a house nothis own. When the Sun has his mulatrikona in Leo, why notthe Moon have it in Cancer ? This, we are aware, is goingagainst the tradi t ional ly accepted view. But has notVarahamihira rejected a tradition which Shudraka followed?

Shudraka was a contemporary of Hala, an AndhraSatavahana king of the first century. He flourished only acentury after Yarahamihira. Sudraka's version is:

ei-S.R-sfu "gs v$urs T{{ch,;rdsq erc{' q{d W+gRdftqf,: u (9.33)

Brihaspati in the context is Charudatta. Angaraka evi-dently Shakara. Guru has only one enemy, and the strangercoming to the court seems to be another enemy of Curu.

In the example we have given, the Sun and Mercury areconjunct. As per an earlier view followed by Shudraka,these are mutual enemies. The decline in the native's for-tunes started even during the Sun's m4jor period' Rahuacting like Shani, aspects Kqja and (iuru as Shani does.

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PI-4NETS AND NOUSES 1 1 3

Though Jupiter and Shani are mutual friends, as per theearlier view, Kuja destroyed him while Rahu and Guru reh2-bilitated him to some extent; and in the end Curu broughthis life to a close. This is due to his association with Kujawho is heavily afflicted and is afflicting others. Take anotherchart. This native inherited very good lands and houses inQuru's major period and Moon's sub-period. As soon asKuja's sub period started, he became bankrupt. The twoare in exact opposition and Guru is in the enemy's house,as per Yavanacharya. In the light of this view how wouldone interpret the exchange of houses by the Sun and Marsin Mrs. Candhi's chart ?

Guru 22Budha 25Ravi 24

irrkra (Rl I

R

Moon

Sani 9Ketu 13

8-5-1 905Chart ll

L 2

1 3Rahu

25Kuja'Fl '

The purpose of this brief discussion is to awaken thelnterest of the research oriented astrologers to examine theviews rejected by Varahamihira. They are not merelyYavanacharya's views, but those accepted by Shudraka,one of our very great dramatists.

In the major period of Saturn he gives Kuja's results inhis own sub period, and his own results in Kuja's subperiod. Likewise in Kuja's m4jor period Sani's results ap-pear in Kuja's sub period and his own in Sani's sub period.This gives added weight to Shudraka's verse.

Shudraka, the famous Sanskrit dramatist, makes an of'ficer of law-enforcement say in his llrichchhakatika :

Charuddata is like Jupiter and there enters from the

other side Sakara who is like Mars; and this Mars appears to

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1 1 4 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIflC NINDU ASTBOLOOY

be like a Dhumaketu and this Mars is the enemy of, or isopposed to Jupiter. Sakara is Mars, the trouble-maker; andcompared with this dangerous comet there stands his oppo-nent Charudatta who is Jupiter.

Shudraka found an apt simile from the planetary rela-tionships accepted in his days. Mars and Jupiter, he states,'are

mutual enemies. Otherwise, how can we rationally ex-plain that the sign of debilitation of one is the sign of the,other's exaltation? Moreover, in the zodiac, the signs ownedby these two are in "dvirdvadasa" (2-12); and so related :any planets so situated - are said to give unfavourableresults. It is not for nothing that one of the signs owned byMars have the stars ruled by Ketu, Venus and the Sun, asper Vimshottar i . Ketu rul ing Asvini has become inShudraka's words "dhumaketu". Jupiter also owns a signwhere the stars are ruled by Ketu, Venus and the Sun. Asagainst this Ketu, the other one is "dhumaketu". Like polesrepel each other.

This view is supported by Yavaneshwara who obseredclearly.

The meaning of these two verses confirms Shudraka'sstatement. The friends of the planets are as under :

Sun : Jupiter

Moon : Jupiter and Mercury

Mars : Venus and Mercury

Mercur5r : All except the Sun

Jupiter : All except Mars

Venus : All except the Sun and the MoonSaturn : Mercury, Venus and Jupiter.

There are no neutrals as per this theory. Varahamihiraquotes this view. He refers to the principles laid downby Satyakirti which almost everyone accepted in latertime.

_ Here we get the classification of friends, enemies andneutrals. From the mulatrikona sign of a planet its friendsare the lords of 2, 12, 5, 9, 4 and B. The lord of its

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PLANETS AND HOUSES 1 1 5

exaltation sign is also a friend. To be a friend both the signsowned by the planet - except the Sun and the Moon - mustcome under the above formulq. If only one sign is friendly,the owner of that sign is a neutral. The signs ruled by otherswill be the owners of its enemies.

Varaha explains in detail the planetary relationships asper Satyakirti's formula. This explanation probably led thelater writers to accept this view as Varaha Mihira's view.Shudraka, however. followed the ancient view. It is forresearch-oriented students of astrolory to exmine the viewsof Yavana and Shudraka. A blind acceptance of Satyakirti'sprinciple is not enough.

The native of the first chart had Mars in the severithfrom Jupiter. As per Yavana, Jupiter is with friends and opp-

oses his enemy. As per Satyakirti he is with one friend andtwo enemies. The native sold away all his huge property bythe time the major period of Jupiter ended ( 1959 Oct.). tleinherited it during the sub period of Mars and started sellingit from then onwards.

The native of the second chart inherited a large prop-erty, and a huge cloth shop in 1922 when the major periodof Mars started; and by the time this period ended he losteverything. Note the conjunction of Mars and Jupiter. Hestarted recovering partially as the major period of Jupiter

SunMercJup

Vonus

Moon

Sat

CHARTNo. 1

Ascdt

Rahu

Mars (R)

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ill;i'

1 1 6 TEXT BOOK Of SCIDNTInIC NINDU ASTfrOLOOY

Venus22.3

Sun 29Merc 26

CHARTNo. 2Ascdt

8.38Rahu14.28

Mars10.30Jup

15 .41

Moon20.37

Sat1 . U

started. One can explain it in a way by bringing in the ideasof ownership and placement. This will not do.

The details of third chart show Mars and Jupiter inopposition from their debilitation signs. The period of Mars

CHARTNo. 3

Mars28.7

Jup 14.59

vloon 2.31Sat 28.49

\4erc 1 1.49Bahu 3.1 1

qscdt 14.5S u n 2 1 . 1 3Venus 8.7

(from January 1944) made him a victim of the ruling politi-cians and as the major period of Jupiter started (1969

January) he became a paralytic; and he passed away in thesub period of Mercury. Mars made him sell away his proP-erty, though it was for founding a college.

There are many examples to show that the conjunctionor opposition of Mars and Jupiter has not been a haPPyone. This leads us to request the students of astrology toexamine the views of Yavaneswara about planetary relation-

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PI.ANETS AND TiOUSES 117

ships. At least about Mars and Jupiter aspects or associa-tion we get some support from Saravali.

We are taught by the prevailing tradition to classiftythe mutual relationships of planets into friends, enemiesand neutrals. This appears to be an innovat ion ofSatyakirti.

From its'mulatrikona house a planet's friends are theowners of houses 2, 12, 4, 8, 5 and 9' The owner of a house

Where it is exalted is also a friend. To be a friend a planet(other than the Sun and the Moon) must own two houses

enumerated here. If it owns only one, it becomes a neutral;and if it owns none, it is an enemy' Except the Moon,. all

have their mulatrikona in their own houses. Why should the

Moon be an exception? The possible reason may be based

on a legend connected with Rohini' Yet the Moon's exalta-

tion degree falls in Krittika. Even in Satyakirti's theory the

Moon is the enemy of Venus. lt is then impossible to accept

rationally Moon's mula-trikona in Taurus; it should be in

Cancer.

Next Mars is the enemy of Saturn and yet he is said to be

exalted in Saturn's sign. Mars is the friend of Moon and yet

is debilitated in the Moon's sign. If Mars is debilitated and

Jupiter exalted in Cancer, how can these be mutual friends?

Consider a similar case of the Sun and Saturn with refer-

ence to Aries and Libra. They are mutual foes. Venus and

the Sun are mutualenemies too in this view. One may point

out Budha's exaltation and debilitation of Venus are in the

same sign; and he may argue that these are mutual friends'

But this is beyond comprehension. lf the owner of the

exaltation sign is a friend; the owner of the debilitation sign

must be his enemy. But Jupiter is said to be a neutral to

both Mercury and Venus' Satyakirti's logic is not convinc-

ing.

According to the earlier view the planets have friends

and enemies only. There are no neutrals.

Among the pre-Varahamihira authorities on astrology

we find Parasara, Maya, Yavana, Manittha, Jivasharma,

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1 1 8 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTInIC ilINDU ASTBOLOOY

Satyakirti, Vishnugupta and others. Manittha was the Eryptian Manetho, one of whose works on ancient history writ-ten in Creek was published in the Loeb classical series.Yavanesvara's text was recently published. He was not aYavana (lonian) of Greece but a Saka Brahmana and appears to have ruled over or taught astrolory to Creek orIonian settlement. Satyakirti, who propounded Dhruva Nadiand who revolutionised astrological principles, was a Bud-dhist. Wherever Stayakirti's views differed from those ofYavanesvara, Yarahamihira followed the former only.Though Varahamihira spoke about Rahu in his ,,Brihat

Samhita", he is silent abolut Rahu and Ketu in his ,,Brihat

Jataka". lle is also silent about Vimshottari and other dasasystems found in Parasara. If the available text of ?arasarais to be accepted as the first and uncorrupted authoritativeIndian text on astrology, Varahamihira must be declared adeviationist.

Kalyanavarma who wrote Saravali in 578 A.D. was alsocalled Vyaghrapadesvara. He was very unhappy withVarahamihira for having rejected most of yavanesvara,sviews. In the very opening chapter he states:

"The texts of the ancient sages have explainedelaborately this science. Rejecting (Parihritya) the ancienttreatises Varahamihira wrote briefly or concisely hisHora Tantra". Varahamihira is guilty of rejecting theancients, as per this author. lle explains why and howthis happened.

"Since the subject is too vast, he has revived and re-stated what is st i l l l iv ing and val id in the works ofYavanesvara and others". Varahamihira's text is contrary towhat the ancient sages (munibhih) taught in India. When hefollowed Satyakirti, he was running against the traditionalIndian astrological Science because of his prejudice againstthose sages. How this prejudice arose is hinted byKalyanavarma in a later chapter thus:

"What was stated by elders like Yavanesvara as theconjunction of two planets, I will explain in detail without

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PI.ANETS AND IIOUSES 1 1 9

any malice or envy or ill-will (matsaram)". l\alyanavarmaclearly convicts Varahamihira of "maLsarya" (Malice, envy)-for rejecting the views of Yavanesvara and other ancientelders. Kalyana Varma's attempt was to offer a synthesis orconsensus based on the works of Yavanesvara, ancientauthorities and Varahamihira,'and in this, he was inclined infavour of the pre-Varahamihira authorities as far as pos-sible. A similar approach, though to a limited extent, isfound in Jayadeva's Jataka Chandrika. It is thus necessaryto restate some of the views mentioned and rejected in acavaliar fashion by Varahamihira, with or without mention-ing Yavanesvara.

The lords of the Horas and Drekkanas are reckoneddifferently, says Yavana.

The first hora of any sign is ruled by its owner, and thesecond by the lord of the eleventh sign therefrom. The lordsof the three drekkanas of any sign are respectively ownedby the lords of that sign, of its twelfth and of its eleventhsigns.

Regarding the distribution of sattva, rajas and tamasamong the planets, Yavana differs from Varaha.

Sun, Mars and Jupiter have sattva guna; Venus and theMoon have r4jas, while Saturn has tamas; Mercury attainsthe guna of the planet with whom he is associated. Aboutthe aspects, it is clearly stated that all the planets alwaysaspect all houses excepting the second, sixth, eleventh andtwelfth from where they are.

It is about the relations between the planets that Yavanaand the sages of yore have an original approach.

There are no neutrals as in honest human life. Dachplanet has only friends and foes. The Sun has Curu; theMoon has Curu and Budha; Kuja has Budha and Shukra,Budha has all save the Sun; Curu has all except Kuja;Shukra has all except the luminaries; and Shani hasBudha, Guru and Shukra as their friends. The rest aretheir enemies. Shudraka in his Mrichchhakatika (9.53)

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12() TEXT BOOT{ OF SCIENTInIC IIINDU ASTROLOOY

accepted this view and he declared Mars and Jupiter to bemutual foes. The formula accepted by Varahamihira wasfirst promulgated by Satyakriti (8.J. 2'15). Yavanesvara hasa different approach to determine temporary friendships

among planets.

A planet situated in the exaltation sign of another be-

comes the latter's temporary friend, and so is the former tothe latter. The count of houses 2, 9, 3' 4' and 12 for

temporary friendship is to be evidently from the mula-

trikona sign of the concerned planet. This is a little confus-ing.

Moon in the eighth from lagna is said to cause

balarishta. Yavana states:

When the Moon is in the sixth or eighth in a benefic

sign or constellation and is aspected by malefics, the child

dies at once; and if benefics also aspect the Moon, the child

lives for at least eight years. If this Moon is not aspected by

any, there is no "arista" or evil. The sub-periods of the

malefics in the sixth and the eighth are capable of causing

the death of the native."

A malefic in the sixth or eighth aspected by his enemy

tocated in a benefic sign brings about the native's death in

his sub-period. This can be an ailment, or imprisonment or

in a journey.

In calculating the amsa or pinda ayurdaya, how many

years does the lagna give ? Some held that we have to take

only the number of the navamsas that elapsed in any lagna.

But Yavana stated that:

"The numbr of signs from Aries up to the sign proceed-

ing the lagna give the number of years; and the navamsas

elapsed are to be reduced to months and days. Reduction

of a longevity when a malefic rises in lagna was advocated

by Yavana. Maya and Yavana favoured amsayurdaya when

the lagna is the strongest and pindayurdaya when the Sun is

the strongest.

Thts was the view advocated by the ancients.

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PI.ANETS AND TTOUSES 721

Status of Mercurlr

According to our mythology Mars is the son of Earth,while the Moon has Mercury as his son. About Mars being aplanet there can be no doubt. The sidereal period of Mars isroughly 687 days, synodic period is 78O days, mean dailymot ion is 5 l '26" .52 , and eccent r i c i t y i s .O9b. I t has adiameter of 6794 km and has two satellites. possibly be-cause of its proximity to and similarity with the earth, Marsis said to be the child of the earth. Its rotation period is only57 minutes more than that of our planet.

The known facts about Mercury pose a serious problem.Is it a planet or a satellite ? The mythological relation ofMercury to the Moon suggests fickleness, instability ofmind, and a kind of listlessness. lt may imply more. ltssidereal period is 87.969 days, synodic period is I15.878days, and its mean daily motion is 40 5' 52".49.lts eccen-tricity is .2O565, more than that of any other astral body.The sidereal period is a little over three times that of theMoon, and the synodic period is 4 times. These are intrigu-ing factors. Even the temperament of Mercury is flexibleand convertible.

Astrologers prefer Mercury to be in association withsome planet or other, as if it were a satellite or a shadowyplanet. Never being away from the Sun by more than 28degrees, Mercury raises some controversial issues. The con-junction of Mercury with the Sun is praised by Indian as-trologers as a good yoga. In so praising they seem to ignorethe effect of combustion. Satyacharya has denied combus-tion in this case. Raphael's Ouide states that "for clearsound intuition, perception and deep contemplation Mer-cury is best away from the Sun". But there are famousthinkers whose charts show a close conjunction of thesetwo.

Associated with malefics, he is treated as a malefic. Leftalone or with a benefic, he is a benefic. This variabilitydoes not hold good of the two benefics Jupiter and Venus.And yet Mercury is debilitated in the house of a naturalbenefic.

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122 TEXT EOOK OF SCIENTIFIC IIINDU ASTROLOOY

The conjunction with the Moon gives intellectual andimaginative powers. Mercury conjunct Mars is condemnedindirectly in some Nadi texts. Though he is debilitatedwhere Venus is exalted, the two together bestow good spir-its and a clean mind. With Jupiter he gives good intellectualadvantages, though one may become stubbom and self-willed. With Saturn he gives variable results.

Said to own the 6th house of the natural zodiac, YIer-cury can give rise to various ailments, physical or mental orboth. tle is taken to regulate the respiratory system, lungs,nerves, speech, brain, parathyroid, relationships, travels,writing, changes of thought and occupation, and astrology.His exaltation degree is in trine to Aldebaran and in sextileto the dangerous Anatares. True to this variable character,he refers to the throat, nose, itches, falls and prison (likeRahu).

These are some of the factors which give rise to seriousdoubts about Mercury. ls he a planet or a satellite of someunknown planet ? Indian and Western traditions treat himas a planet. Curiously enough, in Greek mytholory he is themessenger of the gods (Hermes) and also a patron ofthieves. He is really Mercurial. It is for research scholars toclarify the doubts of a layman about the actual status ofMercury in our solar system.

lllhere are the Nine Planets ?

We often speak of nine planets and we have the man-tras and stotras for the nine planets. In Sanskrit the wordgraha means a planet which has a gravitational pull (Oraha),the power to attract. The constellations of our zodiac arecalled Nakshatras. The others are called stars (tara). Whatare the nine planets ? The Sun is a star, not a planet. As the" Aditya Ilridayd' taught by Agastya to Sri Rama observes:qq{Ttr{l: nR|un-qltTql; I

The Sun is the lord of the constellations, planets andstars. The Moon is a satellite of the earth, not a planet(grdha\. Rahu and KeLu are the northern and the southern

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PIANETS AND ITOIJ5ES 123

nodes of the Moon, not planets. Thus four of the so-callednlne planets of the modern Hindus are not planets at all. Wehave thus Mars, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn aloneas the planets. We need four more to make up the numbernlne. The stotras and the mantras of these four must bedlfferent from those we now attribute to the Sun, Moon,Rahu and Ketu; or they may refer to the other ones.

The Mahabharata gives the positions of the planets dur-lng the period of the great fratricidal war. Along with the fiveplanets, there are statements about some other planets inthis greatest eplc poem of the world. ln the "Bhishma?awa" (5.15 to 15, 34 and 43) we are told that Mars wasretr<4yade ln Magha, Jupiter was in Sravana, Saturn was. inUttarabhadrapada, Venus was in Poorvabhadrapada, Ketuwas ln Pushyami, and the Sun was in the second quarter ofSravana. When the sage Bhlshma chose to die, the Moonwas in Hasta, the Sun was in Revati, Saturn was inPoorvaphalguni, Mars in Anuradha, Jupiter in Sravana, andRahu between Chitra and Swati.

The lulahabharatagives more details about other planetswhich were discarded or ignored by later astronomers andastrologers of our country. We are told that Mahapata was inSravana. By calculating backwards we find that this was thename given for the modem Uranus. We also learn that aplanet called Sweta was in Poorvabhadrapada. This is now-adays known as Neptune. The great sage Vyasa also statedthat some astral body was striking then the constellationKrittika. This can be Pluto. Thus Vyasa has given an accountof eight or seven planets ; and a more careful reading of thetext can give us the ninth planet also.

In this context we may be asked about the owners. InJaimini's system of Astrology Aquarius is owned by Spturnand Rahu, while Scorpio is owned by Mars and Ketu. Wealso know that the Sun is a part owner of six signs from Leo,while the Moon is a part owner of the other six signs.

Careful and painstaking research by some western as-trologers has shown that Aquarius may also be owned byUranus, Pisces by Neptune and Scorpio by Pluto.

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124 TEXT EOOK OF SCIENNnTC IilTNDU ASTBOLOOY

There are some powerful voices arguing that IndianAstrolog5l is a self-contained and perfect science andthat there is no need to incorporate into our system thefindings of the westem astrologers. Before we examinethis spacious argument, we will request them to readVarahamihira's Brithat Samhita. There the great Mihiraobserved.

"The Mlechchhas (foreigners, non-Vedic ones) areYavanas (natives of lon, an island near the mainland ofQreece). It is in their hands that this sastra (science) ofastrology is firmly well-rooted. Dven they are adoredlike Rishis. What then should we say about the twice-born (duija) who knows the art of divination or prediction(daiua-uidl ?"

ln Brithat Jataka he has given the Greek equivalentsof the signs and planets. He did not mind referring towestern astrologers. He refers to Manittha who is Manethaof Egrpt. He quotes Yavaneswara who was Sphujidhvaja,an Indian settled for some time in a part of Creece. [Iewas called Yavaneswara, Probably because he ruled overthe lonians. By accepting some of the valid findings ofthe westemers, we are only following the footsteps ofVarahamihira.

Next, let us ask whether Astrolory is a science in theaccepted meaning of the term. If it is not a science, we haveno quarrel with them since their subject astrology is not ourscience of astrologt. If, however, it is a science, no sciencecan be self-contained and complete. Otherwise, Copernicuscould not supplant Ptolemy, nor could Dinstein amend New-ton and Kepler. Any science is a growing concern. It isalways open to corrections, amendments and the like. Re-fusal to accept the extra-saturnine planets is running con-trary to Veda Vyasa, Varahamihira, and the very nature ofscience. Moreover, the available text o[ Parasara's lloraShastra has many later additions and omissions. The earlychapters dealing with the Bhava chart are clearly later inter-polations.

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PI,ANETS AND IIOUSES 125

We give a few points in order to make the students ofastrolog3l realise the importance of Uranus and Neptune.Mars and Neptune jointly afflicting the Sth house give rise tostill-births. Uranus refers to electronics, computers, nuclearstudies, sudden upheavals or revolts, and undiagnosed ail-ments. Uranus afflicting the 7th house is worse thanAngaraka-dosha.

Possibly, Pluto is not a planet, but a satellite. A carefulastronomical and astrological study can also reveal thatMercury may not be a planet, but a satellite. More researchis needed about Mercury in future. To make up the numberof planets nine, we await future astronomical observationsand findings

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Casting a Chart:Panchanga Method

ffl h. components of a Panchanga are Tithl' Vara,L Nakshatra, Yoga and Karana. The Panchanga also gives

what time is left (bhoglra or eshya) in the rising sign atsunrise on any given day. Our Panchangas follow thenirayana (Sidereal) System.

First note the latitude and the longitude of the,place ofbirth. The longitude multiplied by four gives the local time.India's Standard time is five hours and thirty minutes aheadof Greenwich Meridian Time. It is 82o5O' east of Creenwich.We have to correct the given standard time of birth into thelocal mean time of birth. It is better to have the local mean

time of Sunrise or Sunset.

We take an illustration. The native was born at 11.6.24AM 1920. L.22. Th,e place was 160 15' North and 8Oo 59'East. The local time \s 322 minutes and 56 secondsahead of Greenwich. Since Indian Standard Time (lST) is

5 hours and 50 minutes, the local time is 7 minutes and

24 seconds behind IST. By deducting this from the given

IST I I .06.24 we get the local mean tirne (LMT) 10.59 AM.

The local mean time of sunrise on that day was 6h,35m, 48s. Deducting this from the time of birth we get 4h,

23m, l2s. Each ghati is equal lo 24 minutes; each Vighati

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C,4STINO A CNART PANCTTANOA METTTOD 1 2 7

is 24 seconds. Multiplying the duration in hours, minutes

and seconds by 2Vzw@ get the time of birth as lO ghatis

and 58 vighatis. This is called Ishta Kala ot Udayadi Janma

Kala.

On the day of birth the Sun was in Makara' The

Panchanga shows that at Sunrise on that day the Sun has

completed one ghati and twelve vighatis in that sign' For the

given latitude the duration of Makara is 4gh, 4Ovgh' The

iemaining portion is gh b.28. We have to add the durations

of the succeeding signs till we come to the required time of

birth. We Proceed thus.

gh. vgh.

5 2 4

+ 4 . 8

+ 4 . 2

l l .

- 1 0 .

Makara

Kumbha

Mlna

Time of birth

58

5B

Portion remaining in Mlna O' 40

Ch 4.O2 minus O'4O gives portion elapsed in Mina' viz"

gn 3.22. For a duration of gh 4.O2 we have thirty degrees'

and for gh 5.22 we get 3.22 x 30 + 4'O2 = 2O2 x 50 = 242

- 25o.5' Mina as the janma lagna (Birth Ascendant)'

Next the positions of the planets prior to the time of

birth on that day. lf there is no transit on that day' we

take the posttions on the date nearest to this date of

birth, going backwards. The Moon was in Srztvana on that

O"V. & tf,e previous day Sravana begins' We note the

toLt duration of the nakshatra' Then we have to note

how much more of that nakshatra is yet to elapse' For this

ferioa we have to calculate the balance of dasa (major

period) at birth.

CountthejanmanakshatrafromKri t t ikaanddividei tbynine. The ,emui.,d"r gives the first dasa as Per this table in

this order:

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124 TEXT BOOI( Of SCIEIITIFIC I|INDU ASTBOLOOY

Nakshatra Ruler Total yezrrs

6

l o7

I B

l 6

l 9

l 7

7

20

l2O years

Sign

Makara

Makara

Tula

Dhanush

Karka

Vrishchika

Simha

Tula

Mesha

l. Krittika, Uttara Phal., Uttarashada Ravi

2. Rohini, Hasta, Sravana Chandra

5. Mrigasira, Chitra, Dhanishtha Kuja

4. Ardra, Svati, Satabhisha Rahu

5. Punarvasu, Vishakha, Purvabhadra Curu

6. Pushyami, Anuradha, Uttarabhadra Shani

7. Ashlesha, Jyeshtha, Revati Budha

8. Magha, Mula, Asvini Ketu

9. Purva Phalguni, Purvashadha, ShukraBharani

Total

This is called the Vimshottari dasa system ( l2O yearssystem). There are other dasa systems, about which we willlearn later.

The Panchanga gives the following positions for theexample we have taken.

Positions

Ravi: Uttarashadha 4th QuarterChandra: Sravana 5rd quarter

Kuja: Chitra 4rth quarter

Budha: Uttarashadha lst quarter

Guru: Ashlesha 2nd quarter Vakri

Shulsa: Jyeshtha 4th quarter

Shani: Pubba 2nd quarter Vakrl

Rahu: Vishakha 5rd quarter

Ketu: Krittika lst quarter

The nakshatra on that day was Sravana. Counting fromt{rittika it is the twentieth. Dividing this by nine, we get twoas the remainder. The first dasa was that of the Moon.

Next we consider each planet. Note when it enters thatquarter of the nakshatra and when it transits into the nextquarter. Since each quarter is for 5o.2O' note the time

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CASTINO A CITART PANCIIANOA METITOD 129

taken. Then note the time from its entry into that quarter tothe time of birth. Applying the rule of three, we get thedegree and minute of the planet.

We tabulate the extent of each nakshatra starting fromthe start of Mesha. Each Nakshatra covers l3o2o'and eachpada 5o.2O',

Ashvini

Bharani

l{rittika

Rohini

Mrigasira

Ardra

Punarvasu

Pashyami

Ashlesha

Magha

?uwa Phalguni

Uttara Phal.

Hasta

Chitra

Svati

Vishakha

Anuradha

Jyeshtha

Mula

Purvashadha

Uttarashadha

Sravana

Dhanishtha

Satabhisha

Purvabhadra

Uttarabhadra

Revati

Oo.Oo to l3o.2O'

l3o.2O' to 260.4O'

260.4O' to 4Oo.O '

4Oo.O ' to 55o.2O'

53o.2O'to 660.40'

660.4O'to 8Oo.O'

8Oo.O' to 93o.2O'

95o.2O' to lO60.40 '

l060.40 ' to l2Oo.O '

lzDo.O'to l53o.2O'

l33o.2o ' to l460.40

1460.4O' to l600.0 '

l600 .0 ' to L73o.2O'

1 7 3 o . 2 O ' t o l 8 6 0 . 4 0 '

l860.40 ' to 2OOo.O'

2OOo.O' to 2l3o.2O'

2 l3o .2O' to 2260.4O'

2260.4O' to 24Oo.O'

24Oo.O' to 253o.2O'

2530.2O' to 2660.4O'

2660.4O' to 2BOo.O'

28Oo.O' to 2950.2O'

2930.2O' to 5060.4O'

5060.40' to 32Oo.O'

32Oo.O' to 333o.2O'

555o.2O' to 5460.4O'

3460.4O'to 5600.0'

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, . . t . ,

TEXT 600I{ Of SCTENTInIC ruNDU ASTROLOOY

We will next proceed to find out the way to arrive at thecusp of the tenth house according to the Indian method:

Note the duration of the day at the given day. For ourexample the day was for 28 ghatis and the night for 52ghatis. Multiplying the ghatis by two and dividing it by five

we get eleven hours and twelve minutes as the duration ofthe day. The time of the Sunrise (6.55.48) plus half of this,which is 12.11.48 noon (LMT). The period from noon to

midnight is called Paschan'nata. trrom midnight to midnoonIt is Prag'nata.

When one is born after Sunrise and before noon deduct

the Ishtaghatis from Dinardha (half duration of the day).

Then we have fourteen ghatis minus gh 10.58. The result is

gh 3.2. lf the birth is before sunrise add the two. When one

ls born before sunset, deduct the dinardha from Ishtaghati;

and if it is after sunset, add the two.

When the birth is after midnight and before noon, the

formula thus is: (a) Dinardha minus Janma ghati = Prang

nata period; (b) Dinardha plus the time between janma

ghati and Sunrise = Prang-nata.

When the birth is between noon and midnight, the for-

mula is: (a) Janma ghati minus dinardha = Paschan nata'(b) Dinardha + the duration between Sunset and Janma

ghati = Paschan nata.)

Thirty ghatis minus Nata is unnata. In our example

50 - 5.2 - gh 26.58 is unnata.

Note the position of the Sayana Sun at the time of birth'

Nirayana Sun in our examPle is 278o'lo"4 Following

f-ahiri's ayanamsa value 220.44'.43" for that day, we add

this to the niryana Sun' Thus we get the Sayana Sun at

3000.54'.47".

. Reckon the rising periods on the equator. These are:

Mesha, Kanya, Tula and Mina - 279 Vighatis each'

Vrishabha, Simha, Vrishchika and Kumbha - 299' 166

Vgh. each.

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C!\STINO A CTTABT PANCflANQA METIIOD 131

Mithuna, Karka, Dhanush and Makara - 321.855 Vgh'

each

Note the arc corresPonding to the Nata period from the

Sayana Sun and reckon the rising periods on the equator.

Note the arc in the reverse order corresponding to the Nata

period. Add this to the Sayana Sun if lt is Paschan nata'

Subtract it if it ls Prang-nata. Deduct the ayanamsa to arrive

at the corresponding cusp of the tenth house.

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Casting a Chart:Ephemeris Method

S phemeris gives the positions of the cerestiar bodies in aI-l lsgul2r sequence. Those prepared by the westernersgive the positions of the tropical zodiac, the tropical posi-tions. Here we can calculate the positions of the planets.But we have to deduct the ayanamsa at every stage.

N.C. Lahiri's Indian Dphemeris gives the ptanetary posi-tions according to the Nirayana or Sidereal system. Thisavoids the deductions of Ayanamsa. Raphael,s Ephemerisgives the tropical positions.

Next we should have Tables of tlouses. Dr. Raman andR.S. Vaidya have published the tables, and so did Lahiri.Raphael's Tables of llouses gives the Sayana positions. Itfollows the method of placidus,.and hence we have to takeonly the positions of the tenth house and lagna, and deductthe ayanamsa.

We need a table of llouses and an Ephemeris. Next weshould note the latitude and longitude of the place of birth.From the longitude we have to arrive at the local mean timeof birth. A place like Calcutta is on ggo 25'east longitude.This gives 553m, b2s. Indian Standard time is 5h bom.Calcutta is ahead by ZSm, b2s. While calculating the lagnafor a native born at Calcutta we have to add this amount to

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CASTINO A CHART: EPITEMERIS METflOD 1 3 3

the given IST of birth. For one born in Bombay the longitudeis 72o.5O' east. The local time is 58 m 40 s behind lST. Wehave to deduct this time from the given time of birth in IST.For calculating the planetary positions we have to take thetime given as per IST only.

Ephemeris gives the planetary positions at 5.50 AM (lST)or at 5.5O PM (lST). We have to note this carefully. 5.50 AM(lST) is midnight zero hours at Creenwitch, while IST 5.5OPM is 12.0O noon at Creenwich. If the positions are sayana(tropical) we must note the ayanamsa which has to bededucted from the result. If they are nirayana positions, wehave to make corrections for the given year.

Next we should note the sidereal time of noon on thegiven date. It is "the measure of time defined by the diurrialmotion of the vernal equinox". Sidereal day has a durationof 23h,56m, 4.Ol9s. It increases everyday by three min-utes and 56.55556 seconds. In the Ephemeris Siderealtimes (ST) are given. For a place west of IST we have to addfifty nine seconds for every six hours. For a place east of ISTwe have to detuct at this rate from the sidereal time givenfor noon. If one is born before the noon, deduct the intervalfrom ST given and again deduct at the rate of roughly tenseconds per years. If one is born after the noon, add theinterval and also the correction for the interval.

The Ephemeris and the Tables use some symbols.These have to be understood. Hence we give them.

Sign

MeshaVrishabhaMlthunaKarkaSimhaKanyaTulaVrishchikaDhanushMakara

Kumbha

Mina

English Name

AriesTaurusGemlnlC-ancer|.eoViryoLibraScorpioSagittariusCapricorn

Aquarius

Pisces

Symbol

YUtr6;

f/rDg

ntt$

X

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134 TEXT BOOK OF SCIDNTIeIC flNDU ASTBOLOOY

Planets English Name Symbol

Ravi Sun O

Chandra Moon )

Kuja (Mangal) Mars d

Budha Mercury ICuru Jupiter 2lShukra Venus ?

Shani Saturn n

Rahu Dragon's tlead n

Ketu Dragon's Tail tl

Indra Uranus

Varuna Neptune

Yama Pluto

There are other symbols given in the Ephemeris foraspects. These are given now.

Conjunct ion

Opposit ion I BOo

Square 9Oo,27Oo

Trine LzOo, 24Oo

Sextile 600, SOOo

Semi square 45o, 5l5o

Parallel 5Oo

Quin t i le | 72o, l44o '216c . '2880I

Biquint i leJ

Q u i n c u x 1 5 O o , 2 l O o

Sesquiquadrate 1550

Ascendant (Lagna) Asc or L

Tenth House M.C.

Fourth tlouse LC.

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CASTINO A CNART EPTIEMERIS METITOD ' 135

Let us take an illustration. The native was born onJanuary 22, l92O at 11.6.24 A.M. (lST). The latitude andlongitude are 160,15'N and 8Oo.59'E. The place was eastof Creenwich Meridian Time (AMT) by 5h, 22m, and 36 sand behind IST by 7 minutes and 24 seconds. Deductingthis from the given IST I I .6.24 Al'l we get 10.59 AM as theLMT. The lagna is calculated for the LMT and the planetarypositions for IST.

The sidereal time (ST) at noon at Oreenwich ls glven inRaphael 's Ephemeris on 1920.1.22 as 20.2.11. As theplace is east of CMT by 322 m,56 s, the correction has tobe deducted at the rate of 59 seconds for six hours. Thlscomes to 52.87 seconds. Then the ST at noon as per the ISTls 20.1.1815. The LMT of bir th is 1o.59 AM. I t is an hour andone minute before noon, and hence along with this a fur-ther correction is necessary.

200. l ' , . l8 '13

- l o . l ' . 0 '

l g o . o " l 8 ' 1 3

- oo.0'. lo '

1go.g ' .6 '13

We have to calculate the lagna (Ascendant) and thetenth house (MC or Medium Coeli).

Raphaells Tables of llouses give the Sayana positions.The required latitude is l60.l5'. We get the positions at 160and at l7o. The difference is one degree or sixty minutes.By the rule of three we get the positions at 160.5l'.

Latitude Sidereal Time Xth House

160. l9o.o'.50' l4o Capricorn

180.56'.51' l5o Capricom

l7o l9o.O'.5O' l4o Capricorn

180.56'.51' l50 Capricom

160. l5' l9o.O'.50' l4o Capricorn

180.56'.51' l50 Capricorn

ST noon

Before noon

Less for before noon

ST at birth

Ascendant

180.47' Aries

170.28 'Ar ies180.58' Aries

170,58 'Ar ies18".49'.25' Aries

I 70.50'. I O' Aries

Difference 4.19(259s.)

l o l o . l 9 ' . l 5 '

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136 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTInIC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

The ST at the time of birth is lgo.O'.815. Deducting180.56' .51" from this we get2l7'rs seconds.

For 259 seconds the period 79',15".

F o r 2 1 7 ' 1 5 s e c o h d s = i t i s 7 9 ' . 1 3 " x 2 1 7 . 1 5 s + 2 S g =L o . 6 ' , . 2 4 ' , . 6 5 . A d d t h i s t o 1 7 c , . 5 0 ' . 1 o " . T h e n w e g e t18o.56'.54'65 Sayana Mesha (Aries) as the Lagna. Deduct-ing the Ayanamsa 220.44 ' .42 '8 r f rom th is we ge t250.51'.51"'82 of Nirayana Mina (Pisces) as Lagna.

The ayanamsa adopted for January 22, l92O is basedon Lahiri's value with minor corrections.

The MC is one degree or sixty minutes for 259 seconds.For 217'rs seconds we get 5O'.18' . Thus the MC at bir th was15o.5O'.18" in Sayana Makara. Deducting the ayanamsa weget 210.5'.55" Nirayana Dhanush (Sagittarius) as the MC.

We have next to derive the other houses. Take thedistance from MC to the ascendant. Here it is 940.46'.17".Divide this by three. The product is 51o.55'.25.67. Add thisto the MC to get the eleventh house; and add the same tothe degree of the eleventh house to get the twelfth house.Thus

Dhanush

Distance

Makara

21o.5' .35' ,

* 51o.35' .25' '67

XI tlouse 22o.41' , .0 ' , .67

* 51o.35'.25.o2

XII House Kumbha 240.16"26vsa

The second house is sixty degrees away from thetwelfth, and the third is l2O degrees away from the elev-enth. Adding lSOo to each we get the degree positions ofthe opposite houses. Then we have:

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CASTINA A CNART EPTTEMERIS METTTOD .' I ' 737

ri l-agna Mina lF' 7th tlouse Kanya J

X Dhanush]IV Mithuna I

XI Makara , IV Karka tIII Vrishabha IIX Vrishchika I

Xl l Kumbha lV I S i m h a

l , , lII Mesha I

! , , . V l l l Tu la J . , , . , , , . . . . !

I r i . i j a :

250.5l',.52'

t21" .5, .55; ' ' ! : . ; i ' : : 1 '

r , i r I { l

220 .4L ' , . 1 "

240.16',.26',

Dach house (Bhava) from the tenth to the lagna has aduration of 510.55'.26". Take half of it and add it to thelongitudes of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth houses. Theresult is the ending degrees of those houses. Deduct thisamount from thirty degrees, and add it to the degrees oflagna, second, and third houses. The result is the end ofthose houses.

MC Dhanush ,

End of tenth Bhava

XI Makara

Dnd of Xl tlouse

)(II Kumbha

End of XII House

21o.5"35',

+15o.47' .43"

60.55' .18" Malora

220.4 | ' , .L "

+15o.47' .43"

8o.28' .44 Kumbha

240.L6' .27"

+15o.47' .43'

l0o.4' . lO' Mina

Deducting 150.47'.45" from thirty degrees we get

l4o.l2' .17'. We add this to the next three houses to get the

ending of those houses.

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138 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIFIC ruNDU ASTROLOOY

Lagna Mina

Dnd of the first house

II Mesha

End of II house

III llosue Vrishabha

250.51'.52',

+ l40 . l2 ' .17 '

lOo.4' .9" Mesha

240.t6' .27' ,

+ 1 4 . 1 2 . 1 7

4.24.44 Vrishabha

220 .41 "1 '

+14 .12 .17

6.55.18 Mithuna

lBO degrees away from these will give the ending posi-tions of those houses. By this way we can find out whethera planet is in the concerned Bhava or not. A planet may bein the twelfth house Kumbha; but he can get into the elev-enth. Still the planet's relation with Kumbha is not lost.Likewise a planet may be in Tula, but in bhava he may getinto the previous sign. For example, Kuja in the eighth Tulamay get into the seventh Bhava. But he does not comeunder the operation of Kanya. He is in the seventh Bhavawhich also falls in Tula. It is thus we have to interpret theplanetary positions.

The distinction between a sign (Rasi) and a house(Bhava) is an ancient one. But it is likely that the great?arasara laid down the principles of interpretation by ac-cepting no such distinction. Sripati gives us a method ofhouse division and Mantreshwara wants the house positionto be considered. The astrologers who have learnt easierways of erecting the map of the heavens have foundRaphael's Tables of lTouses to be handy; and they havecome to accept blindly the house division advocated byRaphael. It is, therefor€, necessary to examine the differentsystems of house division in vogue.

The text of Parasara appears to accept the Equal HouseSystem. It is the most ancient method and also the simplestone. It embodies a profound symbolism. Alan Leo rejectedit as "rough and ready". Carter and llone aPpear to acceptit only in psychological astrology.

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CASTINO A CNART EPT{EMEBIS METTTOD 139

According to this system the twelve houses are of equalextent. Here Aries, Taurus and the rest are called signs;and l,agnas and others are described as houses. Thesehouses carry with them the essential significance Of thesigns. Thus if the Lagna in Kanya (Virgo), it does revealsome of the basic characteristics of Mesha (Aries). ThenThula (Libra) embodies some features of Vrishabha (Tau-rus) and so on.

The I st house in this system begins at the degree of thesign ascending and it extends to 5O degrees. That is, eachhouse begins at the degree at which the l-.agna begins. Thusin Chart No. I Jupiter will be in the 4th house, Saturn in the

Lagna25-51

Kethu28-30

I

CHARTNo. I

,upiter (R21 -s8

Moon1 9-45

Sun 8-1(

Sat. (R)18-8

Merc28-38M.C.21 .6

V€nus28-30

Rahu28-30

Mars 3-26

5th, Mars in the 7th, the Sun and the Moon in the lOth. Themeridian (the lOth house) is in Sagittarius 21o 4. flere oneis not required to give the degree of each house. The centreof the house is 15 degrees away from the beginning. TheM.C. is not necessarily identical with the lOth; but it is animportant sensitive point onlY.

The others are the quadrant systems. The different waysof marking the ecliptic determine the differences betweenthe ways of marking the three houses in each quadrant. Themain quadrant systems are those of @panu" (w!o died in1297), who died in 14761, and Placidus._.( *@i rs tM?iiiEE tt'E?G T : :. :TG "sy3tffiuelieve tha! "the primary circle to which house-

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140 TDff BOOK OF SCTENTIFIC TTINDU ASTROLOOY

boundaries should be perpendicular must be the line thatruns east and west from our place on earth, the primevertical". The house cusps are found trigonometricallywhen we ascertain the degrees of the ecliptic "cut by thesix great circles of position passing through the pointsof division of the prime vertical and the north andsouth points of horizon". The prime vertical is dividedinto twelve equal parts by Campanus. This is claimed tobe most mathematical. Foll@TFis system, we get thefollowing cusps. Here the is--llgrjreaule

edStffi-ffiIiZ6fr', is the first point of the manifestation of theindividual.

.*J. ,^. ,A_In the m o f

rated the method of Sripati/ The distance between thenffided by three, and the prod-uct as added to the MC to get the cusp of the I lth; andthen to'-the I lth to obtain the 12th. The distance be-tween the ascendant and the cusp of the 4th is againsimilarly treated. Thus in the example we get 22o 36' as thecusps of the 5rd and the I lth, and 24o I l' as the cusps ofthe 2nd and the l2th in our example. Sllsglle-9ggp--al9treated as centre points, in our example Mars gets into the

the house division

find

accoidifrEE-Ftaciaus, rrti" i" itmarvstern Placidus di-viaes time. Here the asc6Eant andREie trea6Zi ad the- -cusDs ot the ascendant is at the very

ning of Aries, it will be the MC six sidereal hours later.This corresponds to one quadrant of the chart. But if we

take the zero degree of Gemini to be rising at London, this

takes as many as eight hours to go through the diurnal

semi-arc. This degree becomes MC after seven hours and

5l minutes. Placidus then bases his system on the "artifi-

.iuffy equalis uatamounts ot ume-.*-.. \

cusp as the centre. -[n [hat case, the Lagna also mustr65Fsent ttrE*EE-ntre of the lst house.-fffi7-toqiAla ciing ar orrtf,n-tne

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CASTTNO A CTTABT EPNEMDRTS METTTOD 141

flere the time taken for each degree of the ecliptic torise from lower meridian to horizon and from horizon toupper meridian are trisected. But in latitudes 670 andabove, there will be many degrees which do not havedirunal and nocturnal arcs. lf the semi-arcs for trisecting areabsent, the basic requirement disappears. Then some de-grees can never form cusps. At times, some signs do nothave any house falling therein. In our example chart theI lth, l2th, 2nd and 5rd houses will have l7o Capricorn,190 Aquarius, 29o Aries, and 260 Taurus.

This svstem is not at all qeometrical. lt does not dividethe entire cel€stial sphere into areas by lines meeting at anytwo opposite points. The others are geometrical and they"divide the whole sphere into areas bounded by lines per-pendicular to, and meeting at the poles of one primarycircle."

The m of Regiomontanus divides the celestialequator into_!cuspS by finding out trigonometrically the degree of theecliptic "cut by the six g-ieat-eifeles-pasSin! fhroush th-dS-epdfrfiS of division of the equator; and the north and southpoints of horizon". All the cusps are made points on linesperpendicular to the prime vertical. Regiomontanus spacesthese lines unequally in order to divide the equator equally.For our example chart, the I lth, l2th,2nd and 5rd housecusps are l60 Capricorn, l80 Aquarius, zero degree Taurusand 27o Taurus.

Colin Evans propounded the natural graduation systemwhich is a variation of that of Porphyry. llere the chart isdivided into twenty-four half-houses. These are assumed tobe "gradually and continually increasing, as measured indegrees of the zodiac, in both directions, from a minimumof a quadrant holding less than 9Oo of the zodiac, to amaximum at the middle of each neighbouring quadrant,which holds more than 9Oo ". Applying this to our example,we have the I lth, l2th, 2nd and 5rd houses as 22o Capri'corn, 25o Aquarius, 25o,Aries and 22o Taurus.

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142 TEXT BOOI( Of SCTENTInIC ilNDU ASTBOLOOY

At places on the equator, there will be no difference inthe house cusps given by the systems of Placidus,Regiomontanus, and Campanus; and there will be relativelylittle difference between those given by Equal House Sys-tem, Sripati-Porphyry, and natural graduation. The differ-ences arise only at other latitudes.

The cusp is the ning of the house in the EqualHouse System, and in systems o-f-TlaciduE-and

tanus But thecusps are in actual practice treated as the centres

of the houses concerned. It is the ancient tlindu methoC totr"rt th. .r""rl d. . Ong fater -OiOSripati make the cusp the centre of the house.

qben gg_Ilctdean system first came to England,Cibson in l7l I called it "the doctrine of Ptolemy nicelyPlacidianised"; and he stated: 'tlere is nothing but Egyptianabsoluteness and the power of monkish infallibility, zeal'ously uryed in Billingsgate rhetoric, all of which I could notread without just abhorrence and detestation." And yet R.C.Smith (Raphael) chose this system in l82l when he calcu-lateo ttfltautes. since then Raphael's Tables of lrousespopularised the Placidean

Of these systems, which is the most important one? Theecliptic is the circle of the apparent path of the Sun as seenfrom the earth; and the planets lie in the plane of theecliptic. lf we think that the ecliptic is important, then thehouses are a secondary division analogous to the signs. Thehouses are then superimposed on the ecliptic.

The other altemative is to pay greater attention to thetwelve mundane houses which are arrived at by the differ-ent systems of house division. If this view is important,then as Dane Rudhyar noted, there will be houses havingmore degrees, and others where the degrees are "spreadout".

In the far northem countries all these systems revealtheir futility. Those bom during the day in a sign of long

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CASTINO A CIIART: EPIIEMERIS METflOD 743

asCension, will have nearly l8O degrees spread out in thelast three houses. Then the first three houses and thoseopposite to them will have a degree or two each. It is alsoremarked that "at the arctic circle (lat. 66t/zo) there is amoment each day when the ecliptic lies exactly on thehorizon, all degrees then rising simultaneously". In placesfurther north some signs are always above the horizon, sothat the other signs can never become the ascendant.Sometimes the signs here rise in reverse order. This again isunhappy to the quadrant systems of house division.

The best way to ascertain the truth of any system ofhouse division, is by comparing the results. The tableshows the different houses in which the planets will be asper the different systems of house division. Mars, Venusand Mercury are not affected; but the rest are affected. Whatdoes this reveal?

Jup. Sat. Mars

Equa lHouse 4 5 7

Campanus 5 6 7

Sripati and Porphyry 5 6 7

Placidus 5 5 7

Regiomontanus 5 6 7

Col inEvans 5 6 7

Venus Merc. Sun Moon9 l o l o l oI l o l l l l9 l o l l l l9 l o l o l l9 l o l o l l9 l o l l l l

If Jupiter were in the 5th house, he cannot do goodto that house. There is the maxim, Ku*ko bhuru ,u"uvu.The indicator of that bhava witt s[6it- itEe wer- inthat. Now Jupiter as the indicator of children has not inactuality spoilt the Sth house, Saturn has not really madehim free from worries or free from foes and wrong-doers.lle appears to give the results of the position in the 5thonly. The Sun took him to the academic life in conjunctionwith Mercury. lt is the lOth house Sun operating in hiscareer.

Let us look more closely at the cuspal degrees. By wayof example, we will pursue the degree of the 6th house. Thefollowing degrees we got:

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144 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIqIC TTINDU ASTROLOOY

Equal flosue System

Campanus

Regiomontanus

Sripati-Porphyry' :

i ' '

Placidus

C,olin Evans

; . ; i , ' Leo259 48 ' . . , ' " ' :' ;

r r : t L e O l . 6 0 , l . . r i - i

Leo l8o i

' ;Leo 24o ll '

Leo l9o j r, . , . L e O 2 5 o " , , . , i ; : . i i , , i r , .

[,Ve have said earlier that Parasara accepts the egualhouse system when he lays down principles of prognostica-tion. But in the third chapter of the Purva Khanda of theBrihat Parasara llora Sastra we actually have the method ofSripati briefly outlined. In the l4th chapter when he speaksof the things to be divined from the twelve houses, he doesnot use the word bhava. On the other hand he uses theword sthana which means place, location; and it refers tothe numerical count from the ascendant. He identifies thesthana with bhava.

I W" find that the equal house system does work satisfac-

I torily in connection with Lhe native's relation to the world

I around. But Sripati method works well in all other aspects.

I nat ional and internat ional developments can be betterI studied in the light of the equal house system.-.

Moreover, the system of house division is not somethinglaid down by a theory of space or of time. lt has to bederived from the moment of time and from the distance,between the zenith and the horizon. It becomes authorita-tive as and when it agrees with facts. ,!

. , Some astrological authors and many astrologers make asharp distinction between bhava (house) and Rasi (sign)and they argue that predictions are to be basecl on thebhava position of planets. A planet like Kuja (Mars) may beat the beginning of the eighth sign Tula (Libra) and be in the

'seventh house as per these savants. Even if we grant their

contention, it should not be forgotten that this so-calledseventh bhava does cover a part of Tula where the planet issituated. This is of vital importanee even for such a theoryas theirs. _:i ;

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CASTINO A CllAfrT: EPflEMERIS METIIOD l *5

: [n Indian astrology elaborate calculations ar€ pre-scribed to arrive at the bhava positions.The authoritiesgiving these rules include Sripati, Kesava and Divakara.This theory asks us to take the distance between thetenth house cusp and the ascendant and trisect it. Addingthis to the tenth cusp we get the cuspal degree of theelevenlh and the third house. Adding the same to the elev-enth house cusp, we get the cusps of the twelfth and sec-Ond houses. This system was advocated in the west byPorphyry also.

A variety of methods of house division is ivailable.Placidus on whose svstem was based Raphael's tables offlouses, the pr inciple of to trisect. But inlaEililoes ffi6o.J5'man he

are clrcum and hence thev never touch thehffin. These will have diurnal anc nociuriElffiffi]nd@es can never form house cusps and the planets Inthose degrees cannot be charted. This would falsify thetwelve-fold division of the Zodiac and thus the Karakatvasof some houses have to be ignoreA. Bnparyg_gndRegiomontanus followed the space system. Evans advo-

cases some srgns g€f1-iileEpGA

Let us be clear about the meaning of a cusp. Somebelive that the degree ascending or the cuspal degree is themiddle point, while others take it to b.e the first point.

The degree ascending at the moment of birth cannot bethe midpoint. If it is the midpoint, the lagna will coverroughly fifteen degrees before and after it. This makes themoment of birth, which is the beginning point of our life,meaningless. No one can say that when I was born my lifebegan nearly one hour earlier. When I was born, at elevenin the morning, it does not mean ten or twelve but onlyeleven. To say that the previous fifteen degrees also influ-ence the life is meaningless. My life is influenced by all the560 degrees and by my past karma. I began my'indepen-dent, existence at the precise morpent when my umbilicalchord was cut. Thus if at the moment of my birth the tenth

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'irij{l

146 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC TTINDU ASTROLOOY

degrees of Mesha is ascending, the second house begins atthe tenth degree of Taurus (Vrishabha) and so on for theother houses. A planet 90.59' or earlier in a sign gets actu-ally into the previous bhava. This view rs [hefrarlitionaltndian view. Jaimini's methoO hffioTtravas other than the

tth_qDlAya". When we consider gochara (transit) influences,we start with the Moon sign, not with the bhava. Even if theMoon were on the last degrees of a sign the moment Saturnenters the previous sign we speak of sade-sati and at timesdo experience the results. In horary (Prashna) astrologythere are no bhavas so calMeantardasas in a major we do not go by bhavations./ lt ore to revert to the traditional

"and ancient equal

The cuspal degrees we get as per Sripati's method aresensitive points dealing with the relation of the significationof the house concerned with our environment or society.This too has only a limited meaning. These sensitive pointscan stimulate a planet's influence in dasa and antardasaand/or in gochara only.

Some astrologers and students of astrology are foundInsisting on the interpretation of a chart according to thepositions of the bodies in bhavas (house). They draw asharp distinction between Rasi (sign position) and bhava.When ?arasara used the word "bhavanam", they interpret itas bhava. The word actually means a place of residenceonly, from the root " bhu-bhal' meaning "to be". Theirarguments do not appear to be tenable.

rising at birth as the mi9po!4gl e house. This implies thatearlier to time of birth is the

starting pont of one's life on our planet, the Earth. To saythat the lagna started nearly fifteen degrees earlier is tolmply that the birth started roughly one hour earlier than theactual birth. This is an absurdity of the highest degree. Themoment of birth being the cutting of the umbilical chord,the native is an independent being only from that moment.'From the degree then rising the first house extends upto

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USTINO A CTIABT EPTTEMERTS METNOD 147

thirty degrees. This is the equal house division of the Zodiacand of the natal chart. The socalled cusp of the I Oth houseis only a sensitive point.

The ancient Indian astrologers followed a scientific wayof looking at things. They did not distinguish a Rasi from aBhava. In the calculation of the bindus for ashtaka varga, itis no where we should fi positions in

overzealous and argueth?t-bnly bhava positions have to be taken up forashtakavarga. They have no authority to lay down such arule which runs counter to the standard texts. The systembeing peculiar to Indian astrologr alone, we examined theauthorities and find no support for the theory of the^semodems.

In Cochara (transit influences) we are no where asked tofollo siand Bhava will have to predict a ten year sade'sati, twoyears and a half being added by their pet theory.

Jaimini's m o f identifies Rasi with bhava.Jaimini's is scientific and traditthe arudha we follow the Rasi onlV.

lan s

the Rasl nositions.

in the cases of thosenorthern latitudes. At a latitude 69120 tkle is

lies exactly on the

@ all degees.then rising simul-taneously. In placesT-urt-her north some signs are always above the horizon, sothat the other signs can never become the ascendant'Sometimes the signs here may rise in the reverse order aswell. These difficulties do not arise in the equal housesvstem.

In the al house divisionsthe of the ascendant. Tnere---

These yogas have to be applied, and can be applied only, to

Anv svstem of house-dfuislons other than the equal

bom in

fore at a distance of se, and so on.

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148 TEXT BOOT( Of SCTENTTFIC ITINDU ASTBOLOOY

Carter remarked wisely about this sytem: "this ancient andsimple method of house division, fallen into disuse duringthe would-be "scientific" age, when mathematical consider-ations outweighed the much more profound symbolism ofastrolog;r, has of late years had a strong revival in Britainand is now being accorded some attention in the Continentof Europe. Without totally rejecting the significance of thePlacidean cusps, I must state that only by using egualhouses for natal work will the student be able to do justiceto himself and his art". Wise words, indeed; This is theancient and well proved method. It avoids the notoriousconcept of the intercepted houses. fhS deqree of the M-CsJlpelic and it refels to the native.'g worldly ambitions andexperiences.

.;,i That the sign (Rasi) is different from the house (Bhava)is a widely accepted matter. For some it is a fact, and for afew it is a fiction. Some astrologers draw the Bhava chartalong with the Rasi chart. In support of this they quote thefifteenth chapter of Mantreshwara and they ask us to baseour predictions on the Bhava or Chalit Kundali. They aresupported by the opening chapters of Parasara lIora. A'careful examination of the now available text of Parasarawill clearly show for a research-oriented mind that these'chapters are later additions and interpolations. The repeti-tion of some topic in the Uttara-Ifhanda shows that the,present text was badly tampered with. :I One of the beauties of the ancient works on Astrolog;l is'that these offer a list of synonyms for the planets and for the'houses

of the natal chart. We are now using the word'house, for the sake of convenience, to mean the first,'second, third signs as identical with hbuse. Early in theBrihajjataka the great Varahamihira used the word

'''"bhavanam" for the "l-agna Rasi".,This word comes from:the root (dhatu) "bhu", to be, to exlst. "Bhavana" means ahouse, an abode, a dwelling. The zodiacal signs are of

--eeual length at the equator, and are so symbolically any-. where. The question of the signs of long or short ascension.is a myth incorporated into the purely Indian" (Nirayana)

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USTINO A CIIART EPITEMERTS METTTOD 149

system of Astrologgr. Our tradition asks us to calculate theLagna, etc., on the Sayana basis and reduce itto Nirayana.Each sign has thirty degrees. The words Rasi and Bhava aresynonymous. C-onsider the chapters on yogas in our classi-cal texts. These always refer to sign positions. In support ofthe erroneous view of Bhava as different from Rasi, we areshown one verse from Varahamihira. This verse is an inter-polation. A planet like Jupiter may be in the first degree ofCancer and Moon at the 28th degree of the same sign. Stillit is a yoga. The Bhava-zealous should deny the yoga here.

Countinq the Arudha is from sign to siqn, as clearlys tated--qy1 a f m fn i-' Ya va d i s a s ra ya m. . . ". Ilis n!* f rslq-B h avat6-BhEVa. Throuqhout Jaimini Rasi and Bhava mean thesame.

In the calculation of As we have to take thealone; Fse are the same Bhava posi-

A few are advocating the bhava positions for thepreparatlon of Ashtakavarga charts. This is wrong. As asaying in one of our languages goes, "flere is a little ofl{alidasa's poetry combined with my biliousness."

The influence of planets in transit (gochara) have noth-ing to do with the alleged Bhava chart. If the Moon in a chartis Capricorn 28o, the bhava zealots should say that sade-sali should operate only when Saturn is on l5o or 2Bo ofSagittarius. This, as far as we know, has not been followedby these astrologers.

While cal . otherforms qf_longgylly--Pafasgra, Varah-alnihira and KalyanaVarma have not asked us to take th._g!q_u._Po9!l-ons as

O-iggln latd w'tters titte 7

Slig@troduced this unwanted distinc- Jtion for various kinds of reduction.

Rasi and Bhava mean the same. Dach Rasi is for thirty

aegr is the starting Point of

thirty degrees. Of this we will speak later.

of the planets fall on the

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1 5 0 1'EXT BOOK Of SCIENTInIC TIINDU ASTROLOOY

We now take up the planetary position. Raphael,sEphemeris for l92O gave the Sayana positions for the meannoon at Greenwich. This is 5.5O PM (lST) on that day. Thepositions are as follows

Neptune

Uranus

Saturn

Jupiter

Mars

Venus

Mercury

Rahu

Sun

Moon at 5.5O AM on Jan.22

Moon at 5.5O PM on Jan.22

Sun Capricom

Moon Capricom

Mars Libra

Mercury Sagittarius

Jupiter Cancer

Venus Scorpio

Saturn Leo

Rahu Libra

Uranus Aquarius

Neptune Cancer

R means retrogr4de.

Jan. 2l at 5.3O PDI Jan.22, at E.iO pM

100,26'Simha l0o.24'Simha290.56'Kumbha Oo.O' Mina

1O.52 Kanya 1O.52 Kanya14.49 Simha 14.41 Simha25.52Tula 26.17 Tuta

20.22 Dhanush 21 .34 Dhanush20.13 Makara ' 2 l .48 Makara

21.14.30 Vrishchika 21. I I Vrishchika

0 .9 .59 Kumbha l . l l . l 5 Kumbha

9-523A Kumbha

l5 .5 l . l l Kumbha

The Moon's position is given for twelve hours. From5.5OAM (lST) to the birth time (L1.6.24 AM) the interval isfive hours 56 minutes and 24 seconds. nor the others it is17 hours 56 minutes and 24 seconds. Apply the rule ofthree for twelve hours to the Moon, and apply the same rulefor twenty four hours to the rest. Then deduct the Ayanamsawe have followed 22o.44'.42"61. Then we get the Nirayanapositions as follows:

(Makara) 80. lO'.4"2(Makara) 19o.44'.47"2(Tula) 30.25'.38(Dhanush) 280.37'.59"(Karka) 21o.58'.25'K(Vrishchika) 28o.3O'.7'(Simha) 180.8 ' .5" R(Tula) 28o.3O'.43(Kumbha) 70.14 ' .14"(l{arka) 170.59'.49" R

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CASTINO A CTTART EPTTEMERIS METTIOD 1 5 1

In different parts of India there are different ways ofmaking the charts. The first is followed in South India. tlere

the second house from the top is Mesha (Aries). The othersigns follow in the clockwise direction.

The second is followed in Central and Northern India. Inthe top Central square the number of the lagna counted

from Mesha is placed. The other signs follow in an anti-clockwise direction.

The third is followed in Orissa and eastern parts of

12 2 3

l l

. (1 )

4

t 0 c

9 0 7 6

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152 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFTC TTINDU ASTNOLOOY

l ( - . n

i ; i l i i

India. The Central space at the top is Mesha and the signsfollow in anti-clockwise direction.

In Westem countries they draw a circle, one horizontalline and one vertical line are drawn cutting the centre. Thecentral point where the diameter cuts the circle on the leftside is the lagna and the symbol of the sign is placed here.,The other signs follow in an anti'clockwise direction.

Next we will give the method for calculating the lagnaand M.C. for those born in Southern Latitude'

A native was born on l92O.l.1O at Brisbane. The birthtime was 7.25 Ayl. The latitude is 27o.28'S and longitudewas away by ten hours and twelve minutes from Qreenwich.

In order to use the Table of lfouse prepared for theNorthem latitude to the Southern latitudes, we have to addtwelve hours to the sidereal time. Then use the Tabtes ofIlouses for the latitude of the place. The ascendant given inthe Tabtes of Ifouses becomes the seventh house, and theM.C. given therein is the fourth house. The rest follows asbefore.

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10Vargas

tT h" divisional charts play an important part in pre-r dictions. There are sixteen vargas. Generally six vargas

(Shadvargas) are considered. These are Lagna, llora,Drekkana, Navamsa, Dvadasamsa and Trimsamsa. Whenwe add Saptamsa, we get seven (Saptavargas). SometimesDasamsa, Shodashamsa, and Shashthyamsa are given,making the total of ten vargas. Others speak of sixteen(Shodasa) vargas.

l. Rasl: The lord of slgn where lagna is situated is thelord of that Rasi.

2.llorat Divide a sign into two equal parts. The first hatfof an odd sign is ruled by the Sun, and the second by theMoon. In an even sign the first is ruled by the Moon and thesecond by the Sun,

Yavaneshwara and others hold that the lord of the firsthora is the lord of that sign, and that of the second hora isthe lord of the eleventh sign from it.

5. Drekkana: Dach sign is divided into three equal partsof ten degrees each. The first decanate is ruled by the lordof that sign, the second by the lord of the fifth from it, andthe last bv the owner of the ninth from it.

Yavaneshwara and others observe that the lord of thefirst decanate is the ruler of that sign, thssecondjg._fgleEbythe owner of the twelfth srgn from it, and the lord of the

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15,4 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFTC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

eleventh from it rules the third decanate.

The drekkanas are given certain names which are selfexplanatory. The malefic drekkanas are first drekkanas ofMesha, Simha, Vrischika, Kumbha and Makara; lastdecanates of Mina, Vrischika, Simha and Tula; middledrekkanas of Karka. and Vrischika.

nora and Drekkana . ,u*rlUll/ / -

v

Varahamihira appearsnto have flouted, or at least ig-nore* ot mentioning Rahuand Ketu and elqo !y tgnoring Vimshott _r dasasyg!e!!s. Though he refers to the view of l!yu, v*",Manittha, Satyakirti. Vishnuguptqr_Aafga and others, he ap-p l , D u t

scant regard to Yavaneswara. Though he praised theYavanas in his Brihat Samhita.

M t.,.,,..-vuvaneshwara reDresents an otder In<

HI was made by Kalyanavarma, Jayadeva of

{""aatners.iffiIt- 1115i1561|{ gfa|sr: cR'l-d gtrflfr qrcxfur

we read.

Yavaneshwara repres and

d{fr-q riq"ti qwfuRtq e*crqrr

The sages have elaborately written their texts on astrol-ogl in the past rejecting these authorities ' Yaraha has writ-ten a text in brief. Varaha's text, says Kalyana Varma in thenext verse, is of no avail in interpretings rasi dasa; Yarga'Rajayoga, longevity as per the dasas. Hence the authorattempted to restate what is stil l l iving and valid in thewritings of Yavaneshwara and others. Vqha's methgd is

opposed to that of the ancient, as P'-fifteent@ntlY:

ssn-sTil{-*C}Ed\ qera imqti|{6q{drq qf,rqwr qd fqfr\qrr

It means-What the Yavanas and elders have said about

the conjunction of two planets. I will describe in detail,

na Varm

J ;,l l '-

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VAROAS 1 5 5

without having any malice or any (matsaram). By implica-tion the author accuses Varahamihira of malice towardsYavaneshwara and other older authorities. This is a reveal-ing statement. We have to explain and examine the view ofYavaneshwara rejected by Varaha mihira by his mentorSatyakirti, and by his followers. Now we consider the twovargas called Hora and Drekkana.

Each sign has two horas, each having an extent offifteen degrees. ln odd signs the first hora is ruled by theSun and the second by the Moon; and in even signs theorder is reversed. This is the view advocated byVarahamihira who rejected the views of some other'Kechit' ( l. l2). The word 'Kechit' refers to older authoritigs.Yavaneshwara held that the first hora is ruled by the lord oft Trr.eleventh siqn therefrom. Thus all the seven bodies arecapable of becoming the lords of the horas. Otherwise thesigns owned by Venus and Satum will always have thehoras ruled by the enemies of that sign, if we follow thedispensation of Satyakirti regarding friends, foes andneutrals. Yavaneshwara's theory gives the second horas ofAries, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius and Capricorn to thefoes of the owners of these signs. In the rest of the signs thes e c o n d h o r a s a r e o w n e d b y t h e n e u t r a l s . U n d e rYavaneshwara's theory of relations between planets thesecond lords of Aries, Cancer, Leo, Libra and Capricomalone will be owned by the enemies of their owners, thesigns common to both these views are Aries, Libra andCapricorn, as per the theory of Yavaneshwara. The secondparts of these signs have to be inherently weak. The viewadvocated by Varahamihira and accepted by later writerswill make the hora charts of planets and lagna weak in sofar as the signs owned by Venus and Saturn are concerned,and also in the second hora of Cemini and in the first ofVirgo. Then how can we predict about the wealth or ProPe@nas?Parasaraas6f SETfr't-erpret"sampat' from hora charts. Extensive application of the

--_---4-

oi@re we reject off hand. Even if

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156 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

Varahamihira rejected some of the views of Yavanas, heheld them in high respect and Kalyanavarma restated andrehabilitated some of their views without malice. ftence Oueregard must be shown to the views of the elders who taught

before Varahamihira.

sign, the second by the , and thethird by inth This shows that all

of any sign.excepting Cancer are ruled bythe planets friendly to the owner of the concerned sign -

friendly, as per Satyakirti's formula.

Varahamihira mentions this view (1.12) in a lighthearted way. The three drekkanas of any sign are ruledrespectively by the lords of the first, twelfth, and eleventhsigns from it. As per this view the third drekkanas of Aries,Taurus, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio and Capricom arq ruled by thefoes of the owners, as per Satyakirti. The second drekkanasof Taurus, Scorpio 'and Pisces and the third of Gemini,Cancer, Leo, Aquarius and Pisces are ruled by their neutrals(as per Satyakirti). The best is Aquarius as the first twodecanates are ruled by Satum and the last by a neutral' Theothers occupying a second place are Gemini, Cancor andL,eo, the third place goes to Pisces. The fourth place goes toAries, Virgo, Libra, Sagittarius and Capricorn. In the fifthcome Taurus and Scorpio. This holds up a flood of freshinsight. fis per Yavaneshwara's theory of planetary relationS

*tnaT-ree decanates of Taurus, Gemini, Scorpio, Aquariusand Pisces are ruled by the friends of the owners; and these Iare the best. The last of Cancer, Libra and Capricorn are Iruled by foes. The middle ones of Virgo and Sagittarius and \the last two of Aries and I'eo are ruled by their foes. This )approach may yield good results.

The benefic drekkanas are: Mesha 2, Dhanush 2,

Vrishabha 2, Kumbha 2, l ' lakara 2, Tula l, Kanya I'

Mithuna l, Dhanush 5, Kanya 5, Kumbha 5. The rest are

mixed Drekkanas.

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YAROAS 157

Ayudha Drekkanas and others are given thus:

SecondDreklrana

Mriqa, beneflc

Mriga

Pakshi

Third O=&nrstDreklrana

Mesha

Vdshabha Agni, mlxed

Mlthuna

l{arka Chatushpad

Slmha acffir"hp;\\g4ra-!4!rh/

Kanya

Tula

Agni

Ayudha

Ayudha

a

\y

vrischikaE[*p,-.,ffiDhanush Ayudha,

ChatushPad

Maltara

Kumbha

Mina

4. Fliavamsa: Dach sign is dlvided lnto nine equal parts.Each part has a duration of 5o.2O'. The beginning parts ofthese nine are- Oo.O', 3o.2O', 60.40', lOo.O', l5o.2o"160.4O',2Oo.O',25o.2O' and 260.4O'. For planets in Mesha,Simha, and Dhanush the count is from Mesha; for those lnVrishabha, l{anya and Makara we count from Makara; forthose in Mithuna, Tula and Kumbha the count is from Tula;for those in l{arka, Vrishchika, and Mina we count fromt{arka.

A planet or lagna occupying the same sign in Rasi and in

l{avamsa is said to be Varyottama. It becomes strong.

5. Dvadasamsa: A sign is divided into twelve equalparts. Each has a duration of 2o'3O'. Count in which part

lagna and the planets are located. That part is counted from

the concemed sign onlY.

Drekkana _ = \ocAyudha, mixed rrr^tir,i,

Ayudha

Sarpa

@'@

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t58 TEXT BOOI{ OF SCIENTInIC TTTNDU ASTROLOOY

6. Trimsamsa: It is one-thirtieth part of a sign. But thetexts do not give the proper division. In odd signs thedegrees are distributed in this sequence:

Kuja Oo-5o, Shani 60-lOo, Quru I lo to l80, Budha 190 to25o, and Shukra 260 to 5Oo.

In even signs these are Shukra Oo to 50, Budha 60 tol2o, Quru l5oto 2Oo, Shani 2loto 25o, and Kuja 260 to 5Oo.

In odd signs the signs occupied by Kuja, Shani, Curu,Budha and Shukra are respectively Mesha, Makara,Dhanush, Mithuna and Vrishabha.

ln even signs Shukra, Budha, Guru, Shani and Kujahave respect ively Tula, Kanya, Mina, Kumbha andVrishchika.

In female horoscopy much attention was paid to thetrlmsamsas by the authorities. If we follow the authorities,nearly seventy per cent of the women have to be pro-nounced unchaste. This is far from the truth. Hence wehave the given signs corresponding to the five trimsamsas.Even then much caution is needed.

These are the six vargas (Shadvarga).

7. Saptavarga: The sign is divided into seven equalparts. Dach has a duration of 40 17' 84/2".ln odd signs theseare ruled by the first signs beginning with the sign con-cemed. In even signs the count is from the seventh to thetwelfth house.

With this we get Seven Vargas (SaPtavarga).

The next three are Dasamsa (one'tenth), Shodasamsa(one-sixteenth), and Shasthyamsa (one-sixtieth).

8. Dasamsa: This is tenth part. Each part has a durationof three degrees. Note the part in which lagna or a planet is

situated. In odd signs count the dasamsa from that sign

itself. In even signs, the count is fiom the ninth sign from it.

9. Shodasamsa: It is the one-sixteenth part. Each part

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VAROAS 1 5 9

has a duration of 1o.52'.3O'. Note in which part lagna orplanet is situated. In chara (moveable) signs the count is

from the Mesha; in Sthira (fixed) signs count from Simha;

and in common signs, the count is from Dhanush.

lO. Shashthyamsa: This is one sixtieth part. Each part

has an equal duration of half a degree. These are:

( l ) Qhora (2) Rakshasa (5) Devabhaga (4) Kubera(5) Yaksha Valayamsa (6) Kinnara (7) Bhrasta (8) Kulaghna( 9 ) G a r a l a ( l O ) A g n i ( l l ) M a y a ( 1 2 ) P r e t a p u r i s h a(15) Apampati (14) Devagn (15) Kala (16) SarPa (17) Amri ta(18) Chandra (19) Mridu (2O) Komala (21) Padmabhanu(22) Vishnu (25) Brahma (24) Maheshwara (25) Deva

(26) Indra (27) Kalinasa (28) Kshitiswara (29) Kamalakara(5O) Gul ika (51) Mri tyukara (32) Khala (55) Devagni(54) Chora (55) Yama (56) Kantaka (37) Sudha (58) Amrita

(59) Purnachandra (4O) Vishapradigdha (41) Kulanasa

( 4 2 ) V a m s a k s h a y a ( 4 5 ) U t p a t h a k a ( 4 4 ) K a l a r u p a

(45) Soumya (46) Mridu (47) Sithala (48) Damstrakarala(49) Indumukha (50) Pravina (51) Kalagni (52) Dandayudha

(55) N i rma la (54) Sudhakara (55) Krura (56) S i ta la

(57) Sudha (58) Payodhi (59) Brahmana (60) Indu rekha'

In odd signs the sequence is as given above' In even

signs [he count is from the end.

When a planet has more than one of the same ten

vargas, a special name is given. It is as follows:

2 same vargas Par[jatamsa

5 same vargas uttamamsa (Parvatamsa)

4 same vargas CoPurnsa

5 same vargas Simhansa

6 same vargas Paravatansa

7 same vargas Paravatnsa

8 same vargas Devalokansa

9 same vargas Airavatamsa

We give the results of the sixty amsas'

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160 TEXT BOOK OT SCIENTIflC ITINDU ASTROI,OOY

Shastyamsanumberclockwisg \':,:,!'('&il-';, r,,t

l. Qhoramsa

2. Rakshasamsa

5. Devamsa

Nameof theShastyamsa

Papamsa

Papamsha

Shubhamsa

Signification

' A d h y a p a k a s t u

V e d a n a m " V e d i cp r e c e p t o r sc a u s r e v e r e n t l a lfe.ar.' Servants, Darn-ers, Tailors etc.

Those who impartsc ience o f Para /Apara v idyaspurohits etc.

Weal th mongers ,S p e c u l a t o r s / e x -perts in handl inghorsespockeys etc.

Traders o f D l -ephants /veh ic les :(Trucks); Plotters;Cheats; Diplomats;Ambassadors; stra-tegic minded.

" L i p i l e k h a n a

Tatparaha" ThoseIndulge in all sortsof writing; writerspoets, new joumal-ists; typists; stenos& clerks etc.' M a n d u r ab a n d h a k a h a "Those in professionof manufac tur ing

4. Kuberamsa

5. Yakshamsa

6. Kinnaramsa

7. Bhrastamsa Papamsa

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UABOAS 1 6 1

8. Kulaghnamsa Papamsha

9. Qaralamsa

lO. Agni Amsa

I l. Maya Amsa

12. ?retapurishaAmsa

Cots /Sofas , mat -tresses, in chargeof Stables; fallersfrom moral stan-dards etc.'

N a t a v i t aQayakaha" Actors/Artistes of stage/C inema/TV/Rad ioe tc ; Fa l len f romfami ly t rad i t ions(hence ku laghnasfrom orthodoxi.calstandard view ofthose times)."Desikaha" Thoseengaged in fo lkdances/experts inNritya Natya Kalas;Travellers/Those ingSrmnastics & mod-em dances etc.

"Yagnikam" Thosein the profession ofarranging rites/cer-emonies of t l indure l ig ion e tc . andthose engaged invarious Yagnas forthe progress andhappiness of fami-lies etc.

a t aP r a b h o d h a k a h a "Preceptors Headsand propogationistsof religion.

" D h a n a S e e l a "Those engaged in

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16.2 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC IIINDU ASTROLOOY

15. Apam Patyamsa Shubhamsa

14. Devagana Amsa(Marutyamsa)

15. Kala Amsa Papamsa

16. Sarpa Amsa(Ahi bhangaAmsa)

exretary things insome kind or other;Charitable persons;Heads of CharitableInstitutions etc.' A n g a V i k a l a h a "t landicapped per-sons; Those in pro-fess ion o f Hand i -capped Institutionsin some relation orother; Art ic les ofVeg/Non-veg aftercu t t ing /dry ing asdry glass etc.'Marut pradhana".This includes thosei n p r o f e s s i o n o fHeads of villages,towns, mun ic ipa l i -t ies , V i l lage bar -bers, v i l lage rev-enue collectors etc.

Vasanadhipa, Gam-b l e r s / B e t t e r s ;Drunkards; suddenfor tune mongers ;Race goers; Book-ies; Stock brokers;and windfal l mon-gers; al l types ofspeculators etc.

A r a m a k a r a n aUdyokta" Those en-gaged in p ro fes-s ions tha t causehappiness to gen-eral public; Owners

Shubhamsha

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UABAAS 163

17. Amriba Amsa Shubhamsha

18. Chandra Amsa

t9. Mridu Amsa

of Clubs/Entertain-ment houses; Op-eras; Theatres; Caret a k e r s a r r a n g i n gp l e a s u r e - t r i p s ;w e e k e n d r e s tspots; Hort icul tur-i s t s ; JanaSambandha Sakha." P u s h p a V i k r a y aTatparaha" Thosein product ion andtrade of flowers. ofall kinds, extractionof fragrant smellingingredients; Flowersel lers; Nurseries/Qardens and own-ers thereof; Tradersin such related ex-tracted chemicals.

"Ra ja KaryaRataha"; "Udyogi";Those in professiono f G o v e r n m e n t /publ lc sector em-ployment in differ-ent cadres; Personsin civil service.

" R a k s h a k aBhataha": SenaR a k s h a n a S a k h a ;Those in var iouscallings in militaryserv ice in lowerranks; Military; Po-l i c e a n d s u c hRakshaka establish-m e n t s

' a s N C C /

Home Guards etc.

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164 TEXT BOOT{ Of SCIENTIFIC IIINDIJ ASTBOLOOY

2O. Komala Amsa Shubhamsha

2L. ?adma Bhanu(tlerambhaAmsa)

Shubhamsa

22. La.l<shisa Amsa(Brahma Amsa)

25. Vishu Amsa(VageeshaAmsa)

"l-ata Pushpa PhalaYikrayi" /Yaidyaha"All those dealing inf ru i ts /Dry f ru i ts /Vegitables /llerbalM e d i c i n e s /Neutropathy/tlome-o p a t h y / D o c t o r s /t l a k i m s / P h a k i r s /Veg. Vendors /A l lProduction/Tradingun i ts in Food/confe ct ionary re-lated items; All phy-s ic ians o fAllopathy/Unani.

"Nritya GeetechhaKusa laha ' ThoseD r a m a / D a n c eTeachers o f a l lkinds; Artists in TV/Radio/Clubs; MusicDi rec tors ; Mus i -cians of all kinds.

Tambula ?ha laVikrayi" All those inproduction/tradingo f b e e t l e n u t s /spices; Pan Shops;M a s a l a S h o p s ;Chemicals in rela-t ion to i t ; Supariunits.

N i s h i d h aVikrayakara" Thosep r o d u c t i o n s /tradings are prohib-ited items as intoxi-cants; smugglers;blackmarketers.

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UAROAS 165

24. YlaheshwaraAmsa

Shubhamsha

25. Deva Amsa

26. Indra Amsa(Ardra Amsa)

27. lfa'linasa Amsa Papa Amsa

28. I{shitiswaraAmsa

C r a m a n a mA d h i k a r a k r u t a "Those land lo rds ,heads of v i l lages/towns; Jamindars;Elected local Admn.heads as Mun ic i -palities/Co-op bod-ies etc.

"Vandi Magadaha""Yadya Nipunaha"Those exper ts inm u s i c a n d a r t s ;Drummers; Pip€rs;C o u r t m u s i c i a n s ;Temple musicians;Routine musicians.'Deshika", "SarvaSanga Parityagee"S a i n t s / M o n k s /lleads of ReligiousI n s t i t u t i o n s , R e l i -g i o u s p r e a c h e r s ;propogationists.

"Pragraha" RamaB h a k t a h a " T h o s egreat wisemen whothrow light on eth-ics and remove sin-ful thoughts of Kalis i n s , f r o m o n e ' smind.

"Sukra karakav y a p a r e e '"Dhupaka" Dealersin all articles gov-e r n e d b y S u k r a ;Textiles; Perfumes;

Shubha Amsa

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1 6 6 TEXT BOOI( OF SCIENTIFIC I{TNDU ASTROLOOY

29. KamalakaraAmsa

Subhamsa

5O. Qulika Amsa Papa Amsa

5l . MrityukaraAmsa

Luxurious bed com-fort items; Scentecia n d d e c o r a t i v eitems; Paints; Sell-ers and producersthose engaged inthem.

"Oushadha Kriya":All those producersof medicine units/s u r g i c a l i n s t r u -ments; Pharmaceu-tical units; medicals h o p s ;Patha log ica l /Xrayu n i t s / A l l o p a t h y /H o m e o / D r u g s /H e r b s / T o n i c s /Unani etc.

" K a y a s y a k a r a n aUdyokta" Dea lersi n h o s u e h o l dgoods; Electronics;Dealers of cosmet-ics, creams pow-ders , decora tors , '" D e h a C r i h aA l a n k a r a n aU p a y u k t aSamagri" .

"Virako" Thosewho carry loads;l"abourers; Coolies;Riksha pullers Auto-van; Truck / lo1116l o a d e r s / d r i v e r s ;Coods Train dr iv-ers; Material trans-port related jeevas.

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52. lTala Amsa Papa Amsa

55. Devajna Amsa

54. Qhora Amsa Papa Amsa

55. Yama Amsa

" V a n d r a V i k r a y i "T h o s e w h o p r o -duce, trade and en-gaged in jobs in re-la t ion to po t te ry ,crockery/cutt lary/ki tchenware; c layp o t s ; p o r c e l a i nutensi ls; ceramicsetc.

"Krishi Kruth": Ag-riculturists; Cultiva-t o r s ; O w n e r s o fFarms; Land irriga-tional projects; Re-l a t i n g t o a g r i c u l -tural produce of dif-ferent kinds; Fertil-izers/land improv-ing systems/i tems;Re la t ing to Pes t i -cides to get goodcrops by protectingthe growth etc. etc.

"Vanik" Traders/ln-d u s t r i a l i s t s /E n t e r p r e n e u r s ;who lesa le t radersof al l goods pro-duced in the coun-try." D h a t u C h a r m a -k a r i " T h o s e e n -gaged in relation toP l a s t i c s m e t a l s .L e a t h e r / R u b b e rconnected goods;Shoes/Bags/ tse l ts ;Smiths of gold/si l -v e r l a l l o y s ; C a s t -ings.

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168 TEXT BOOK Of SCTENTIFIC TITNDU ASTROLOOY

56. I{antaka Amsa Papa Amsa

57. Sudha Amsa Shubha Amsa

58. Amrita Amsa

59. PurnaChandra Amsa

Shubha Amsa

40. Vishapradigdha Papa Amsa

" K a r s h a k a h a " ;Tillers of soil; per-sons deal ing withthorns; Drivers ofBull dozers/ trac-tors etc.

"Panditaha"; Ascholar; A learnedperson well versedin Shastras; Profes-s o r s / L e c t u r e r s /Acharyas/Curus indifferent fields.' V i g n a n a S a s t r aN i p u n a h a " R e -s e a r c h S c h o l a r s /Pro fessors / l nven-tors/Scien t ists/Re-search Associatesln Vignana Sastras.'Pustaka" Thoserelated to printing/p u b l i c a t i o n / d i s t r i -bu t ion / t ra in ing o fE o o k s / J o u r n a l s /Da i l ies ; Pub l ic i t y /A d v t . L i b r a r i a n setc.' R a j a k o

Washermen; Laun-dries; Printers/pro-cessors o f c lo th ;Designers; Dyers/Darners; cloth/Syn-thet ic/Wool prod-ucts related clean-ers; Traders in suchdeals etc.

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VABOAS 169

42, VamshakshayaAmsa

Subha Amsa

41. Kulanasaamsa Papa Amsa " V a n i k ' ; T h o s etravetlstay on otherplaces for trading/business purposes;( D o o r a D e s aV y a p a r a s t h u l u )Dealers of import/export goods; Trav-e l l i n g b u s i n e s s -m e n / R e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s / i n a n dabroad in journeys.

"Yeda VedangaR a h a s y a g n a h a 'P r o f e s s o r s /A c h a r y a s /S i d d h a n t i s / L i n -g u i s t s / V e d i c -people/Purohits ofh i g h e r l e v e l / A s -trologers/Qrammar-i a n s /P e e t h a d h i p a t i s -heads.

" S h a s t r a n g n a h a " :A l l S c i e n t i s t s o fscho la r ly d ispos i -t i o n ; O n e w h oknows veda/Vedanga; In suchr e l a t i o n t oAtharvana Veda-Mundane sciences.

a n d iMagadhaha" tleraldor band who sing inpraise of the kings/Receptionists/AidesengagedWIPs.

45. Utpathaka Papa Amsa

44. KalarupaAmsa Papa Amsa

w i t h

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17(J TEXT EOOK OF SCTENTIFIC TTINDU ASTROLOOY

45. Soumya Amsa Shubha Amsa "Crami yani":

46. Komala Amsa Shubha Amsa

Leaders of warriors;Heads o f Mi l i ta ryand other DefenceE s t a b l i s h m e n t s ;Army/Navy/Airforcetopbrass; Top rankdefence/police andother Estts.

" A d h i k a r i " :( M u d r a n a d h i k a r i ) ;Those IAS, ICS, IPSa n d o t h e r s e n i o rr a n k p e r s o n e l i nCovt/Civil Adminis-tration/Local bod-ies/Co-op bodies/Autonomous bod'i e s / p u b l i c s e c t o r( C o v t c o n t r o l l e dunits) etc.

"Caniko": All thosep r o f e s s o r s / r e -searchers in Math-ematics/Engg. Sci-e n c e s / A s t r o n o -mers/Stat ist ic ians/C o m p u t e r ( h a r d -warelsoftware) per-s o n n e l ; A c c o u n -tants of all cadres/F inanc ia l l leadsetc.'Danda Karaka":Those who awardpunishments; CourtHeads; Magistrates;Judges; Collectors/Po l ice Heads;

47. Sheetala Amsa Shubhamsa

48. DamstrakaraAmsa

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VAROAS 771

49. Chandramukha(lndumukhaAmsa)

Papa Amsa

50. Pravina Amsa Papa Amsa

51. Kalagni Amsa Shubha Amsa

S p e a k e r s ; H o m eMin is te r /Secre tar -ies; Special Courts/T r i b u n a l s o f a l lk inds ; Those em-powered in d isc i -plinary proceedingsetc;"Rakshasaha" Allthose conspire/c o m m i t h e n i o u sdeeds as robberyTmurders/thefts etc;A l s o H a n g m e n ;Butchers; Hunters;Those involved inPolice Dept. in ha-r a s s i n g / t o r t u r i n gt h e p e r s o n s a r -r e s t e d / c o n v i c t e detc.

" l n d h a n a h a r i "Those who are en-gaged in produc-t i o n / d i s t r i b u t i o n /t r a d i n g o f f u e l ;wood; coal; woodcutters; Dealers inpetrol/gas cylindersk e r o s i n e / e l e c t r i cligh ti ng/h eaters/fu r-naces etc.' ? h a l a m o o l a d i

Vikrayi" Those pro-ducers,/ t radres ofFru i ts/Vegeta b les/Food a n dconfectionary itemso f a l l k i n d s /

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52. DandayudhaAmsa

Papa Amsa

55. Nirmala Amsa Shubha Amsa

54. Soumya AmsaSubhakara

Subha Amsa

55. Krura Amsa Papa Amsa

Hote l ie rs /Restau-rants/Canteens etc.(more of Vegeta-tion)

"Santakrut"rHigher authori t iesof law and order inFlome/Police Estab-l ishments, mainlyconnected in poli-c ies to ensurepeace and happi-ness in society;' s w a r n a k a r i * :

Jewel lery dealers;G o l d m e r c h a n t s ;Gold miners; Coldsmiths; Gold coat-Ings ; and suchcostly metal deal-ers.

"Krishi l{rit' Thosewho cultivate lands;M i n e r s ; C o l d / a n dother r i ch meta lmines ; Those en-gaged in thesetrades.

" K s h e e r a d iVikrayi" Those inp r o d u c t i o n a n dtrading in relationto Milk, meat andsoft drinks and milkp r o d u c t s /confec t ionar ies / /Hotel iers Coffee/Tea lMi lk housesetc.

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uAnoAs 173

56. Ati Shitala Amsa Shubha Amsa 'Yajika" Thosew h o per fo rmYagnas; Priests &Yagniks of any reli-gion or tradition.

57. Amruta Amsa Shubha Amsa "Adhyapaka" thosewho preach VedaVedanga and othermundane sciences;Professors /Lectur-ers/Teachers and

, Cuides/Authors.

58. Payodhi Amsa Shubha Amsa "Adhyaksha" ln's p e c t o r s / P r e s i -dents /SuPer in ten 'dents /Ch a i rmen /Principals of Institu-tions.

59. Brahmana Amsa Papa Amsa "Prat igrah apara"Those take gifts as

P a r t o f c h a i r t Y ;(Dana Sweekaram);Beggers also.

6O. lndu Rekha Shubhamsa "?hali" Those whoAmsa trade in Pearls and

p r e c i o u s a r t i c l e sFishermen; Ownersof orchards or gar-dens.

I f . Chaturthamsa: This is the fourth part of a sign.

Dach part has a duration of 7o.5O', The lords of the fourparts are respectivelythe lords of 1,5,7, and lO from the

sign concemed.

12. Vimsarnsa: This is the twentieth part. Each part has

a duration of 1o.5O'. In a moveable sign count them from

Mesha. In a fixed sign the count is from Dhanush' In a

@mmon sign we have to count from Simha.

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174 TEXT BOOK Of SCTENTTnIC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

15. Siddhamsa or Chaturvimsamsa: This is the twentyfourth part. Each part has lo.l5'. In odd signs the count isfrom Simha, and in even signs it is from Karka in the regularorder.

l4.Bhamsa: This is the 27th part. trach part has10.6' .4O', In Aries, Leo, and Sagit tar ius the count isfrom Mesha. In Vrishabha, Kanya and Makara the count isfrom Karka. In Mithuna, Tula and Kumbha we count fromTula. In Karka, Vrishchika and Mina the count is fromMakara.

15. Khavedamsa: It is the fortieth part. Each part hasOo.45'. In odd signs the count is from Mesha. In even signscount is from Tula in regular order.

16. Aksha Vedamsa: It is the forty fifth part. Each parthas a duration of forty minutes. In moveable signs count isfrom Mesha; in fixed signs count from Simha; and in com-mon signs count from Dhanush.

These are the Shodasa (sixteen) vargas.

In addition we have Nadi Amas. These are one hundredfifty. Dach part has twelve parts. These are- (l ) Vasudha(2) Va ishnav i (5 ) Brahmi (4 ) Ka laku ta (5 ) Shankar i(6) Sudhakari (7) Sama (8) Saumya (9) Sura, (1O) Maya(l l ) Manohara (12) Madir (15) Manjusvana (14) Ghora( 1 5 ) K u m b h i n i ( 1 6 ) K u t i l a ( 1 7 ) P r a b h a ( I B ) ? a r a(19) Payaswin i (2O) Mala (21) Jagat i (22) Jar ja ra(23) Dhruva (24) Musa la (25) Mudgara (26) Pasa(27) Champaka (28) Damini (29) Mahi (5O) Kalusha(51) Kamala (32) Kanta (55) Kala (54) Karikara (55) Kshama(56) Durdhura (37) Durbhaga (58) .Visha (59) Vishirna( 4 0 ) V i k a l a ( 4 1 ) V i l a ( 4 2 ) V i b h r a m a ( 4 3 ) S u k h a d a(44) Snigdha (45) Sodari (46) Sura Sundari (47) Amrita,Plavini (48) Kahala (49) Kamdrik (5O) Kravirani (51) cohara(52) Kutt ini (55) Raudri (54) Vibha (55) Visha-nashini( 5 6 ) N a r m a d a ( 5 7 ) S h i t a l a ( 5 8 ) N i m r a ( 5 9 ) ? r i t a(5O) Priyavardhini (61) Mangani (62) Durbhaga (65) Chitra(64) Chitrini (65) Chitranjini (66) Bhupa (67) Qadahari

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VAROAS 175

(68) Nala (69) Nal ini (7O) Nirmada (71) Nadi (72) Sudha(75) Amritamsakaliha (74) ?alakshankura (75) Trailokya(76) Mohanalsari (77) Mahaduti (78) Sushitala (79) Sulrhada(8O) Suprabha (Bl) Shobha (82) Sukhada (85) Sukhona(84) Shivoda (85) Ashiva (86) Bhola (87) Jvala (88) Codha(89) Caya (9O) Nutana (91) Sumanchari (92) Somavalli(95) Somalata (94) Mangala (95) Mudrika (96) Kohudra( 9 7 ) M e l a p a g a ( 9 8 ) V i s h v a l a y a ( 9 9 ) N a v a n i t a( lOO) Nishachari (1Ol) Nivr i t t i ( lO2) Nikadha ( l05) Sasa(lO4) Sawaga (105) Sama (106) Kshama ( l07) Vishvam-bhara ( lOB) Kumar i (1O9) Kok i la ( l1O) Kuna jan ik r i t i( l I l ) Svadha ( l 12) Vah in i (115) Ja lap lava ( l 14) Varun i( 1 1 5 ) M a d i r a ( 1 1 6 ) M a i t r i ( l l 7 ) H a r u n i ( l 1 B ) H a . r i n i( l l 9 ) M a r u t ( l 2 o ) D h a n a n j a y a ( 1 2 1 ) D h a n a k a r i(122) Dhanada (125) Kachhapa (124) Kal i (125) Buja( 1 2 6 ) I s a n i ( 1 2 7 ) S a l i n i ( 1 2 7 ) R a u d r i ( 1 2 9 ) S h i v a( l5O) Sh ivakar i ( l5 l ) Ka la (152) Kunda (155) Mukunda(154) Varada (155) Bhasita (156) Kandari (157) Smasa(158) Pr i ta (159) Kok i la lapa ( l4O) Naga ( l4 l ) Kamin i(ltt2) Kalashodbhava (145) Veeraprasu (144) Sagaracha(145) Satayajha (146) Satavari (147) Sragi (148) Patal ini(149) Pankaja ( l50) Paramesvari .

In moveable signs we have to count directly from the

first. In fixed sigps the counting is from the last ( l5oth andabove). The counting is from the 76th in common signs;and the first Nadi amsa then becomes its 76th.

Parasara explains the purpose of these vargas.

l. Lagna r Ceneral well-being, nature, constitution

2. l lora: Wealth

5. Drekkana : Brothers and sisters

4. Saptamsa : Children, grandchildren

5. Nivamsa : Partner (wife or husband), profession

6. Dwadsamsa : Parents, Higher Consciousness, past andfuture lives

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176 TEXT BOOI( Of SCIENTIFIC MNDU ASTBOLOOY

7. Trimsamsa : Troubles and sorrows, Health

B. Padamsa (l/4) : Prosperity

9. Dasamsa : Profr:ssion

lO. Shodasamsa : Conveyances, happiness

I l. Vimsamsa : Religious tendencies

12. Chaturvimsamsa : Mucation, knowledge

15. Bhamsa : Strength and Weakness

14. Khavedamsa : Good and bad

15. Akshvedamsa : Cood and bad

16. Shashtyamsa : Diseases & health.

I f a p l a n e t h a s t h e s a m e n i n e a m s a s i t i sB r a h m a p a d a m s a ; i f t e n V a i s h n a v a m s a ; i f e l e v e n ,Shaivamsa; and if twelve, Vaisheshikamsa.

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I1Shadbalas

fjror the proper interpretation of a chart we must know ther relative strengths of planets and houses. Here we havetwo types of strength for a planet.

The first is the planet's positions in a given house.Though we do not accept the distinction between a sign anda house (Bhava) we give the method following the Bhavachart.

Find where a planet is in relation to a house. It has nopower at the beginning or at the end of a Bhava. Taking thisposition to give zero strength and considering the residen-tial strength of each.

In our example chart the Sun is on Bo.lO'.4' in Makara.The eleventh bhava begins at 60.55'.18". From the begin,ning the Sun has advanced by l" 16' 46. From the begin-ning to the bhava the distance is 15.47.45 for which thevalue is one unit. For the distance traversed by the Sun, theresidential strength comes to O.08. tle is weak. Similarly weget the following strengths.

Chandra 0.422

Kuja

Budha

Guru

o.47o.542o.955

Shukra

Shani

Rahu

Ketu

o.60 . 6 l

o.7o.7

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174 TEXT BOOT{ OF SCIENTInIC TTINDU ASTROLOOY

ln order of declining strength we have then Guru,Chandra, Rahu and Ketu, Shani, Shukra, Budha, Kuja, andSun. The Sun is the weakest. Kuja is nearing half a unit.

Next we should note the total of the six kinds of strength(Shadbala). These six are Sthanabala, Digbala, Kalabala,Cheshtabala, Naisargika bala and Drigbala. They have to beobtained for the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venusand Saturn.

I . S t h a n a b a l a i s m a d e u p o f u c h c h a b a l a ,Saptavargaj abala, oja-yugma (odd-even) rasi navamsa bala,Kendrabala, and Drekkana bala. A planet in exaltation de-gree has one unit of strength; and in its debilitation degreeit has nil. By rule of three calculate its strength taking thedistance it has traversed from its debilitation degree.

In Saptavargaja strength we have to take the owners ofthe planets for each planet in each of the seven vargas.Here we have to relate the naisargika (natural) relation tothe tatkalika (temporary) relation. If it is mulatrika it haq astrength of .75, in its house 0.5, in an Adhimitra house.375, in a fr iend's house .25, in a Neutral 's house .125, inan enemy's house .0625, and in an Adhishatru house. 0 5 1 2 5 .

Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Mercury and Saturn in an odd signand in an odd navamsa get .5. If it is only in Rasi or only inNavamsa, it is .25. If it is neither, it has no strength. Moonand Venus will give the same strength in even rasi and in aneven navamsa.

A planet in a Kendra gets one unit, in ?anaphara.5, andin an Apoklima .25.

Mascul ine planets (Ravi, Kuja, Curu) in the f i rstdrekkana get .25 strength. Female planets (Chandra

and Shukra) in the last drekkana, and eunuch planets(Budha and Shani) in the middle drekkana get a similar

strength.

Adding these we get the total sthanabala

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SNADBALAS 779

2. Digbala: This depends on the direction in whicha planet is placed. The lagna stands for the East, thefourth (same degree as the tenth) for the North, theSeventh (Same degree as lagna) for the West, and thetenth for the South. At the opposite (lBOo away) housesthe strength is nil.

Sun and Mars are strong in the tenth, Saturn in theseventh, Mercury and Jupiter in lagna (East), and the Moonand Venus in the fourth (North).

Calculate the strength by the rule of three.

3. Kalabala: This is made up of Natonnatabala,Pakshabala, Tribhaga bala, Varsha adhipati bala, flasabala, Varabala, Horabala, Ayanabala, and Yuddhabala.Ayanabala depends on the declination of a planet. In orderto arrive at all the six sources of strength, the reader isadvised to consult Dr. B.V. Raman's Qraha and BhavaBalas.

4. Chesta bala: The planet in retrogression hasstrength. This requires some basic knowledge of as-tronomy. Dr. B.V. Raman's book is helpful here. Thisstrength does not aPply to the Sun and the Moon.

5. Naisargika bala: This is the natural strength. It isfixed for any chart. It is as follows:

Sun

Moon

Venus

Jupiter

Mercury t 25.70

Mars z 17 .14

Saturn t 8.57

6. Drigbala: This is based on the aspects between oneplanet and the others. For calculating this, Dr. B.V. Raman'sbook is helpful.

These sources applied to our example chart give thefollowing results on the basis of Dr Kaman's book.

: 60 Shashthyamsas

: 51.45

z 42.85

t 34.28 t

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180 TEXT BOOT( OF SCIENTInIC TTINDU ASTBOLOOY

Sthana lllg Kala Cheohtha l,{alsargik Drlshtl Total

Sun 160.606 54.27 t80.587 - 60.6 - 7.bt6 4tz.z4z

lfoon 145,58 9.584 161.589 - 57 .45 + 5.97 577 .25

Mars 269.fi9 54.146 U.747 X.86t4 t7,l4 -2.28 469.9254

lfercury 220.46 50.959 182.508 1.492 2S,?0 . I1.589 449.5s

Jupiter l9l.2l5 21.257 245.228 56.028 54.28 .9.0JS 5J8.97J

Venus 174.25 7.496 61.978 26.24 42.85 +.2?9 S|S.O93

Satum 148.128 47.463 78.597 4S.078 8.S7 -7.s94 S2S.Z42

In the discending order the planets are euru, Kuja,Budha, Sun, Moon, Saturn , and Venus. These areShashthyamsas. Divide by sixty we get Rupas.

The aggregate Shadbala should not fall below the fol-Iowing Shashtyamsas:

Sun 59O, Moon 56O, Mars 5OO, Mercury 42O, Jupiter59O, Venus 55O, and Saturn 5OO.

The minimum required is as follows (in Shashtyamsas):

Sthana Dik CheshtaGuru 165 35 50Budha 165 55 50Kavi 165 55 50Shukra 155 50 50Chandra 153 50 50Kuja 96 50 40

Shani 96 50 40

For a thorough understanding of the method to calcu-late the shadbalas of planets and the strength of thehouses, the reader is requested to study Srtpail paddhati(Translated into Dnglish by V.S. Shastri).

For the calculation of the strength of the twelve Bhavaswe have to find the Bhava Dig-bala and Bhava drig-bala. Tothese should be added the strength of the lord of the con-cerned; and this was given above.

KaIa Ayana

lt2 50

ttz 50

lt2 50

loo 40loo 4067 2067 20

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STTADBAI,AS 1 8 1

tluman Rasis are Mithuna, Kanya, Kumbha, Tula andfirst half of Dhanush. Lagna bhava in these gives a strengthof one Rupa. If the seventh bhava falls in any of these, it hasno Power.

The Watery fiala) slgns are Karka, second half ofl{ral<ara, and Mina. If the fourth house falls in these, it has astrength of one Rupa. If the tenth falls in these it has nostrength.

The quadruped (Chatushpada) signs are Mesha,Vrishabha, Simha, second half of Dhanush, and the firsthalf of Makara. When the tenth falls in these, it has astrength of one Rupa. The fourth house falling these has no

Power.

Insect (Kita) sign is Vrlshchlka. lt has strength of oneRupa, if it is the seventh. As lagna it has no*Bhava dig'bala.

To measure the quantum of good and bad results of aparticular mqior period, we have to calculate the Ishta and

kashta phala. Here we have to find the Cheshta bala and

uchcha bala of each Planet.

The Sun and Moon have no Cheshta Bala. Yet for thepurposes of lshta and kashta phalas of these two, there is a

. method. Add ninety degrees to the Sayana longitude of theSun. If it exceeds 18O degrees, subtract it from 5600. Thendivide it by three.

In our example the Sayana longitude of the Sun is 5OOo.

54' . 57'. Adding 9Oo we get 59Oo. 54' . 47". It is more than5600. Deducting this we get 5Oo. 54" 47'. Dividing it by

three we get lO.5 Shashtyamsas as the Cheshtabala of the

Sun.

Deduct the longitude of the Sun from that of the Moon

to get the Cheshta kendra of the Moon. If it is more than

l8Oo, deduct it from the 5600. In our example we have

Moon's Long.

Sun's Long.

289c,. 44'. 47',

-2780. lO ' , . 4 "

Lto. 54',. 45',

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142 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC TIINDU AST'ROLOOY

In decimals it is 1lo. 5786. Dividing it by three weget 5.8595 Shashtyamsas as the Cheshta Bala of theMoon.

The Sun was on 2780. lO' .4, which in decimals is2780. 1677. The deb i l i ta t ion is on l90o. The Sunhas moved away from it by 8Bo.1677. Dividing it by three,we have 29.39 Shashtyamsas as the uchcha bala of theSun.

The Moon's debilitation is on 2l1o. The Moon in ourexample is on 2890.7464. I t is 760. 2464. Dividing i t bythree we have 25.5a Shashtyamsas as the uchcha bala ofthe Moon.

Multiply the Uchcha bala of a planet by its Cheshta bala.Then take the square root of the product. lt gives theIshtaphala of a planet.

Deduct the Uchcha bala from sixty, and also theCheshta bala from sixty. Multiply the two and take thesquare root of the product. This gives the Kashta phala of aplanet.

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I2Some Problems

l .7,odlac

The Zodiac is arbitrarily, but for the sake of conve-nience, divided into twelve segments called signs or Rasi.Dach sign is said to extend upto thirty degrees. But scientifi-cally the duration of a sign is variable, as it depends on thela t i tude concerned. These dura t ions are g iven asCharakhandas which divided by six give the duration of thesigns in Vighatikas. Thus on the equator the charakhandasare 1674 for Aries, Virgo, Libra and Pisces; 1795 for Tau-rus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius; and l95l for the remainingsigns. In Vighatikas these are respectively 279, 299rrc and52lsto. Converted into hours, minutes and seconds theseare l. 51. 56, l. 59. 40 and 2. A. 44 respectively. Convert-ing these into degrees we get 27o 54' , 29o 55' and 32o I l' .Thus even at the equator the.signs are not of the sameextent. This is evident from the division of the signs intothose of short ascension, and those of long ascension.

The Charakhandas refer to the duration of the signs asper the moving Zodiac. The planets apPear on the equatorto be covering the so called thirty degrees of Aries, Pisces,Virgo and Libra as if these signs have only 27o 54' each.One has to be careful in using the term accelerated motionwith regard to planet's movement in these signs.

As we move towards the northern latitudes the durationof the signs of short ascension gradually decreases, while

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1U TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTInIC ITINDIJ ASTBOLOOY

that of the others increases. Thus at 29o N the duration ofthe signs form Aries onwards will be 2lo lb', 24o 36', Zgo58', 34o 24', 55o l4', and S4o SS respectively for the firstsix signs.

At about 160 20' North latitude the duration will be 24o25',27o 8' , 5Oo 59' . SSo 2S', SZo 42' and SIo ZS,for thefirst signs. This raises an interesting question. If we setaside the convenient thirty degree measure for each sign,only for a speculative purpose, the following starting pointsin the sequence from Mesha onwards :

oo o" 240 25" 51o 33" 820 32" 1 150 55" t4go 37"1800 0" 2l to 25" 2440 5" 2770 2g" 30go 27'and 555055'. Converting t?rese into the nirayana or fixed zodiac, weget the following starting degrees of the twelve signs on thislattitude :

ooo ' ,260 lg " 56050, ,990 56 ' ,1220 56 ' ,1540 6" lg50lA' ,2l7o 56' ,2510 O',2820 48' , StOo 48, and SSbo 42' .

We consider the latitude and longitude for fixing thedegree rising at birth. Should we not take the strartingpoints of the signs at a given latitude for placing the degreesof the planets also ? It is for the scholars to investigate anddecide.

Coming to the mean positions of the stars for tgg8 asgiven in lahiri's Indian Ephemeris (p. 4l) we find the foilow-ing anomalous situations.

Purvashada 25Oo 45' 25". As per the thirty degreemethod, Mula extends upto 2530 2O'. Uttarashadha isplaced at 2580 3l' 41", and for Vimshottari we takeUttarashadha only from 2660 4O'. flow can we reconcilethese positions with our arbitrary segments of the zodiacinto signs, and into constellations. At 160 20'. North latitudeSagittarius begins at 25Io O' O". Then Lahiri's placement ofPurvashadha may be accommodated, not his uttarashadha.Speculation on this basis seems to open Pandora's box. Butit is worth investigating.

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SOME PROBLEMS 1 8 5

Then again the distribution of the ownership of signs isapparently based on the distance of a planet. Upto Aries weget Mars. Between Mars and Jupiter was a planet which wasbroken up into asteroids. The missing or dissolved planetmight have been the owner of Pisces. Then Jupiter will haveto own Aquarius. In actual experience we have found Jupi-ter giving better results in Aquarius than in Pisces. Thisagain is a problem to be investigated.

(ii) Extension of Constellations

The twenty-seven constellations starting from Aswini areevenly distributed over the zodiacal belt. Each constellationls said to extend upto l3o 20'at a uniform rate. This isagross (sthula) or general estimate as stated by our ancients.They have given the subtle (sukshma) or real extension foreach constellation.

The constellations are divided into

7nthabhoga and ekabhoga stars. The first have longer arcs,

I ttre tasFtrave equal extension, and the second have smaller

I arcs. The effects of these are explained specially in thecontext of an enquiry into atgha. In the Spashtadhikara(Slokas 7 | to 75) of his Siddhanta SiromaniBhaskara statesthat according to the seers like Vasishtha, the subtle exten-sions are relevant in connection with marriages, pilgrimag-es, travels and the like.

R o h i n i , P u n a r v a s u , V i s h a k h a , U t t a r a s h a d h a ,Uttaraphalguniand Uttarabhadrahave each an extension of1 9 0 4 5 ' 5 2 " ,

\ Bharan i , Ardra , Ash lesha, Jyeshta , Swat i andSatabhisha have each an extent of 60 55' L7" only.

@nnl4"maining constellations have each an arc of 15olO' 35". Abhijit is spread over the remaining space.

tile tabulate these as follows :

The ending points from Nirayana Aries are given foreach constellation.

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186 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTInIC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

I

( 2

5

./4

5

,,6

./7

8

i 9

l ot l

42 Uttaraphalgunil- ./r2 utlara

i\S!'ri'r5 trastaChitra

Swati ''

Vishakha i

Anuradha. i

Jyeshta ) .

Moo la ;

AswiniP. (">{ r ,?, ,Bharani "-1

Krittika o I

Rohini o i

Mrigasira I

Ardra ajPunarvasu IPushyamirl iAshlesha

-' -- t-)

Magha ) |

Poorvaphalguni

Poorvashadha D

Uttarashadha

Abhuit ".

*YSravana J

Dhanishta J

Shatabhisha) -

?oorvabhadra Q

Uttarabhadra

Revati C

I)

1 5 0 l o '

190 45',

320 56'

520 42',

650 52',

720 28'

920 t4',

IO50 24'

l l l o 5 9 '

1250 1o ' ,

lSBo 2 t '

1580 06 '

l T t o t 7 '

1840 28',

l g l o 0 5 '

2loo 49'

2250 59'

2500 55'

2450 45'

2560 56',

2760 42' ,

2800 56'

2940 07',

5o-70 17'

5150 52'

3270 03'

3460 49'

5600 00'

34".A9

52" .33s

27" .225

1 9 " . 5 6

54" .45

I l " . 8 9 5

04" .23

39" t2

56" .565

3t " .45s

06" .345

58" .68

53" .57

08" .46

25" .905

18" .24

5 3 " . 1 3

LO" .575

45" .465

20" .33s

t 2 " . 6 9

50" .66

05" .55

40" .44

59" .885

52" .775

2 5 " . l I

oo" .oo

l 4

. . 1 5'i

---t-.....--116

t 7

I l B

l 9

20- / / 21

22

23

24-25

26' .227

2A

As a result of the sukshma or real extent of the constel'

lations, the beginnings of the nirayana signs of the zodiac

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SOME PBOBLEMS 187

will be as follows:

BeginningAries Oo O' O'Taurus 25o 3' 5l '. 0575

Gemini 59o 17 '57" . OO5

Cancer 87o 17 '36 ' .14625

Leo I I lo 59' 56". 565

Viryo l45o 17 ' 34 ' .42875

Libra l77o 52 ' 5 l ' . Ol5

Scorpio 2O5o 52'5O". 15625

Sagittarius 25Oo 55' 10". 575

Capricom 261052' 4a'.43A75

Aquarius SOOo 42' 22'.995

Pisces 3230 45' 54'. 0525

Duration230 1 ' , 51 " . 0575560 14' 5 ' .9475270 59' 59" t4125240 42 '20 ' . 4 tA753lo t7 ' 37" 86375340 55' 16 ' , .58625

270 59', 59',. t41252 4 0 4 2 ' 2 0 ' , . 4 t 8 7 5

' t o t 7 ' 3 7 ' , . 8 6 5 7 s380 49' 54'.556252 3 0 3 ' 5 1 " . 0 5 7 5 .

360 14 '25 ' , . 9475

These tables can explain why on some days our Ephem-eris shows that the duration of a constellation varies be-tween eleven and fifteen days. Special research has to beundertaken on these lines. Then we may be able to findsome justification for some of the yogas and other consteFlations given by our authorities.

(iii) Rising Sign

Many times earnest students of astrology ask bafflingquestions which involve theoretical problems of great im-portance. We propose to articulate these problems andoffer a few suggestions. These may be verified by the stu-dents of astrology.

The first problem is about the degree of the sign risingon the horizon at the moment of birth. Is this the initialpoint or middle point of the Lagna? When we go aboutfixing the lOth house cusp according to Sripathi and others,we are clearly told that it is the middle point of the lothhouse. Then the cuspal degrees of the various houses willhave to be the middle points. Then one will have to arguethat the Lagna commenced even before the individual wasborn. This is highly illogical. The degrees of the Lagna is theac[ual point of space on the eastern horizon when theperson was born. It is, therefore, the beginning point. Thenthe cuspal degree of the lOth house must be the beginning

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laa TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTInIC NINDU ASTROLOOY

of the lOth house. But Parasara does not appear to beaware of this anomaly because he followed the equal housesystem. In such a case the M.C. becomes only a sensitivepoint in the chart. It has nothing to do with the real I Othhouse. In the equal house system if the ascendant is Pisces260, the lOth house commences from 260 Dhanus (Sagit-tarius). The M.C. falls on 210 Dhanus and this point has littleto do with profession as such. Just as we examine a chartfrom Lagna, Chandra Lagna (natal Moon) and Arudha Lagna(conception ascendant), we can also examine it from theM.C. This is the real meaning of the cusp of the so-calledloth house.

The next question refers to the significance of navamsachakra. In the North, people ignore this. They have only theRasi Kundali and the same from Chandra Lagna for consid-eration. In the South, even if people do not pay much attentionto it, the amsa chakra is prepared. This is a step in the rightdirection. The navamsa presents the forces and potentialitiesof the chart of the partner. If the rasichakra and amsa chakrahave no harmonious relationship, one can easily predict theshape of things to come. One can also use it to rectify the timeof birth of the partner. One expects confirmation or strength-ening from the amsa chakra. I'et us take an illustration.

The first chart is the amsa chakra of the husband and thesecond is the rasi chakra of the wife. Note the combination ofChandra (the Moon) and Rahu in both. Saturn has much to dowi th the 2nd hosue in bo th . The f i rs t one shows

SmVenus

MoonRahu

Ascdt.

Chart No. 1

Jupit.

Merc.Kethu Mars

Sat(R)

MoonRahu

Chart No. 2RASI

Sat MarsJupit.Kethu

Ascdt. Srrtlvlerc.

Venus

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SOME PBOBLEMS

, d ,

189

the lords of the 7th, the 4th and the lOth in the 2nd.aspected by the lord of the lst and the l2th. In the secondwe find the lord of the 7th and the lOth in association withthe lord of the 9th. The lord of the 4th is with the lord of the5th and the l2th. The similarity cannot be brushed aside.The second chart shows the lord of the 5th with Ketu, whilethe first shows Chandra with Rahu in the Sth. In this wayone can work out the problem of matching horoscoPes.llerein lies the great value of navamsa.

Next we are asked about the relative value of theNirayana and Sayana systems. This is a difficult problem onwhich to express an opinion. In reality, one is governed bytwo factors. If a system gives good results, we need notreject it. The adherents of ths Sayana and the Nirayhnasystems claim this. So the second factor asks us not toreject the traditional system hastily and not to apply theprinciples of one system to the chart drawn according to theother system. We are thus convinced that the traditionalIndian Nirayana system gives good results. We need notenquire whether this too was originally a Sayana system ornot. lt is enough to note that many in Qermany, Britain, Eireand the United States have begun accepting the Nirayanasystem as the valuable and dependable one. Astronomi-cally, the Sayana system may be correct. But in astrology weare governed by many other factors.

The fourth problem refers to Mars. Many astrologershave succeeded in breaking up many promising matcheson the flimsy ground of the vague Kuja dosha. This defectrefers to the placing of Kuja (Mars) in the 2nd, the 4th, the7th, the 8th, or the 12th from Lagna. One has to look at thisKuja from Lagna, from Chandra Lagna, from the radicalposition of Venus, from Arudhal-agna, from Darapada, andfrom Upapada. Even then the really bad places are only the7th and the.Bth. Still, if those places happen to be his ownhouse, there may not be any defect. These and other fac-tors, inherent in the problem, compel us to say that apronouncement on the existence of Kuja dosha has to beaccepted with great caution.

Now we come to the vexed question of Ayanamsa. It isthe most inscrutable problem. We have one school whichcalculates from Revati whose Nirayana longiturle nrt\a/ is

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190 TEXT BOOI{ OF SCIENTIFIC IiINDU ASTROLOOY

5560 l'. There is another school which calculates fromChitra whose Nirayana longitude today is l79o 59'. Sincethe ayanamsas are taken to refer to the starting point offixed or stellar Aries, these two ayanamsas, if they are to becalculated from zero degree of Aries or Libra, cannot differ.But the difference in the starting point gives us ayanamsasthat differ by four degrees. ln calculating the ayanamsa, letus note the figures we get from Surya Siddhanta and fromthe Western astronomers:

Values given by Values given bYSurya Siddhanta. Western authorities.

D u r a t i o n o f 5 6 5 d 6 h 1 2 m 5 7 s 5 6 5 d 6 h 9 m l O sa solar year

?arama 20 l0' 50" lo 55' 0'manda phala

Parama kranti 24o 23o 26' 53"

Yearly 54" 50".26precessionBeginning Fixed Not fixedof Aries

The difference in the duration of the year necessitates,according to some, a correction called bija-samskara. Sincethe difference is three minutes and 27 seconds, we get anapparenl solar movement of 8%o. The time of calculation istaken to be 499 A.D. Then from 499 A.D. to 1965 we get theyears to be multiplied by 8%o. This gives 30 28'. Then if weget an ayanamsa of 23o 55' for the beginning of 1969,those who reject this correction will get2Oo 7'.

The obliquity is becoming shofter and shorter. The dura-tion of the year too has been steadily becoming less andless. For these |,466 years too the bija-samskara cannot bethe same uniformly. Because of a slow decline, the bija-samskara for 1965 may come only to lo 45" If the bija-samskara in 499 was nil, by the principle of arithmeticalprogression, we can show that S = n/2 (a + b), where 5 is thetotal value n is the number of years, a is the value at thebeginning, and b the value now. Thus :

_ 1466s = _ : - x 8 t / 2 "

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SOME PROBLEMS 1 9 1

8.5" is the movement of the Sun for the difference in theduration of lhe year. This gives lo 44'. Then the ayanamsafor the beginning of 1965 will be 2lo 5l'. Thus we get 25o55', 2Oo 7' and 2lo, 5l ' as three values for 1965.

Similarly, Chaitra paksha will give 23o 2l', 22o 52"

2Oo 21' and lgo 23'. Starting from Dhanishta we will get

260 54 ' , 2Oo 4g ' ,25o 5 l ' , l9o 46 ' ,23o 34 ' and 22" 31"Beginning with Aswini, we will have 29o lO', 25o 1l',25o 46' , and2lo 50'

Revati would give I go 22', 22o 38'. 27o 49" and l70 l"

These are really baffling values. It is not possible for a

student of astrology to find the proper value.

(lv) Ayanamsa

We have a sidereal year and a tropical year. The siderealyear is based on the same principle as the tropical year of

ihe ancient Egyptians. lt is the time taken by the Sun to

appear at the same point in the heavens as some fixed

sirt". The Sun's appearance at the first point of the fixed

Aries is taken to be the s[rarting-point here. The tropical

year is the result of the averages between noon at succes-

sive vernal equinoxes; and it refers to the Sun's aPpearance

at the first point of the moving Aries. The average length of

the sidereal year is not the same as that of the tropical year

b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e c e s s i o n o f t h e e q u i n o x e s(ayanachalana)'

The plane of the terrestrial equator rotates on the

earth's orbit. Con"equently the position of the Sun on the

vernai equinox shifts round the ecliptic. This shift was said

to hare -been

first noticed by Hipparchus, in l5O B'C' in

trurope, though it was very well known to the ancient Hin-

dus irom remotest antiquity. The Babylonian astronomer

Cidenas revealed it in 54O B.C.

Thepos i t ionsof thes tarsdonotchangewi th re fe renceto the ptun. of the ecliptic. tsut the axis of the celestial

equator moves round the ecliptic axis at an angle of 22o 35'

t o 2 4 a l 5 , a s s h o w n i n t h e p i c u t r e . T h e p o i n t s o f i n t e r s e c -tion of t'he Sun,s apparent path with the celestial equator

are not constant. TLey shift, and the rate of this shifting is

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I792 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIEIC ITTNDU ASTROLOOY

taken as the rate of precession. According to ptolemy thisshift is 5O% seconds of an arc per year, along with theecliptic circle in the direction opposite to the Sun,s.

Of all the astronomical texts of the world the mostanc ien t one is the Surya S iddhanta . In the"Triprasnadhikara" of this text we have the verse :

gi qH qm yreqfiffiqtr

i{ur(TR+fffigrrnsq"Tqit | 3 : 9 | |i-{+R"qRTirRrprT fq}qr qfirf,{rTr, r

The great astronomer Bhaskara read " trimsatkritvah,, ,and not "trimsat'kriLyah". In one Mahayuga the bhachakraoscillates like a pendulum for six hundred times. From thefirst point of fixed Aries, it swings twenty-seven degreesforwards and backwards. Each swing has four divisions,each covering a period of l,8OO solar years.

c , ' , . , . )t x { t ( E h e q l

G-H: Celestial equator.J: Sun over Tlopic of

Capr icoln.K: Sun over Tropic of

Cancer.L: Sun over equator-

vernal equinox.

A: Pole star '6, .500 yeal 'safier

B: ' Pole sta l 'now.C: Axis of the ecl ipt ic .D: Celest ia l axisE: Tropic ol- Cancer.F: Tropic of Caplicoln.

A . 4' - - 5 I - - . ' ,a

. t

a

C , 'D

r . E \

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SOME PROBLEMS 193

Commenting on these lines, Bhaskara writes that pata isSampata or equinox. The equinoctial point is the point ofintersection on the Sun's apparent path with the celestialequator. This point slowly recedes, and therefore the inter-sect ion does not take place at the beginning of theconstellational Aries. But how is it that Brahmagupta andother great astronomers did not speak of it ? Bhaskarareplies that at their time this point was nearer the beginningof the fixed Aries. Now it is great and it can be seen. Hencewe cannot ignore it. The Surya Siddhanta speaks of thirtythousands bhaganas in a kalpa for this krantipata. Munjalaand otheres give 199,669 as the bhaganas. Reading"trimsat" kritvah", Bhaskara argues that the equinox.re-volves thirty times in a yuga.

The actual annual movement of the equinoctial pointvaries from one astronomr to another. Aryabhatta gives it as46.5 seconds, Parasara as 46.5 seconds, Munjala andBhaskara give it as 59.9 seconds. Newcomb in lB5O A.D.gave out the annual movement as 50.262 seconds. Theformula given by him is:

50".2453 + (O".0OO2225 x the required year - l85OA.D.) For instance we get for 1962 A.D. :

50" .2455 + (0" .0002225 x l l2 ) =50" .27022.

Bhaskara was born in l056 Shaka which we have else-where pointed out as agreeing with 60O A.D. ApplyingNewcomb's formula we get 50".2453 - O".OOO2225 x l25O: 49.969275. Adding the difference between Bhaskara'syear and the modern European one, it works to 58".5though Bhaskara gives the arc of 59".9OO7 only.

The precise moment when the moving and fixed zodi-acs coincided is anybody's guess. Mr. Lahiri feels that thetwo zodiacs coincided on Sunday,22nd March 285 A.D. atI l - lB a.m. ( l .S.T). At that moment the tropical and sidereallongitude of Chitra (Spica) was lBOo O' 3" and of the Moon5530.31. He gives the precession rate as 50".2721 sec-onds; and the mean Ayanamsa on lst January 1962 was23o 19 ' 34" . The on lv t roub le about th is da te i s

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Varahamihira's statement. We are told by the greatVarahamihira that he had found the entry of the Sun into2750 20' as beginning of the Uttarayana, as against theVedanga Jyotisha. Kalidasa's Jyotiruidabharana was com'posed in 5068 Ka l i o r 54 B.C. Ka l idasa ment ionsVarahamihira as his contemporary. Since the precession ofone degree takes nearly 72 years, the two zodiacs musthave coincided 24O years after Varahamihira. This gives thedate 2OO A.D. The Indian Covernment's almanac'makershave somehow ignored this evidence. Mr. Fagan found afterhis researches into antiquity that the two zodiacs exactlycoincided in 215 A.D. Mr. Lahiri and the Ciovernment ofIndia have taken it to 72 years after, thus affecting a differ-ence of one degree.

The f i rst magnitude star Spica or Chitra is thedeterminator of the measurement of sidereal longitude. Theancient Chaldeans and Egyptians placed it at 29o O' of theconstellational Virgo. Surya Siddhanta places it at I BOo,Brahmagupta at 1850, Crahalaghava at l85o and late Mr.Dixi t at 1BOo.January 196l

's theory makes the Avanamsa_fqr Lstt 24o 17' 38", while 1.4hffi fiqure

Here is a difference of 59 minutes.o

The formula given by Prof. Ram44 is : Deduct 598 fromthe year of birth in the Christian €ra and multiply it by

I5 0 : " Thus for

re6 l -5e8=1565xuo+" ' '

= 7867 r" = ?)Lili-J!"L J

This figure is not strictly in accordance with the tradi-tional account as given by the Surya Siddhanta.

The Ayanamsa at the beginning 9-f !-9QQ:PPge1g-.-!q be

?Z andits' The Precessioniate is 50".2664. This is to be multiplied by two and then

added to the product of the rate of difference multiplied by

the years after l9OO. The rate of difference is O".OOO2.Thus for 196l we have

2 x 50".2664 + 6O x O".OOO2 = 1OO".5448.

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SOME PROBLEMS 195

This is to be halved and then multiplied by the yearcounted from the beginning of the century. Thus

I6 l x * x l O O " . 5 4 4 a : 5 l ' 6 " . 6 1 6 4 .

zThis is to be added to the Ayanamsa at the beginning of

the century. Then we get:

22o 26' 45".6 + 5l ' 6".6164 = 25o lB' 52".2.

This is the Ayanamsa for the beginning of 1961.

The various theories take for granted that the two zodi-acs coincide on a new moon day which marks the begin-ning of the month Chaitra. Why should there be such.anassumption ? All these also assume a uniform movement ofabout 50 seconds per year. But the vernal point undergoesa good deal of wobbling in the course of the year. Tahe theyear 1960. From the first of January to the 2Oth of Februaryit recedes 24 seconds. By the 2oth of April it moves back by15 seconds only and remains constant for one month. Thenit advances forwards by a second. By the 7th of October theadvance is l9 seconds forwards. Then the receding begins;and by 26th December it moves back by 24 seconds. Thisis due to the forces of precession and mutation.

Out of this maze if we are to land safely, we cannotforget a few facts. Varahamihira, put the begrnning of thetropical zodiac at 50 20' of Aries ; and Bhattotpala, hiscommentator, did not find any appreciable difference be-tween the two zodiacs. Spica being in the 5Oth degree ofVirgo, the two zodiacs must have coincided sometime be-tween 2€t :\.D. and 558 A.D. In predictive astrology one

. F

has To experiment on a number of horoscopes to find outwhich Ayanamsa gives valid results. The annual rate oforecession is between 5o.2" ano so.s'%n-ffiotm'dnt who would question it.

One more observation is necessary. We believe that thetwo zodiacs must have coincided either in 292 A.D. or in5O7 A.D. This is the period of the rapid decline of imperialunity and cultural solidarity. Precession covers one constel-lation in about 96O years. The Ayanamsas entered Aswini

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about 668 B.C. Only I l8 years later, that is, when half ofthe last quarter of Aswini was completed, we get 55O B.C.which was the Saka year accepted by ancient Indian as-tronomers. By about 1256 A.D. the Ayanamsas moved toUttarabhadrapada ; and this synchronises with the consoli-dation of the Muslim conquests in India. By about l7O8A.D. half of this constellation was covered; and we have thebeginnings of the British Empire in India. The last remainingquarter of this constellation came to be traversed by about1945 A.D ; and this year marks the end of the war and alsothe beginning of the liquidation of colonial empires. Thismakes us believe that the two zodiacs coincided in 292A.D

(v) Sayana Versus Nirayana

That the solar system we inhabit is one among a mani-fold, is an accepted truth from the days of the SuryaSiddhanta. The solid Earth where we live is an eccentricspot in the vast universe. This fact needs emphasis todayprimarily because of a deep hidden presumption in a goodnumber of modern schools of philosophy and science. Thispresumption refers to the unexpressed fact that reality.ismerely that which gravitates. To take this Earth of ours asthe only reality is to live in a fool's paradise. But such is thedogmatic coma that has overtaken many subtle intellects ofthe modern scientific age. The real world is very wide andcomprehensive, wherein our Earth is a tiny speck. A clearawareness of this truth implies that the human being whostruts over this Darth is not the centre of focus. nor theobject of interest, in the great cosmic process. At the sametime, man is not an isolated entity that has somehow creptinto the screen. The universe, as we know it, is inter-related;and the gravitational law expresses one important aspect ofthis interrelationship. Just as the planets of our solar sys-tem are mutually related to one another with reference tothe Sun, our system stands in a similar reciprocal relation-ship with the various other stars. And whenever entities areinter-related, each influences or affects the other and eachln its own turn breathes the spirit of the whole. Thus it is,that every indivdual becomes a microscopic embodiment

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of the macrocosm. Such a view has been badly abused incertain schools of idealism where this inter-related whole isspoken of as the Absolute, who (or which) is said to be theonly reality. Such a reality or absolute is no other thanmyself and my environment put together. This sort of ageometrical concept of reality does violate all that is funda-mental to our existence. Consequently a few absolutistsbegan declaring that reality is of the nature of mind or spirit.If this were true, we can also express it by saying that mindor spirit is of the nature of reality, where reality can onlystand for physical or material thingp. From this there followsthe irresistible conclusion that the spirit is through andthrough material.

These unhappy conclusions are unavoidable as long'aswe do not hold a clear demarcation between the realm ofthe spirit and the realm of matter. We receive sense impres-sions from the world of objects. But feelingp, purposes, andvalues are the distinct constituents of our consciousness.The former takes us to utilities, rational and otherwise,while the latter leads to the great values of social morality,art, philosophy, and religion. The laLter then seems to haveits temporal existence within the framework of the former.It is this that makes every individual a member of twoworlds, the temporal and the eternal. But since the tempo-ral is at the sway of the eternal, the eternal alone is ulti-mately real and true. This is at the basis of the system ofastrologl. Our solar system is the first affirmation of thetemporal order of existence, as far as we are concerned.Dven here the unit of time varies from planet to planet, andfrom star to star, till at last we do not know what timeultimately is. There is left nothing but change or movement.Dven the Sun is moving with the velocity of 19.5 kilometersper second towards a point near Vega or Abhijit. We belongto this vast, complicated, and expanding universe which isstriving to widen its interstices and intervals. In this aPpar-ently mad, but perfectly determined race after a mysticalpoint in Vega, the apparent entry of the Sun into the firstpoint of Aries varies from year to year from the standpointof the time obtaining on the Darth. And the universe beinginter-related, it is not surprising to find the influences of the

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planets on the Earth, along with various stellar influenceson the solar system itself. Considered in this light, theproblem of the moving zodiac versus the fixed one seemsto be a serious one for purposes of prediction and ofregulating our religious and seasonal epochs.

There is a good deal of confusion in our tradition overthe question of the fixed or "nirayana" and moving or"sayana" zodiac. According to a wellknown tradition theseasons and the "ayanas" are computed from the'sayana" longitudes, while the lunar months are arrived atthrough "nirayana" calculations. In the 'Siddhanta' texts ofVasishta and others we read that only the 'sayana' en-trances of the Sun into the various houses of the zodiac areheld to be auspicious. Some others have held that both the'sayana' and the

'nirayana' entrances are equally auspi-

cious. In this context consider the following two verses fromthe 'Bhugoladhyaya' of the "Surya Siddhanta":-

tqiqqffi: qffi1 {I{frT{gilql€-sq elrtCw Td1 @t I 12 : 48 llq-"tft {st€dmfl: qrqrdt-qs; 1Eerfie*-t Tr{ts d-dtcgtBsql 12 : 49 tl

The Sun is visible to those who live in the vicinity ofMount Meru for six months as he transists from Aries toVirgo. Therein the transit through Aries, Taurus and Geminiconstitutes the forenoon, while the transit through the otherthree constitutes the afternoon. Similarly for those who livein the direction diametrically opposed to Meru, the Sun isvisible as he transits from Libra to Pisces. Therein his move-ment in Libra, Scorpio and Sagittarius constitutes the fore-noon, while his transit through the other three brings aboutthe afternoon.

If we take Meru to stand for the North Polar region, theyear commences from the Sun's apparent entrance into'sayana'Aries. It might be well argued that this may be so inthe present day when the equinoxes have receded fartherinto the fixed Pisces. And the moving zodiac and the fixedzodiac might have been identical in the past when these

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ideas were verified. If so, this gives added weight to theargument that we have to take the moving zodiac only.Likewise obsenre the following verses from the same :-

M g e-{r{kp-{Id{fr sfrr-{r rHir e qqETiiFrr0-d dr{rgir rz : 5i tl

In the land of the gods, that is in the land north of the'Vishuvadvritta', as the Sun transits through the six signsbeginning with Aries, the more we proceed to the north themore does the duration of the day increase and the moredoes the duration of the night decrease. A similar state ofaffairs prevails in the south of the 'Vishuvadvritta' when theSun transits from Libra to Pisces. Now it is a well-known factthat this principle is determined by the Sun's transit throdghthe 'sayana' signs only.

Then again consider the following two verses from the'Manadhyaya' of the same text :

\ .q=llF.-fllil r45q r6-fl-q scq{'Tql

srq{ffi *q qae, gfTfl-<dr: ll 14 : 7 ll

n<dg €mTf<Edq ffi 5l: r+{=dqig €ffi+ilq tdsuJqEtgqlu 14 : 8 tl

In the navel of the 'bhachakra' there lie on the sameline both the vernal (= Mesha = Vasanta) and the autumnal(= Tula : Sharat) equinoxes. Likewise there lie on the sameline the points of the Sun's northerly course and southerncourse. In between each 'vishuvat' ( = equinox) and'ayana'(= northernly or southern courses) there take place twoentrances of the Sun into the houses of the zodiac. TheSun's entrance that follows a 'vishuvad' or an 'ayana' iscalled after'Vishnupada'. As is well known, the 'vishuvad'

and the 'ayana' are computed on the 'sayana' basis; andconsequently the 'sankrantis' too are 'sayana sankrantis'.Hence in the same chapter we have the following verse withreference to the solar movements :-

e)tq qfuiqfq ss{ifFd gurft alqq'i frgq;}s ffi: 5!?rs6drtt 14 : 3 ll

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The durations of the day and the night, 'shadasiti

mukhah', 'ayanas' , 'sankrant is ' , and the'vishuvats' are tobe calculated and determined from the 'sayana' positionsof the Sun. In all these places, the word 'sayana' is notexpressed; but tradition and scientific observ'ation haveinterpreted all these verses with reference to the'sayana'positions. From this it is evident that the auspicious eventslike the 'ayanas' and the 'mahalaya paksha' are to be re-duced from the 'sayana' framework alone.

In the same chapter we read that the 'Uttarayana' com-mences with the Sun's apparent entry into Capricorn, whilethe 'Dakshinayana' begins with his entry into Cancer. Thisstatement is followed by the statement that the Sun's stay inCapricorn and Aquarius constitutes the 'shishira ritu'. Inthis way the Sun's stay in two signs gives rise to one season.We know today that the seasons as given in our 'nirayana'

almanacs are notoriously untrue' and the fact recorded inthe "Surya Siddhanta" appears to be nearer the truth. Thisfact agrees with the 'sayana' positions only. And the ancientnames of the months beginning with 'Madhu' are also appli-cable only to the 'sayana' calculations.

These considerations have important bearings on ourreligious life. Some of the auspicious days, and eventsenumerated in our "Dharma Shastras" do appear to fallinto the'sayana; scheme only. Thus, besides the 'mahalaya

paksha', we have to explain the event of 'Bhishma Ekadasi'.And a host of other days will follow. This will imply therefashioning and the remoulding of our seasons, of thebeginnings of the months, and such other features.

These considerations are forced on us primarily be-cause, the s tudy and knowledge o f as t ronomy isindispensible for an Indian who believes not only in thephysical world where he takes shelter for a short time, butalso in the spiritual world to which he belongs in reality. Thelatter enjoins certain observances and rites either with ref-erence to the Pitars or with reference to the unseen spiritualpowers or forces. The knowledge of the physical worldsupplied by astronomy is the medium through which hewants to pass to the beyond.

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And at the same time this problem of the 'sayana'

versus the 'nirayana' zodiac gives rise to a great manyproblems in astrology proper. The trouble it gives to thepredictive part is immense. And we cannot afford to ignoreit as meaningless as long as we are not rationally convincedabout the rejection. Above all that which should determineour approach is the nature and the basis of the traditionalaccounts. Tradition may be rejected when it disagrees withscience about physical reality. But we will be committing aserious crime if we reject it altogether in matters relating tospiritual reality. And as we have seen the latter has a refer'ence, though slight, to the former in the astronomicalsphere. And hence we should try to understand the spirit ofthe tradition first and then decide the question on han{.

Of late some disillusioned students of Indian astrologyhave thought it fashionable to raise the bogey of Sayana(tropical) versus Nirayana (sidereal) when a Person fails toexplain how there aPpear certain events on the basis of theZodiac he was following so far, he turns to the other Zodiac;and it is a kind of comic relief. The traditional l-Iindu Zodiacis Nirayana (sidereal) and it is based on the constellations.These constellations determine the nature of the sign andits ruler and it is more evident if we relaLe it to theVimshottari system. Mesha has stars governed by Ketu,

Venus and the Sun. Ketu in Jaimini owns Scorpio, a sign

said to be ruled by Mars. Mantreswara stated that Ketu gives

the results like Mars and Rahu those of saturn. Aswini refers

to Mars and the Sun ruling Krittika is a friend of Mars and is

exalted in Aries. Bharani is ruled by Venus who is neutral to

Mars. Thus these nine quarters of the three stars are related

to Mars alone. The Sayana Aries will have Uttarabhadra(Saturn), Kevati (Mercury) and a part of Aswin (Ketu)' The

first two are the enemies of Mars; and his association with

this segment of the zodlac is unnatural and unscientific.

Bharani ruled by Venus is the neutral to Mars. In Taurus we

have stars ruled by the Sun, Moon and Mars' Only Mars is

neutral to Venus, the others being his enemies' Hence the

Mula-trikona of Venus is in Tula, not in Vrishabha and Tula

has stars ruled by Mars (neutral), Jupiter (neutral) and Rahu

(friend). we tabulate the constellational relationship to the

sign and its ruler.

201

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Gemini : Mars (neutral), Rahu (friend) Jupiter (neutral).

Cancer : Jupiter (neutral), Saturn (neutral) and Mercury(friend).

[,eo : Ketu (friend), Venus (foe) and the Sun (owner).

Virgo : Sun (friend), Moon (foe) and Mars (neutral).

The owner of Cemini has two neutrals and one friend; ofCancer has one friend and two neutrals; of Leo has theowner, a friend and a foe; and of Virgo has a friend, a foeand a neutral each. Such an association is not found inZodiac of the Sayana system.

Scorpio : Jupiter (friend), Saturn and Mercury (both en-emies) and both neutrals to Jupiter. Hence it is a mystic andhidden sign ruled by Mars.

Sagittarius : Ketu (friend), Venus (foe) and Sun (friend).

Capricorn : Sun (enemy), Moon (enemy), and Mars (en-.-y). Its ownership is governed by the ratio of astronomicaldistances... It is an enigmatic sign in so far Mars is exaltedhere while his friend is debilitated.

Aquarius : Mars (enemy), Rahu (friend) and Jupiter (neu-tral).

Pisces : Jupiter (own), Saturn (neutral) and MercuryIfoe).

Thus the constellations have a direct bearing on thenature of the sign and on its traditional ruler. Those whotake to the Sayana system as a fact treat astrology as abranch of astronomy alone. They forget that astrology is ascience which is also greatly governed by symbolism.

Under the Sayana s)/stem Jupiter will be exalted in theNirayana sign of Mercury (his enemy) and Venus in theplace now occupied by Krittika. The Zodiac may be movingbackwards astronomically but the constellations stay wherethey are. If the Sayana Moon is on the thirteenth degree ofAquarius, the constellation is not Shatabhisha but onlyShravana. There is not even one ancient Indian text orauthority that asks us to rely on the Sayana Zodiac for

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SOME PROBLEMS 2o,3

predict ive purposes. Cyri l Fagan, Bradley and otherwesterners realised the value of the Nirayana Zodiac andthey follow it only. They have understood through experi-ence the incorrectness and falsity of the Sayana system.The western astrologers follow the Sayana system withoutdasa systems of the Indians. It is meaningless to superimpose our dasas on the Sayana chart. A nirayana debili-tated Mars for nirayana Mithuna lagna brought an end to thenative's life. In Sayana his lagna is Cancer and Mars (ayogakaraka) is in Leo. How can he kill the native ?

This question is also linked up with the idea of BhavaChakra. When a person is born as the third degree of Arieswas rising on the horizon, it must be taken as the beginningor the first point. lf it is taken as the middle point then thenative must have been born roughly an hour earlier. This isabsurd. The degree ascending at the moment of birth is thefirst degree of the house and it extends to cover full thirtydegree frgm that point onwards. The problem of the bhavaswas introduced later by Mantreswara, Sripati. Divakara andothers who were good enough to confuse Mandi withGulika. In calculating arudhas, in arriving at ashataka varga,in interpreting gochara and in Jaimini's system the idea ofa bhava as different from a sign does not exist.

' The students who advocate the sayana system on which

chart they apply the principles of lndian astrology, are giv-ing rise to a hybrid school of thought. Saturn in nirayanaPisces and Saturn in Sayana Aries do not give the sameresults. The exaltation degrees are related to the fixed stars.

Sun is exalted in Ketu's star (friend),. Moon in Sun's(friend); Mars in his own; Jupiter in Satum's (neutral); Venusin Mercury's (friend); Saturn in Rahu's (friend); Rahu in hisown; Ketu in his own.

Only Mercury is exalted in the Moon's star. This possiblyexplains the weakness of Viryo, where even Mercury'sfriend Venus is debilitated.

Each planet is permanently related to that segment ofthe Zodiac where the constellations are fixed. The planets

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are not like the moderns who change their friends andparties as the occasion demands. lf a planet's ownership istransferred to a segment having different constellations, itsnature becomes variable and then astrologl as a predictivescience will have no scientific basis. Imagine Mars as theowner of the constellational segment from Pisces sixth de-gree to Aries sixth degree. He has stars ruled by Saturn,Mercury and Ketu. Do they agree with the inherent nature ofMars ? Do the fish (Pisces) form part of a fiery sign ?Jyeshtha which appears as the Milky ocean (galaxy) will bein an fiery sign as per these fadists.

If the nirayana system fails to explain or predict events,the fault lies with the astrologer, not with the system. Wecan amend the traditional sidereal system to suit the mod-ern situation. We should not bury it in order to appear asmoderns for the sake of modernity. More than five thousandyears have proved the truth of the Nirayana system, whilethe followers of the Sayana system are everyday correctingtheir loopholes and elTors.

During the last century we have been coming acrossthe views of the zealots who assert dogmatically the validityof the tropical (Sayana) zodiac for predictive purposes.These views continue to be aired in various journals indifferent languages. From the time of ?arasara and evenearlier in our country the sidereal zodiac was followed.Sideral means that which refers to the constellations or thefixed stars. The zodiac we have been following and accept-ing in astrology, astronomy, rituals, and rites is theconstellational one. One may call it nirayana only when heknows the implications of ayanamsa. It is said that the Westfollows the tropical zodiac. If this were tolally true thebirthday of Jesus falling on the twenty fifth of Decemberwhen he was born, should now be celebrated earlier thanthis date. The same applies to Easter and other festivities inChristianity. These festivals should come much earlier' Theydo not. When we celebrate the birth of Sri Rama in Chaitramonth, we take the month to be Chaitra only if on the fullMoon day of the month the Moon is in or near the constel-lation of Chitra. One cannot get it in the tropical calendar

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according to which the months are fixed by the calendarreform committee.

Let us look at the problem more critically. We hold thatOuru is exalted on the fifth degree of Cancer. When Curucomes to the last qurater of the constellation Punarvasuand transits into the next one, he is at the highest exaltationpoint. In Vimshottari system Punarvasu is ruled by Curu.Likewise the highest point of exaltation for Mars is in theconstellation of Dhanishtha governed by Mars himself. Inthe tropical zodiac the fifth degree of Cancer today falls inthe constellation Ardra ruled by Rahu, and of Mars inUttarashadha ruled by the Sun. The relation between theexaltation degree and the planet is unhinged. Similarly theenthusiasts for the tropical theory will have to exalt the Sr.rnin Revati, the Moon in Asvini, Mercury in Uttaraphalguni,Venus in Uttarabhadrapada, and Saturn in Chitra. Theseconstellations are inimicalto the planets concerned, exceptin the cases of Mars and Venus as per the Vimshottarisystem.

The signs of the zodiac have come into existence withinthe framework of the constellations. There is an inherentre la t ion be tween a p lanet own ing a s ign and theconstellational segment forming the sign concerned. lt isbetter to explain this in the light of the Vimshottari systemwhich alone has been elaborately explained by Parasara.

Jaimini's system holds that Mars and Ketu are jointowners of Scorpio, and that Saturn and Rahu similarly ownAquar ius . Parasara 's tex t a lso re fe rs to th is v iew.Mantresvara held that Rahu gives the results like Saturn,and that Ketu like Mars. In Aquarius we have Rahu's con-stellation which gets into the tropical Pisces. In the siderealzodiac.alone Saturn and Rahu are justified in owningAquarius. In Aries we have Aswini ruled by Ketu and thesign belongs to Mars. The Moon's exaltation is in Tauruswhich has Rohini ruled by the Moon, though the exaltationpoint falls in the second quarter of Krittika, ruled by theSun. The tropical position of this constellation is in Virgo.Pisces has the last quarter of Poorvabhadrapada ruled byJupiter. Thus four of the signs in the sidereal zodiac areclosely related to the planets owning them.

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20,6 TE/YT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC IIINDU ASTROLOOY

The other signs have constellations ruled by the planetsfriendly to the owners. As per Satyakirti's formula, and thisis debatable, Budha is the friend of Venus and Saturn.Sukra is the friend of Budha. Shani is neutral to Budha. ViaSaturn we get Rahu. Cemini has Rahu's constellation, andthe sign ruler is Budha. This planet gives better results inVirgo than in Cemini, as we find later. Cancer has theconstellation of Rahu who is a friend of Venus throughSaturn; and it has also the constellation of Jupiter in whosesign Venus is exalted. Scorpio has the constellation of Jupi-ter who is a friend of Mars, and also the constellation ofSaturn in whose sign he is exalted. In Sagittarius we havethe constellations ruled by Ketu and the Sun, both being thefriends of Jupiter. Thus five more signs of the siderealZodiac alone justify the ownership of the bodies concerned.

Then there remain Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn. Taurushas a constellation ruled by a neutral to the concernedowner Venus. Venus is not as strong in Taurus as he is inLlbra. Viryo has one star ruled by a friend and another by aneutral to the owner. Thus Virgo is better than Cemini toBudha. Only in Capricorn the rulers of the constellation areinimical to Saturn who is weak in this sign.

As per the theory of Yavaneshwara, Shudraka and oth-ers we get the following constellational rulers who arefriendly to the planets and luminaries in the sidereal signsowned by them. Aries has Venus, and Scorpio has Mercury'Taurus has Mars, and Libra has Mars and Jupiter. Ceminihas Mars and Jupiter, and Virgo has Moon and Mars. Cancerhas Jupiter and Mercury. l,eo has the Sun. Sagittarius hasVenus and the Sun. Pisces has Curu. Shani and Budha,Aquarius has Jupiter. When we supplement this with titedual ownerships of Mars and Ketu, and of Satum and Rahu,we get further strong points in the ownership of the siderealsigns. Aries has Ketu. Libra has Rahu, while Saturn is afriend via Saturn. Aquarius has Rahu. Whether we followYavaneshwara or Satyakirti it is clear that Saturn is weakestin Capricom, speaking constellationally. The Sun is strongin this sign since the northern course (devayana,

Uttarayana) begins from the Sun's entry into this sign, andbecause it has his own constellation.

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SOME PROBLEMS 2f)7

Moreover, the constellational segments in the sky offerus visual pictures of the zodiacal signs. There is also a closerelation between the owner of the sidereal sign and theconcerned constellational segment. This is absent in thetropical zodiac. lt is significant that Cyril Fagan, DonaldBradley and their modernday followers in the west haveveered round to the sidereal zodiac. It is high time to singan elery, a funeral song, to the tropical zodiac.

(vi) Birth stars of Bhavas

There are many sound principles which enable us tojudge a house (bhava) accurately. They are outlined in ourstalrdard works like B-rihaiiataka, Phaladipika and JatakaPe4E. Bunhere is one more vaiildille p-rinciple wE'i-Chas'ks us to estimate the strength of a house with reference tothe birth star of the house. Each individual is born when theMoon passes through a certain constellation and this is hisbirth star (Janma nakshatra). By calculating the shadbalaswe have to find out whether the ascendant is r thanthe Moon sign; and if so, thq. stai with theof theof the asGr-ndant becomes the real birth star for calculatingVim . We willouTilne ttr6lheory of the birth star of the Bhava, as giveninJatakadesa

'-

becomes the

^* *. *t*e occupied by the lord of the lagna andthe karaka of the bhava required. The degrees are to becounted from the beginning of Mesha (Aries). Similarly addthe degree of the lord of the Bhava concerned. Dach ofthese asterisms is the birth star of that Bhava concerned.An example will clarify. We need the birth star of the tenthBhava. Its karaka is Saturn and lord is Jupiter. The lord oflagna is Mercury whose position is 1.55.55. Saturn's is21A.52.37. The total is 22O.2A.52. The birth star of thetenth Bhava is in Scorpio 1o-.28.52, Anuradha ruled bySaturn. Adding the longitude of the lord of the tenth(11S.19.7) to tha t o f Mercury , we ge t 119.55 .2 wh ich is29.55.2 of l(arka, Aslesha. Thus the Birth stars of the tenthBhava are Anuradha and Ashlesha. Similarly we give thebirth stars of some of the Bhavas in this chart. The karakas

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2o,4 TDXT BOOK OF SCTENTIFIC TTINDU ASTROLOOY

of the ten bhavas are to be remembered. If matribhava, wetake the Moon and if land or house, we take Mars or Jupiteras karakas. This should not be forgotten.

uoro )

4 5. Karaka (Moon) )J - l\araka (Ylarg {

Lord €s

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Kevati (Mercury)

Ashwini (Ketu)

Ashlesha (Mercury)

Revati (Mercury)

Revati (Mercury)

Uttarashadha (Sun)

Revati (Mercury)

Ashlesha (Mercury)

Rohini (Moon)

Rohini (Moon)

Ashlesha (Mercury)

Anuradha (Satum)

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SOMD PROBLEMS 2()9

Out of these nineteen, ten come under Mercury, fourunder Saturn, two each under Sun and Moon and one underKetu. This gives a fairly good idea of the chart. In shadbalasthe strength in Rupas is - Jupiter 8.1, Sun 8.O, Venus 7.7,Mercury 7.4, Saturn 5.8, Mars 5.2. and Moon 4.5. Lagna hasa strength of 6.44 and the tenth has 7.88 Rupas.

The Birth star of a house may also be guessed in thefollowing manner, if one does not want to do this addition.It may be the Rasi or Navamsa occupied by the karaka ofthe bhava, or a Navamsa owned by that planet: or it isindicated by adding the positions of the Sun and thebhavakaraka. Readers may experiment with this principleby calculating the dasas for each Bhava taking the requiredBhava as the ascendant for that purpose. Here we have'tofollow the method given by S-hlipAti for arriving at the longi-tudes of the Bhavas. Personally we follow the equal housesystem, where the degree ascending at birth is the first orbeginning degree; the other bhavas fall at equal intervals ofthirty degrees. In the illustration we have given the longi'tudes of the Bhavas as per Shripati.

(vii) Ptanetar5r Avasthas

There are many precious gems in our astrological textswhlch throw conslderable llght on the nature of the resultsglven by planets. By lgnoring these, the astrologer givesfaulty predictions for which the great science of astrotogygets the blame. Here we wish to draw the attention of th-estudents of astrology to one factor.

Our texts speak of the avasthas of planets like Shayana,upaveshana, netrapani etc. These are twelve in number.These arise from the longitude of the planet. For makingaccurate predictions, a knowredge of avasthas is necessarv.This knowledg€ will enabre us to find the differences in theresults experienced by twins or by persons born at thesame time, place and date. Thus benefics in the cheshtastate in the shayana and nidra avasthas located in the fifthhouse cause more harm to children; and malefics in thesame position and in the same avastha wilt give children.

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M.roTEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIFTC T{INDIJ ASTROLOOY

These avasthas are explained in Adbhuta sagara. JatakaParijata. Sanketanidhi and other works.

To find out the avastha of a planet, the method to befollowed is given below:

First take the number of the planet whose avastha is tobe found out. The order follows the week days and thenRahu and Ketu. Next, find out the number of the constella-tion counted from Ashvini. Multiply one with the other.Thus, if we need to know the avastha of Saturn, he is theseventh. Assume Saturn is in Purvaphalaguni star which iseleventh from Ashvini. The product of the two is Z7. Thenmultiply this by the degree occupied by the planet at birth.If Saturn is at l8o 8'., we multiply 77 by 19 and get 146J.

To this total we have to add the following numbers. Firstthe number of the constellation (from Ashwini) occupied bythe Moon at birth; next the number of the ascendantcounted from Mesha; then note the number of ghati at birthfrom sunrise. For example, let these three be 22, 12, and12. These come to 46. Adding this to the previous total of1463 we get 15O9. Divide this total by 12 and the remain-der gives the avastha from the first. The twelve avasthas

l. Shayana, 2. Upaveshana, b. Ne#AFefrt-lf-Ffi 58-a.5. Camana, 6. Agamana, T. Aasthani, also called SabhayamVasati, 8. Aagama, 9. Bhuji or 6holana, lO. Nritya lipsa,I l. Kautuka, and 12. Nidra. In the example given above theremainder is nine which is Bhojana.

Next, we have to multiply the above remainder by itself.In our example we get 81. To this add the number of theinitial letter of the person's name. The numbers of theletters are :

3 i , i h . , 6 , g , q , \ q - + l

E € , q , 6 , q , R q - L 2

3, TI, q, n, q, c, s -t3

ggz ,s ,s , \g - r4

. i l , qa ,q ,g€ , t t s

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SOME PBOBLEMS 211

Assuming the first letter of the name gives four, we get85 (81 plus 4). Divide this by three and the remainder givesthe rs are calledl. Drishti, 2. Cheshta, and hta. our example 85

gives one asthe rema . Thus Saturn isin the condition of drishti in bhojana avastha. Thus we haveto calculate for all planets.

Sanketa Nidhi observes : Multiply the remainder indi-cating the avastha by itself. Thus in our example we get81. To this add the number of the initial letter of the nameof the person concerned. We got 85 in our example. Thisis to be divided by twelve. The remainder is one. To thisadd the kshepa of the planet concerned and divide it bythree. The remainder indicates l. drishti, 2. cheshta and 5.vicheshta. The kshepas of the planets from the Sunonwards are 5, 2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 3, 4, and 4. Thus in ourexample we divide 85 by twelve and get l. Saturn's Kshepais three. Add this to the remainder one we get four. Dividingthis by three we get one; and the condition of the avastha isDristhi.

(viii) Moods and States

There are certain states of planets which most of usfail to consider and apply in the interpretation of a chart, Ofthe four types of these states, we are familiar with two. Tbg-

mudita, shanta, shakta, na. khala

these I O avasthas, i,ve have the states -,u(Ar(4-i

t- ca-iiEfElilJumara, vuva, vriddha and mrita. These area- -a : : - : - ; i ^^u . . , ^ r . ^G. . r -^ - -lnrqr .

dreaminq, and sleeoinqolanets. These are of vital siqnificance. These explain theplanets. These are of vital significance. These explain the

W-ffi€r"nces in the results experienced by twins, and bypersons born at the same time, date and latitude. Thesedifferneces arise from the differences in the states of theplanets. Thus a benefic in a cheshta mood of the statescalled shayana or nidra and occupying the 5th house does

harm to children; but a malefic in the same situation does

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212 TDXT BOOK OF SCIENTTnIC TTINDIJ ASTROLOOY

good to one's chidren. llere we may also note a fifth varietywhich speaks of the state calledJajjita, garvita, kshudhita,

fryniru, mudita and kshobhita. (9

UrlAdbhuta Sagara, Sanketa nfrdhi and other works givedetailed accounts of the results to be predicted on the basisof these avasthas. A brief summary of these results is nec-€ssary to appreciate the value of the various states in whicha planet is found. The numerals refer to the state countedfrom Shayan. The results will manifest more clearly duringtheir periods.

The Sun : (l ) Ulcer in the anus, pain in the chest, biliouscomplaints; (21 depraved and hostile, poverty; (5) happi,ness and wealth from those in authority; (4) generous,happy, attains a good position; (5) lazy, wicked and full ofanger; (6) loose morals, wicked and reviled; (7) helpful,possesses property, good nature, high status ; (8) lean,overcome by enemies, fickle-minded, lascivious; (9) wor-ries, evil mind, loss of wealth, misery; ( I O) happy, re-spected; (ll) overcomes enemies and achieves honour;(12) loss of wife, health, house.

The luloon r (l) Dull, poor; (2) becomes a thief due tovidhi karma; (5) sickness, harsh in speech, (4) favoured bysuperiors for his good qualities, happy; (5) eye complaints;(6) ailment in the legs, poor if it is the waning Moon,.(7) loose morals, holds power; (8) does no good if born inthe bright fortnight, and suffers il l-health if born in the darkfortnight: ( I I ) becomes wealthy, holds power, clever, volup-tuous if bright fortnight; (12) commands honour and re-spect if the Moon is with Jupiter; and the opposite if he iswith Rahu.

Mars: (l) Suffers herpes and itches; (2) wealthy, sinful,perverted; (5) if Mars is not in Lagna, becomes the ruler ofthe city; (4) if he is not in the 5th and if he is with Jupiter,he becomes the head of an inst i tut ion; (5) quarrels,dangers, troubles; (6) subdues foes with effort, has newfriends and happiness; (7) if Mars is in the 5th, the 9th orthe l2th, no happiness; and if in other houses, achieves hisgoals; (8) evil-minded, sinful, and sickly; (9) strong, wicked,

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SOME PBOBLEMS 213

glutton; (lO) happy; (ll) if Mars is exalted, has wealth,friends and children; (12) becomes hot-tempered, poor,impure, distressed.

Mercury; ( I ) Crippled; if he is not in Lagna, one has redeyes, and becomes mean; (2) if he is exalted or in Lagnaowned by a friend, prosperity; and if such a Mercury isaspected by or conjoined with a malefic, poverty; (5) if the5th, fickle-minded, intelligent, authority, loss of happiness,no children; (4) learned, destroys the wicked, is full ofkindness, fortunate and virtuous; (5) happiness throughsuperiors; (6) domestic pleasures and happiness; (7) if ex'alted, full of happiness; (8) has two children and becomesfamous; (9) quarrehsome, mischievous, emaciated and dan-ger from superiors; ( I O) if Mercury is in l,agna or the 9th, all-round happiness; if in the 7th or the 8th, loose morals andpoverty; (12) sorrow, hunger, hatred, unhappiness, lossesthrough relatives.

Jupiter : ( I ) Weak constitution, pale-red colour, afraid ofenemies; (2) talkative, very intelligent, trouble from superi-ors and ulcers; (5) sickly, loss of wealth, loose morals;(4) noble, worships Vishnu, wealthy; (5) learned, many good

friends, prosperous, has children, famous, good qualities;(6) lo,ig-standing wealth; (7) highly learned, wealthy, dis-turbed mind; (8) head of a department or a section,honoured, many relatives, dependants and servants, happy;(9) good food, happy relatives; (lO) spiritual, corpulent;(l I ) corrrpassionate, wealthy and respected; (12) perverted,poor and vicious.

Venus ; (l) Tooth-ache, wicked through anger; (2)

honour from authorities; (5) if in the 6th, the 7th' the lOth,

loss of eyesight; (4) if exalted or a friendly house, becomes

a master or head of the section or department; (5) differ-

ences with rnother and is sickly; (6) rich, energetic, hapPyand firm-minded; (7) has great power or authority, defeats

enemies, becomes famous; (8) loss of wife, children and

health, illness; (9) suffers from hunger, disease and foes,

wealth through a woman; (lO) intelligent, wealthy, ProsPer-ous; (ll) great, wealthy, respected; (12) deaf, dumb,despised.

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214 TEXT BOOI( OF SCIENTIFIC IITNDU ASTROLOGY

Saturn ; (l) Subject to hunger, thirst, labour and dis-eases in the early period of life but happy at the end; (2)arrogant, persecution, imprisonment; (J) consumption,power, authority; (4) devoted to Shiva, has good qualities, isintelligent, of a forgiving type, happy, sainily; (5) authority,happiness, wealth; (6) sickly, away from children and rela-tives, roaming; (7) shines in life; (8) il l-health, dull witted,contemptible and loss of happiness; (9) good food, eyetroubles; (lO) wealth, charitable deeds; (l l) loves danceand music; (12) unique personality, happiness.

Rahu; (l) If Rahu is in the lst, the 2nd, the 5rd, the 6thopulent; in other signs troubles; (2) penniless, herpes; (J)danger through thieves, reptiles, foes, eye-disease; (4) fa-mous, good nature, wealthy, lucky, dark nature; (5) happy,intelligent, possesses children, honoured by superiors; (6)loses love, ill-health, angry temper; (7) learned, wealthy,miserly, has good qualities; (8) differences from relatives,fall from position; (9) separation from relatives, hunger,timid, poor; (lO) eye trouble, danger from enemies, sick-ness, mentalaberration; (l l) loose morals, thief; (12) goodwife and children, intelligent, wealthy. These resutts willhold good of Ketu also.

The actual position of the planet modifies these results.Once again we repeat that the degree rising at birth is thefirst and important degree of the Lagna. Dxactly after l50 isthe midpoint of the Bhava. The next house rises at the samedegree as the Lagna. The results of these states get modi-fied by the moods in which the planets are located.

(ix) Graha Samaya

There are some methods in our texts by which we canInfer the kind of results that a planet can give in its majorand minor periods. One such is known as graha samaya -the time and nature of a planet. There are twenty sevensuch samayas, each having its own nature.

We explain the method. First, find the number of thelagna, counting from Mesha or Aries. If the ascendant isPisces, the number is twelve. Next, count the number from

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SOME PROBLEMS 215

Aries to the sign occupied by the planet whose samaya isrequired. For example, we want to know the nature ofSaturn who is in Leo. This is the fifth from Aries. Multiplythese two. Our example gives sixty. Then this number is tobe multiplied by the number of years given to the con-cerned planet in Vimshottari. Saturn has nineteen years.Multiplying sixty by nineteen we get I l40. Now divide thisnumber by twenty seven and take only the remainder. Ourexample gives six as the samaya of Saturn. The resultsindicated by the remainder have a technical name followedby the nature of the period of the planet concerned. We givethem below:-

l. Snana (bathing) - Courage.

2. Vastra dharana (wearing clothes)- exercising poweror authority.

5. Tilaka dharana (having a mark on the forehead) well-being.

4. Japa (Prayher)- Conquest of enemies.

5. Shiva Puja (worship of Shiva) - tlappiness.

6. Upasana (worship )- Sorrow.

7. Vishnu Puja (Worship of Vishnu)-Victory.

8. Brahmana Puja (worship of Brahmanas) - acquisitionof property,

4 g. n.-askara (Bowing) - well-being.

*lO. Adripradakshina (circum-ambient of a hill)- Poverty.

L ll. Vaishvadeva (a ritual of the universal deity) - Unhapprness.

Ln. ntini Puja (worship of the guest) - Pleasures.

l- tS,, Bhojana (Feasting) - Luxuries.

,44.)viOva Prasanga (lnvolved in studies) - Scholarship.\-J

r-^ 15. Akrosha (anxious cry or apPeal) - Vices.

A- 16. Tambula (Taking betal leaf) - tlappiness fromwomen.

' 17. Raja Vilasa Sthita (state of having royal pleasures ) '

Victory.

56

7e

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216 TEXT BOOI{ Of SCIENTIFIC IIINDU ASTAOLOOY

\ L/ 18. Kirita dharana (wearing a crown) - Happiness, ridingan elephant.

19. Jalapana (taking water) - Happiness.

20. Alasya (delay, laziness) - Great fear.

2L. Shayana (lying down)-Devoid of luck or fortune.

22. Amritashana (eating the food of the gods) Content-edness.

25. Qandha pushpa adyabharana (having the decora-tion of sandal paste, flowers and the like) - Acquisi-tion of an estate).

24. Stri Sanlapa (company of women) - pleasures.

25. Bhoga (Enjoyment) - Acquiring wife and children.

26. Nidra (sleep) - loss of pleasures.

27. Ratnapariksha (Examining precious stones) - Acqui-sition of wealth.

The samayas are of great help in determining the gen'eral nature of the results a planet can give.

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T5Predictive Methods

I

f n the predictive science, we come across many methcidsI or techniques (Paddhatis). Traditionally speaking, wehave the Paddhatis given by ?arashara, Jaimini, and theauthors of the Tajaka. Each has many subdivisions. Atlthese subdivisions are present in the system of Parashara.From Ptolemy onwards, the West has given us somePaddhatis which are conveniently grouped under the labelof Progression. This progression again can be primary, sec-ondary, or tertiary. The Indian system gives the solar returnPaddhati, the Vimshottari Paddhati and so on. One is atliberty to reject any of these Paddhatis or all. But such arejction must be backed by experimental data. Moreover,the framework of the science cannot be altered by us. Thereare infinite possibilities within the framework handed downby our tradition, and because of the possibilities any adjust-ment can be made.

Some decades back, Mr. Copalakrishna Rao (Meena)published three small volumes entitled Nadi Jyotisha. l'lerehe did advance a theory according to which the nature of aplanet along with what it can do is transformed to someextent by the lord (according to the Vimshottari sysLem) ofthe constellation in which it is located. He did provide somegood examples. His Paddhati appears to be implicit in thepredictive principle that all prediction has to be made withreference to the sign occupied by the Moon, or the signoccupied by the Sun, or the sign rising at the moment of

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218 TDXT BOOK Of SCIENTTnIC TITNDU ASTROLOOY

birth, whichever is the strongest on the basis of the Shad-bala-sadhana. If in a given chart the Ascendant happens tobe the strongest one may, at one's own experimental risk,calculate the periods as per the Vimshottari system. Thiscan be understood. ile was just experimenting without ig-noring the traditional methods of interpretation.

Any astrological method or technique will have toreckon with a few facts. The first one is the precise value ofAyanamsa. The value here is not a piece of private property.It has to refer to a fact. This fact must be the date when thefixed and moving zodiac coincided. Dr. B.V. Raman and Mr.N.C. Lahiri give the years 597 A.D. and 285 A.D. respec-tively. There are good authorities to support them. Thecorrectness of the date depends on actual experiential veri-fication. In our country we are fortunate in that the value ofthe Ayanamsa goes by the name of the Siddhanta thatpropounds it. No proper names of persons should get intothis. Dr. Raman's f igure is the one given by SuryaSiddhanta.

The next factor is the one involving the division of thehouses. tlere it should be made clear that the Tables of

wthe method of Placidus. Merely because these tables arereadily available, it does not mean they are valid. Ourtraditional method was that of Shripati which trisects thedistance between the AscendafrI-ii?lThe meridian. So farwe haven't come across any strong arguments against thismethod. Further, it should be clear that if the degree of theAscendant is the first point of the Lagna, the degree of themeridian must be the first point. In other words the cuspaldegrees must refer to the starting@s.

itworks very well in actual practice. The validity of anymethod or system depends on this important factor.

Now let us turn to some methods that are in voguetoday. One is the method of'Meena. Consider a chart with260 Pisces rising, while Saturn is situated on the l8o Leo.Saturn is in the constellation Poorvaphalguni which in theVimshottari system, has the Dasa of Venus. Now Saturn in

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PNDDICTIVE METTTODS 219

the house of the Sun has his nature qualified by the owner-ship of the houses he has, by the 6th house position, by theSun, and by the nature of Venus. But if one has to reckon allthis, then why should we stop there ? l,ogic demands thatwe look to Venus, the house he owns and the house he isin. This shows Venus in Scorpio, the 9th house, on 29o. Butthis reveals that the nature of Venus is transformed partlyby Mars and partly by Mercury who rules Jyeshta occupiedby Venus. Then look into Mercury. tle is in the I Oth houseon 29o and so he is qualified by Jupiter and the Sun. Thenturn to the Sun, dear reader, and he is in Capricorn on 80.Then the Sun is governed by himself and by Saturn. Thus amere look at Saturn lands us in a stupendous job. And welearn that the results given by Saturn are those of Saturn'astransformed by the Sun, Mars, Venus, Mercury and Jupiter.Are we any better ? lt is futile to say that Saturn gives onlythe result of Saturn'Sun-Venus. The same logic is so relent-less as to drag us on to the very end. Moreover, this methodhas an interesting feature. It needs a separate treatment.

The results given by a planet are governed by the own-ership and location of the planet concerned, besides theaspects on it. Now the method under consideration asks usto look into the constellation occupied by the planet. Thisconstellation in the Vimshottari system is ascribed to thedasa of a prticular planet. Now this method wants us to findout the lord of the Dasa indicated by the constellationoccupied by the planet under consideration. This is objec-tionable. This is because the Vimshottari Dasa is one appli-cable at the starting point. For that, you note the constella-tion in which the Moon was at the time of birth and then youcalculate the balance of the major period at the time ofbirth. If you find the l,agna to be more powerful, you may,at your risk, take the constellation covered by the Ascen-dant and calculate the balance of the major period. Afterthis, you have no option in the traditional system. Thevarious periods follow in the order in which they are laiddown. Thus, if you begin with the major period of the Moon,you proceed through Mars, Rahu, Jupiter Saturn. Mercuryand so on in this order. In one method we are told that theorder of the Dasa is the same as that laid down by?arashara; but the antardasas or sub-periods are those

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indicated by the exact location of the planet concerned.Thus, if in the example, the native had the Dasa of the Moonat first, the next one is that of Mars for seven years. ButMars being in Libra 5o 25', we have to say that this indi-vidual ',rrill have the sub-period of Venus in Mars as the firstone. This is because each constellation is sub-divided intonine parts, each part being equal to its number of yearsdivided by 12O (Yide Nadi Jyotisha by Meena). So won't Ihave the full seven years of Mars ? I don't know. But thelogic of the method must give an affirmative answer. Thenapplying the same logic, one can argue that this sub'periodof Venus in Mars must be for full seven years! Since theplanet at the moment of birth was at that point, this must bethe logical conclusion. This theory will land us in impossiblesituations.

There is no sure method of timing the events save theVimshottari system as given to us by the traditional texts.This does not mean lhat I have to interpret Saturn in theexample in isolation from the constellation. It only meansthat I should not minimise the strength or power of Saturnhimself. When the native had the sub-period of Venus inRahu (who was on 29o in Libra), he had a very good, saybrilliant, educational and literary cz.reer. The sub-period ofthe same in Jupiter (who is on22o Cancer) brought him intothe limelight but gave him a severe disappointment. How dowe run after the paradox here ? Rahu is in Vishakha andJupiter in Ashlesha. That does not explain. Rahu is in thehouse of Venus, and Venus is aspected by Jupiter. Here youdo have an explanat ion. Venus and Rahu have theDvirdvadasa position which is not a good one. But Jupiter-Venus relationship here is peculiar. It has little to do withtheir constellations. For, they are in the constellations as-cribed to Mercury; and yet Mercury seems to be innocent ofthe results. Again, the sub-periods of Mercury in Rahu, Jupi-ter and Saturn have been bad for him. The system we areexamining can offer no explantion. Traditional texts tell uJlthat the nature of the sub-period is to be determined by the Ilocation of that planet with reference to the location of the Iplanet whose major period is running. There can be no Iother golden rule than this. -/

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PAEDTCTIVE METIIODS 221

We are convinced that the traditional system of astrol-ogy is the only proper astrological technique. It has stoodthe test of the centuries. It is elastic and flexible. The truthsthat constitute the foundation of this system have beendiscovered or intuited in the past. These are unalterable.They are unalterable because they have been proved to betrue. If they are true, we cannot ignore them if we areinterested in the accuracy of predicting. When the seerswho founded our science of astrology lived and instituted,life may not have been as complex as it is today. Yet thenew factors that have cropped into our modern complexcivilization can be given a place within the framework of thetraditional system. This in itself is the richest tribute that.wecan pay to the ancients.

Western astrology has a variety of methods to calculatethe cups. No one can tell us that this or that method aloneis correct. tnspite of all the criticism, it appears that thePlacidian method is popular with experienced astrologers.The method of Porphyry is c od ofcorn_puting_Bhaygs. Moreover, western astrologers are notagreed as to whether a cuspal degree is the initial point orthe middle point of a Bhava. Here again, Indian astrologyhas a sounder tradition which enables us to calculate thebeginning, the middle and the end points of any Bhava.Those interested in this aspect of the question may refer toany standard book on Hindu Mathematical Astrolory.

ITindu Predictive Astrologt has given rise to many agreat classics. One of these is the Phaladeepika ofMantreshwara. ln this book the fifteenth chapter is entitled'Jataka Phala Sara Bhuta Bhava Chinta'. It is an enquiry intothe nature of the Bhavas or cusps which alone reveal theessential effects or results. In other words, the study ofBhava is taken by Mantreshwara to be the basic foundationof predictive astrology. By rejecting the Rasi and by accept-ing Bhava as the unit, Mantreshwara advises Western prog-nosticators and their Indian counterparts on a basic tenet ofHindu Predictive Astrolgoy. Mr. Nixon, we are confident, willrevise his judgment on this question.

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The Rasi is taken into consideration to examine thenature of the Sign in relation to the nature of the Bhava, andto find out the strength of a planet posited therein. Thusexaltation, debilitation, friendly or inimical or neutral hous-es, and other factors are studied from the Ascendant andyet it may actually be the third or fifth Bhava. ThenMantreshwara asks us to rely only on the Bhava.

The very f i rst verse of the f i f teenth chapter ofMantreshwara's text draws a useful distinction between theBhava and the Sign. This verse can thus be rendered:

crqr: qt {qcfrgdr dttrar er Etlr-Rll-frttfl: {ltfiEitFTKI: qrT5r*rIl-f{r. I

crqr: €{ rrmq-aqr}f<Ee{s

" d)' q{' T{wefrq deqaRdi: rr"All Bhavas are capable of giving rise to the full their

good results if they are aspected or occupied by benefics orby their own lords, or by those owning benefic Bhavas,provided they have no association with any malefic. Thesame result will follow in the case of malefics, if these arethe owners of the concerned Bhavas. The benefic effectswill arise if the planets do not occupy their depression orinimical Signs". This is a clear statement of the positionaccepted in flindu Astrolory. The Sign is other than theBhava.

Next Mantreshwara proceeds to give us valuable infor-matiori-d[io@ A Bhava is strong andbeneficial if the trines and squares and the second fromthat Bhava are occupied by the benefics or by the lord ofthat Bhava. If the lord of a Bhava occupies 6, 8 or 12, or iscombust, or is in a depressed or inimical house, and if thereis no counter-balancing force, then that Bhava will suffer. ABhava suffers if the Bhava, its lord and its karaka are weakand are between malefics, or are associated only withmalefics. lf the 4, A, 12,5 and t houses from the Bhava areoccupied by malefics, the result will be the same.

The seventh verse of the chapter is more emphaticabout the importance of Bhava, as against that of the Sign.

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PREDTCTTVE METTIODS 223

nets that cause the malefic results of a

Bl_rava during theirj (ii) the lord of the 22nd

Or e Planets in 6, T and S

r;ffi1\_WIn the thirteenth verse we are told that : "a planet may

be exalted or may be in a friendly Sign and endowed with all

the six kinds of strength. Yet if it is in a Bhavasandhi(towards the fag end or in the very beginning of a Bhava), it

is powerless". The ptanet that occupies the exact cuspal

degree brings forth the full effect of the Bhava concerned'.In any other degree, its strength is to be determined by thesimple rule of three.

Verses like these are too many. All the thirty verses'of

this chapter ask us to consider the Bhavas alone. The six-

teenth chapter is devoted to a survey of the results given by

the twelve Bhavas. Towards the end of this chapter we are

asked to 'find out the Rasi and Amsa occupied by the lord

of the Bhava concerned; when Jupiter transits a trine to this

Rasi or Amsa, the benefic effect of this Bhava will be

realised".

ln the twenty-third chapter, while discussing the effects

of the planetary transits, Mantreshwara takes into consider-

ation only the Bhavas. Thus the fifteenth verse declares: "lf

there are many planets simultaneously transiting through a

Bhava which contains a majority of benefic dots, they pro-

mote the interests of that Bhava".

In the sixth chapter, Mantreshwara refers to the Yoga

caused by the mutual exchange of the Bhavas by their

lords, not that of the signs by their lords. The twelve yogas

beginning with Chamara are specifically stated to refer to

the Bhavas alone.

The very first chapter of the work has a significant verse

at the beginning. The third verse states:

'The Bhavas and the strength of the planets should be

investigated and through them the effects should be

judged';. Here is a directive issued not merely for the Indian

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224 TEXT BOOI{ OF SCIENTInIC ITINDU ASTBOLOOY

astrologer, but for any scientific astrologer. This view is notpeculiar to Mantreshwara alone; for it is basic to all thegreat Indian authorities on the subject.

The Placidian (or Porphyry) cusps seem to be practicailythe same as the midpoints of the Bhavas of Indian astrologi-cal texts. This factor led our traditional authorities to relatethe Sign to the Bhava, and to emphasize the value of thepreceding and succeeding Signs in estimating the nature ofthe Bhava concerned.

The Jaimini system does not, however, appear to attachimportance to Bhava; and by its very nature, it needs noconsideration of the Bhavas. In later times, some astrolo-gers, out of their unwillingness to calcualte the Bhavas,began to predict entirely on the basis of the Sign positions;and this has become fashionable to such an extent thatthere is today some unfortunate opposition to the consider-ation of the Bhava positions. It is quite likely that theseastrologers have given the false impression that Hindu as-trologr pays no attention to the Bhavas. That this is adangerous popular fallacy will be evident to any one ac-quainted with the flindu tradition of predictive astrology.The confusion between Sign and Bhava has resulted indangerous consequences. When the principles, which aremeant to be applied to the Bhavas, are applied to the Signs,the predictions are bound to go false; and then the enemiesof astrology claim to score a point against astrologers,though they actually score a point over the spurious astrolo-ger alone.

l. Saturn is the significator of gains (25,56). Expensesfor bad causes come under the Sun, and for good purposesunder Jupiter(57). Though the Sun is the significator for theday born and Saturn tbr the night-born (52\, trlercury issaid to be the karaka for the father in general (58), Mercuryand the third house rule the throat or neck (Kantha) (19),diseases come under the Moon (28).

2. Even if the Moon becomes a great malefic, he func-tions like Jupiter when aspected by the latter (61).

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PREDICTIVE METNODS 225.

5. In predicting the results to be given by a planet, themost important factor is its ownership; the next in impor-tance is its placement, and the last alone refers to itssignificatorship (92, l5B). We seem to give great impor,tance to the last factor.

Venus - Truthful speech, eyes (lB), mother for the day-born'(22), fortune, pilgrimages (52) expenditure (l b6), prof-i t and loss (157) .

Saturn - brothers (156).partner and fortune 157.

4. Kemadruma arisesta) When a lord of the ninth is inthe twelfth, when the weak lord of the twelfth is in thesecond, and when a malef ic is in the third (162). In themajor periods of these planets there will be mental aberra-t ions, loss of catt le, and losses in agricul ture (165).(b) There is kemadruma also when an egual number ofmalefic planets are in the second and eighth from lagna andarudha lagna; more so when they are aspected by the Moon(293,294).

5. A retrograde malefic gives only middling results in hisperiod (166).

6. The sixth lord or the planet in the sixth combinedwith others indicates the ailments related to the variousparts of the body. Sun-head; Moon-face; Mars-stomach;Mercury-heart; Jupiter-the part below the navel; Venus*eyes; Saturn-feet; Rahu or Ketu-stomach, wounds oru lcers (198, 199) .

7. According to Parasara, says the author, short life is upto 43 years, medium life upto eighty years, and long lifeextends to a hundred years (379/3BOj.

8. If the eighth lord is the significator of longevity, or ifthis significator (Saturn) is with the lord of the eighth, thenative has medium life, the upper limit of which is eightyyears t4O5).

9. In the major period of the Moon the first and the lastyears are troublesome. Similarly the major period of Rahusituated in Capricorn is a difficult one (559).

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lO. Rahu in the second indicates loss of wealth. Theassociation of Mars or Ketu with the twelfth suggests fearfrom fire (541).

These and other interesting details found in this textthrow fresh light on the interpretation of the charts.

These are verses explaining, some of the intricate prin-ciples of Jaimini's system as well.

The interpretation of a horoscope depends upon aproper interpretation of the nature of a planet and of thehouse in which it is situated in a given map. For a proper

assessment one should calculate the six-fold strength of theplanets and the strength of the Various houses. Apparentlythe planets and the houses may aPpear to be good or bad;

but after calculating the actual strength of the houses and

the planets, one will have a definite idea.

In order to interpret the nature of the results of theptanets, one has to consider their Bhava positions after

asceftaining their relative strength and weakness'

There is an unfortunate dispute amongst astrologers

regarding the precise meaning of the term Bhava or cusp.

Some take it to be the starting point, while others consider

It to be the midpoint. Following the tradition and consider-ing our experience, we are compelled to treat the degree on

the cusp or Bhava as the first point of the house. Our

.preliminary principles are drawn mostly from Mantreshwarawith modifications.

A Bhava gives good results if it is occupied or aspected

by a benefic or by its own lord, or by the owner of a benefic

house, provided it has no kind of association with a malefic.This general statement needs qualification. lt does not ap-ply to a benefic aspecting from the degree of his debilitation

or from an inimical sign.

When the trines and angles or cusPs are aspected by

natural benefics or by the benefics of the chart con-

cerned, without any malef ic associat ion, that house

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PREDICTTVE METTTODS 227

becomes strong and highly effective. ln chart No. I wefind two powerful malefics in the 7th and lOth houses; and

\scdt .15oVenus 9P Jup. 25o Moon 21o

CHART No. t

Merc.Sun 29P

Sat. 160 Mars 13o

they are more or less on the same degree as the ascendant.This individual poisoned many persons and was finally exe-cuted. All the angles are marred in this case. Moreover,Mars has a square aspect on Saturn.

If the lord of a Bhava happens to be in the 6th, 8th orl2th house from that Bhava, or if he is in a depression oran inimical sign, the results will not be benefic. Thisprinciple has to be modified considerably when such aplanet is associated with or aspected by a benefic, or isexalted.

Chart No. 2 provides a good illustration. flere the lord ofthe ascendant is in the eighth, and the lord of the eleventh

Ascdt. 50 Ketu 14o

Venus 1fCHART No. 2

Bom on25.12jffi1

Merc. 30Sun 13o

Rahu 14o Mars 20iaturn 2$Jup. 60

Moon 18o

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is in the eighth from that. It was mostly in Saturn's period andlater that he worked and established one of our very bestUniversities.

A Bhava becomes useless when it, its lord, and itssignificator are not strong and when they are associated withmalefics only. This is a simple and self-evident principle.

The lord of the 8th house from a Bhava, the lord of the22nd drekkana from that cusp, and those situated in the 6th,8th and 12th houses from that Bhava are likely to give mateficresults as far as that Bhava is concerned. But malefics in the5rd, 6th and I lth houses and benefics in the trines and anglesof a bhava will bring about favourable results.

The cusp where the lord of the ascendant is positedbecomes stronger for good or evil. Cenerally such a planetproves favourable to the house he is in. This provides a keyto the entire nativity.

In any period of a planet, the results of his ownershipof a moolatrikona house are felt in full. The first half of theperiod will give the results of the ownership of the house thatcomes first as we proceed counting in a given map. Somehold the view that a planet in an odd sign will give firstthe results of his ownership of the odd house.

A planet in a bhava-sandhi, in the point when one houseends and another begins, is powerless.

The significators of the various bhavas, beginning with theascendant, are: (i) Sun, (ii) Jupiter, (ii i) Mars, (iv) Moon andMercury, (v) Jupiter, (vi) Mars and Saturn, (vii) Venus, (viii)

Saturn, (ix) Sun and Jupiter, (x) Jupiter, Sun, Mercury andSaturn, (xi) Jupiter, and (xii) Saturn.

These principles provide a general framework in attempt-ing a tolerably correct interpretation of a chart. But in enunci-ating these principles, we have included the principle

of aspects without explaining i t . In what fol lows we

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PBEDICTTVE METHODS 229

propose to take up one planet for a critical examination,and to study its influence in the light of a certain horoscope.For obvious reasons, we begin with the first outer planet,Mars.

Authorities are not quite unanimous in their accountsregarding Mars. This planet confers leadership, impulsivenature, ingenuity, aggressiveness, passion and the like. lthas something to do with shrewdness, determination, di-rectness, secrecy, dynamism and loyalty. In other words,the two signs owned by Mars seem to represent two aspectsof this planet. Physical energy and achievement, ambitionand satisfaction, ability to improvise on the spot and to betenacious, stoical and enduring, passionate attachment andsincerity are some of the features denoted by the two signs.Mars can and does confer ability for pioneering, great forti-tude and high ambitions; and at the worst he does makeone a blustering, self-centered, hot-tempered, and excitableindividual. Not only can he make one courageous and re-sourceful, but vindictive. Mars indicates the ability to fightthe way through life.

When Aries is very strong or dominant, we find one"forging his way through life with courage, daring, energyand initiative and enterprise". Referring to the third chart,we find that he is a pioneer whose life was guided by asingle definite goal. He was always plain and direct, unableto use subtlety, though he was incisive. The third chart is:

\scdt. 130Sat. 40 Rahu 250

CHART No. 3Born on

' t4.1 1.1908Moon 1@

Ketu 25oMerc. 30Sun 22o

Mars 23oVenus 24o

Jup. 1 10

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230 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIFIC MNDU ASTROI,OOY

more significant in other ways. This is Mac Carthy who wasassertive and aggressive and who cared precious little forthe feelings of others. Mars is within ten degrees of the cuspof the descendant; and the ascendant is subject to theSaturnine and Martian influences from either side. Thisaccounts for his foolhardiness and churlish behaviour, forhis egotism and pugnacity. Such an individual reveals histrue self in the most hazardous of undertakings.

A strong Scorpio, on the other hand, brings forth thestrange union of divergent trends in one's personality. Thenative appears to be at war within himself. There is anelement of privacy and secretiveness. The depth of thefeelings is striking here. One is passionately devoted to thecause he fights for,' and he detests what he cannot like. Thehidden depths and the passions can make him either a loftyindividual or a criminal. This dualism appears to be verystriking in Chart No. 4. Mars conjunction Jupiter is in good

Mars 18oJup. 25o

CHART No.4Born on

12 .1 .1893Balance Sat.11 monthsSun 1o

Venus 30Merc. 12o

Ascdt. 1o Moon 24o Sat. 21o

opposition to Saturn. The 5th house is made to bear thisbrunt. While Aries is ardent and forceful, this sign tends tobe deeply emotional. With a peculiar Mars, we find one withScorpio rising in strength betraying deep resentments, jeal-ousy and hatred of makind. In other words, Mars too has abenefic side besides his'malefic role. This is generally for'gotten.

The general characteristics of Mars have to be modifiedin the light of the nature of the sign he occupies, the

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PREDICTTVE METNODS 231

ter of the house he is located in, and the aspects hereceives. In Aries he makes one extremely assertive, ag-gressive and vigorous; one acquires organising capacity;he may become sensual,'he is powerful, inspiring, gener-ous and careful to the extreme. Mars in Taurus makes onepossessive and stubborn, and obstinately forceful; one isliable to be influenced by the opposite sex. In Gemini heexhibits a love of the family, artistic and scientific tastesand aptitudes, ambitions and rash adventures, ingeniousnature and tactlessnessi one becomes eneryetically talk-ative, or his force is frittered away. In Cancer he makesone strongly emotional and intuitive; the individual tendsto work for his family and home, at times such a Marsmakes one easily touchy.

lle can give surgical or medical skill, defective vision,and egoistic tendencies. In Leo there is a tendency to theoccult, a desire to study mathematics and astronomy,regard for the elders, original thinking, nobility and rest-lessness; one is endowed with creative ability and strongpurpose, or with a hot temper. In Virgo he makes onekeen about 'taking trouble in every minute detail '; onebecomes revengeful, self-conceited, selfconfident, indis-criminate, boastful and pretentious. In Libra Mars is ac-tive; the individual becomes ambitious and self-confi-dent; he has improved faculties of observation and un-derstanding, he has foresight,' he loves his family deeply,and is apt to be deceived by women; he is easily ruffled;his energy sways and he tends to quarrel with intimateones since such an individual is apt to love solitude. InScorpio we find deep and strong emotions and desires oran overstressed vengefulness; one is endowed with apowerful memory and the behaviour of a diplomat. InSagittarius the native is gentlemanly, open and frank,indifferent or exacting, impatient and quarrelsome; he isall out for far-flung ideas and for cheerful ways of enjoy-ment; he will be caustic in argument, boisterous andextravagant as well. In Capricorn he becomes vigorousand ambitious, plans systematically and works with suc-cess, and tends to care more for duty than for pleasure;h e i s g e n e r o u s , i n d u s t r i o u s a n d i n d e f a t i g a b l e ,

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bold and tactful, gallant and influential. In Aquarius onebecomes impulsive, combative and argumentative; he iscontemplative and thoughtful, and is quick in forgiving andforgetting; he is determined in self-freedom to pursue cho-sen ends; and he is endowed with a strong intelligence andscientific outlook. In Pisces one becomes selfless andselfsacrificing, having too many problems on hand; he isrestless, exacting and faithful.

These indications are to be modified by the house-position of Mars. In the lst house, the native shows greatenergy in tackling his personal affairs. He is at his best instarting new enterprises, and he is always active. In the 2ndhouse one is quarrelsome, extravagant and short'tempered;he becomes aggressive and unpopular; the powerful voicetends to become discordant. In the 5rd house one is keento work at educationdl and literary pursuits; and he is in-volved in troubles arising from his brothers and sisters; hebecomes courageous and intelligent, reckless and pioneer-ing. In the 4th house he offers an unhappy home, quarrelsand tyrannical behaviour; he struggles with energ5r andquickness. In the 5th one becomes fond of pleasures andgames; but that is only an exterior in some cases; thenative tends to be unprincipled, decisive, ambitious andpreserving. In the 6th one is successful in all his undertak-ings, though he is worried because of some near relations;he is intelligent and powerful; he does hard and unstintingwork and he expects the same thing from everybody else. Inthe seventh he is 'forceful in intimate relationships' and hispartner tends to be combative and yet not so in reality; onebecomes intelligent, tactless and stubborn with a fewidiosyncracies. In the eighth the native may have to dealwith the financial problems of others; he is deeply inter-ested in psychic matters, and in surgery and psycholog;i. Inthe ninth one has a fondness for travel, sport, and enjoy-ment; his interest in serious study gets deepened as headvances in years; he may be self-seeking; but he has anacute brain, and he is impetuous and logical' In the tenthone is a good founder or organiser of institutions, is ener-getic and adventurous; he is eager to get to the top and this

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,rit

PREDICTIVE METTIODS 233

makes him liable to suffer and cause harm to others. Inthe eleventh one exhibits a powerful mind which choosesa problem, and then he is at it systematically; he is quickto make friends, though he loses them equally quicklybecause of quarrelsomeness. In the twelfth he longs towork for the good of others; at times one acts secretly andin a harmful manner; one becomes capricious and way-ward, narrowminded and passionate, worried and despon-dent.

The next aspect of the problem refers to aspects. In thecase of Mars we have found conjunction, opposition,square, trine and quincunx aspects to be highly effective.Unlike a few astrologers we do not take an aspect to'begood because it is a trine or that it is bad because it is asquare. The nature of lhe aspect depends on the natures ofthe planets, signs and houses involved in any given horo-scope. As a result a trine aspect may really turn out to be aharmful one while a square may prove to be quite benefi-cial. This is particularly true of planets like Mars and Saturn.The foregoing two sets of indications are to be modified bythe results suggested by the aspects to be detailecl now.Here we have to note a few preliminaries' Any planet

aspected by the Sun gets strengthened and is active. Butone aspected by the Moon or by Mercury will tend to give

something to the Moon or to Mercury. A planet aspected byVenus becomes softened and harmonised. One aspectedby Mars is strongly enforced. One aspectecl by Jupiter ac-quires a wider scope and tends to become benefic. Saturn'saspect tencls to make it l imited and controlled in its sphereof activity. Moreover one should also note the things forwhich Yars is the significator.

The conjunction of Mars with the Sun reveals the native

to be hightly energetic in asserting himself; he becomes

strong, forceful, bold and hardworking; and he has an initia-

tive. He may do at times undesirable deeds. But the enrgy isgenerally revealed in intellectual spheres' The conjunctionindicates some physical injury' A good example is provided

by Lenin who had Sun and Mars conjunction within eight

degrees. Another is afforded by Dr. Pattabhi's chart where

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in Scorpio, in the 5th house, we find the conjunction of theSun with Mars and Mercury.

A favourable or benefic aspect between Sun and Marsonly intensifies these tendencies - Quick decision, alert-ness and ability are indicated. Personal dignity and self-control, patient, social endurance and the struggle for thewell-being of mankind are also suggested. There can be nobetter illustration than the fifth chart. There is a perfect trine

Jup. 20Venus 180

Ketu 15o

Ascd t . 160Sun 40

M.C .210

CHART No. 5furn on

12.2.1809Balance Sun63 monthsMoon 50

Sa t . 130Mars 60

Rahu 150

here between Mars and Sun, and the native struggled andshed his blood for maintaining the integrity and unity of hiscountry. Another illustration is provided by the sixth chart.

Sun 30M.C . 120Sat. 14o

y'enus 260

\scdt. 22'

Jup 70CHART No. 6

Born on14 .3 .1879BalanceMercury

95 months

Ketu 110

Mars 60Rahu 1 10

Moon 24o

This is the famous mathematical physicist who struggled forthe peace and well'being of man, besides revolutionising

{

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PRED]CTIVE METNODS 2s5

the concepts in the various sciences. tlere Mars is sextileSun. Another such sextile is offered by Tilak's map.

J u p . 1 9 0Moon 190Rahu 29o

Sa t . 17oM.C. 230

CHART No. 7Born on

23.7.1856

\scdl. 21(Sun 10o

/enus 1 1(

Mars 50

Ketu 29o

An unfavourable aspect between Mars and Sun bringsabout an overstrain, pugnacity and short temper. The per-son is easily excitable, and risks in his love of hazardousundertakings. He lacks an impartialjudgement; and he is onthe lookout even for an intellectual combat. The Duke ofWindsor has Mars Square Sun, while Mussolini's Sun issquare to Mars. These illustrations show that even anunfavourable aspect between Sun and Mars is not actuallya malefic one.

The conjunction between Mars and Moon makes onerobust, courageous and overactive. The native takes many

Ketu 14oSa t . 150

Moon 160It,lars 20P

Jup. 25oVenus

CHART No. 8Born on

29.7.1 883

SunMerc. 13o

Ascdt. 28oRahu 14o

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236 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIFTC IIINDU ASTROLOOY

risks. This is a healthy position for the two bodies, and theyconfer kindness and benevolence and a good combativespirit. The eighth chart shows Moon and Mars within fourdegrees only. This is the chart of one who ruled as a dicta-tor, and who yet retained a genial sense of humanity for along t ime.

The favourable aspects between Moon and Mars bringabout excellent physical and emotional strength and theability to work. The unfavourable aspect between these twomakes one moody or quarrelsome and violate the peace inthe home. There is a favourable square betweerl'the two inCandhi's horoscope, while an unflavourable trine exists inthe ex-Kaiser's nativity. The trine operates between the 6thand the lOth houses. The unfavourable aspect at timesbrinSp/ about self-indulgence, obstinacy and unhappy mari-tal relations.

The conjunction between Mars and Mercury makes themind forceful and incisive. One becomes an expert in de-bate and in every physical activity. The controversial anddisputative energies conferred by this conjunction makeone virile and aggressive, sincere and bold. Cicero was saidto have had this feature in his map. The ninth chart shows:

Ketu 20o Moon 27o Sat. 1o

CHART No. 9Born on

3.12.1884with Marsperiod for62 months Jup. 15o

\scdt. 260Mars 8oMerc. 60

Sun 21o Venus 150 Rahu 20P

Mars conjunction Mercury with opposition Saturn and trineJupiter. Starting from an humble career, participating in a

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PREDTCTIVE METNODS 237

number of movements for independence, arguing with andconvincing many he rose to the highest position in hiscountry. The tenth chart shows the favourable square be-tween Moon and Mars, and also Mars conjunction Mercury.The individual well i l lustrates the intellectual ability andearnestness with which he has been fighting for a goodcause.

Rahu 30oMoon 24oSa t . 10P

Jup .150

CHARTNo. 10

Sun 23o

Venus 20V e r c . 1 4 0Mars 21o

J u p . 1 3 0 Ketu 30o

A favourable aspect between Mars and Mercury accen-'tuates the qualities revealed by the conjunction. The nativebecomes powerful, courageous and enterprising. The men-tal faculties are invigorated; and he is alert and incisive. Thenative shines as a good author, and is fond of children. Hehas a fund of commonsense. In the sixth chart we find Marssextile Mercury. Mussolini has a similar placing. When asquare is formed from trines or angular houses and whenthese two planets acquire benefic vargas, even the squareappears to be a very favourable aspect.

The unfavourable aspect between Mars and Mercury iscapable of bringing about a nervous or mental breakdown,or at least a carping and satirical speech. In pronouncing anaspect to be unfavourable, one should carefully considerthe sign and house-positions and the ownerships of theseplanets. Czar Nicholas II has the lOth house Mercury squar-Ing Mars, Moon and Rahu in the Ascendant Leo. InQoering's chart we find the 2nd house Mercury squaring

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238 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIFTC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

Mars of the 5th house; and the effect is greatly reduced hereby Mars conjunction Jupiter with opposite Saturn.

A good deal of uneasy speculation hovers round theaspects between Mars and Venus. Curiously enough, theearth is situated in between these two planets; and theassociation of these two appears to present an ardentlypassionate temperament. By itself a conjunction or anaspect between these two does not indicate anythingimmoral. At best it reveals a taste for the fine arts. Theconjunction can result in a bereavement, say a seParationfrorn or the death of a child. The individual becomessensitive, easily irritable, sensuous and coarse; andttneenerg/ of Mars tends to be softened. Candhi has this con-junction in the ascendant. A woman who had a similarplaci4g is separated from her husband for no fault of herssincf, 1954. We do not know what happened to Bulganin,but he had this position in the 7th, while Hitler had it inthe 8th.

A favourable aspect between Mars and Venus bringsabout warmth and enthusiasm into one's behaviour to-wards all. If the two are well placed, avery happy family lifeis indicated. An unfavourable aspect makes one more sen-sitive and miserable; there is an absence of adjustabilityresulting in quarrels and absence of peace in the home.One becomes whimsical and at times cynical. Disraeli'sMars has a square aspect on Venus in Scorpio, whileMilton's Venus is sextile to Mars. In Stalin's chart, there isan exact opposit ion. Al l these have tended to beunfavourable.

A conjunction of Mars and Jupiter greatly increases thedormant enerS/ of the person. There is a desire for enjoy'ment, and yet one is highly active, courageous and argu-mentative. Ambitious and powerful one will be; and stil l he

will be outspoken. There is such a conjunction in Coering's

chart, though unfortunately it appears in the 6th house. But

in Shelley's chart, there is an exact conjunction in a good

house. The finest example is provided by 1lth chart; In the

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PREDICTIVE METTTODS 239

CHARTN o . 1 1Bom on5.9.1 888

with Ketu'speriod for

1 yeal

iaturn 23(Rahu 60

Ketu 300 Moon 12oSun 22o

Mars 40Jup. 8o Ascdt.

Merc. 20Venus 50

2nd house owned by by Mars, this conjunction takes place.Stafting with humble beginning the person rose to a.su-preme position of power and honour in academic circlesand in the political sphere. lle is one of the foremost phl-losophers of this century.

A favourable aspect between Mars and Jupiter accentu-ates the characteristics of the conjunction with an additionof gaiety. The individual appears to be the child of fortunein that many opportunities arise for him to reveal his energyand enthusiasm. In other words, Mars provides the energyfor the realisation of the characteristics revealed by Jupiter.One is apt to function with the zeal of a reformer. The tenthchart presents a favourable trine. The third chart shows thesextile.

The l2th chart reveals that opposition between Mars

{scdt .10o

Sun 18oRahu 1o

CHARTNo . 12Bom on

29.2.1 896with Venusperiod for27 months

Jup. 8o

Mars 50Venus 150Merc.22o

Ketu 10Voon 25o

Satum 27

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24(, TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTInIC TTINDU ASTROLOOY

and Jupiter is not favourable; and here it involves the 2ndand the 8th houses, though both are exalted. A similarunfavourable opposition appears in Gandhiji 's nativity.Such unfavourable aspects tend to extremist positions; andthe overstrain to which such individuals are put is fraughtwith grave results. The opposition brings forth an emotion-alistic approach to religious problems.

The conjuction of Mars with Saturn does not appear tobe quite good. The planet of energr cannot easily adjustwith the planet of limitation. The ordering of force andinitiative and the super-induction of caution and patiencq,do not enable Mars to function properly. Sometimes, ifthere is no alleviating influence, the conjunction does resultin physical suffering, worry, agony, loss and disappoint-ment. The 9th chart presents this unique conjuction in the8th house; and it is unrelieved. He was tortured and shotdead like a dog, even though he was a powerful dictator tillthen.

The favourable aspect between Mars and Saturn pre-sents the same features as the conjuction; but here thereare tolerable chances for a harmonious adjustment. Usuallythose who take up pioneering work and struggle arduously,are found to have these favourable aspects. They do notcare for personal comfort. One example is provided byChurchill 's chart where Mars is in trine and this is spoiltslightly because of the l2th house where Mars is situated.The trine in Lenin's chart is redeemed a little inspite of thesixth Mars because this sixth happens to be Aries. The thirdand the seventh charts present a very good sextile.

The unfavourable aspect indicates a hard struggle,physicaloverstrain, and sternness. It is often revealed in theform of self-discipline and austerity. This is particularly trueof opposition. It appears in the tenth chart, and in GuruNanak's nativity. The unfavourable aspect tends to produceshort periods of irritability, sudden enthusiasm, and restlessenergy. A fire accident cannot be ruled out. It is after a longstruggle that the individual achieves success.

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PREDICTTVE METIIODS 241

The association of Mars with Rahu does not alwaystend to be bad. In a majority of cases this conjunctionappears to be highly favourable for altruistic endeavoursand for great intellectual output. The person becomesan embodiment of a perpetually dynqmic energy; andthe results of this energy in the hands of others tend tolead to dangerous consequences. The seventh chart isa case in point. The sixth presents the conjunction inthe 9th house.

After having analysed the nature of the planet in thelight of these considerations; we have to determine thetime-factor. Here two ways are open to us. One method is torely on the Dasa system. In this we have to consider theresults that Mars gives; and if an individual is not going tohave the period of Mars, then we have to find the planets inwhose sub-periods the effects of Mars will be felt. Thismethod can be worked with success in close co-operationwith the method of progressing every cusp and every planetby about one degree per year.

Of all the things in astrology, the most difficult is inter-pretation. Mantreshwara and others have given us valuableprinciples of judgment.

Any house (bhava) will bring good results if it is occu-pied or aspected by a benefic, or its own lord, or oneowning a benefic house, and if it is free from any kind ofassociation with a malefic. 'Ihis principle takes into consid-eration not only a natural benefic but a planet that becomesa benefic by virtue of its ownership of houses in a givenchart. Thus Mars for Leo and Saturn for Taurus arebenefics, even if they are natural malefics. This result doeshold good for a malefic also if it is the owner of thehouse concerned. Negatively the house concerned mustnot be the debilitation sign, and the planet must not be inthe house of its enemy. The planet should not also beeclipsed.

This is a fundamental principle and a good deat of themisinterpretation of charts rests on failure to recognise the

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A" ' 242 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIFIC IITI{DU ASTROLOOY

Sat. 80Mars 160

Moon 10

CHARTNo. 1

Ascdt. 30

Jup.24o Merc. 30Venus 60

Sun 60

importance of this truth. The first chart shows the 7th houseunaspected by any. It has no association with any planet,benefic or malefic. The lord of the house is in conjunctionwith Mars and is aspected by the Sun; and Venus receivesthe aspect of Mars. These malefic associations are omi-nous; and note the isolation of the Moon too. It is notsurprising therefore that the native was strangled by herhusband.

A house is beneficial when the trines, squares and the2nd house from it are occupied by benefics including thelord of the house. These places must not be occupied oraspected by malefics for it is destructive if these places areoccupied or aspected by malefics. The second chart is thatof a great saint. From the ascendan[ only the 7th has a

Sa t .10o Jup. 90 Mars 14o Kelu 20

CHARTNo. 2

Vloon 20o

Rahu 20Sun 80

Merc. 15oVenus 23( Ascdt.19o

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PREDICTIVE METT]ODS 243

natural malefic that is a benefic to this chart. From the lOthhouse again, it is only this Saturn which is a natural maleficsituated in the lOth. From the 5th, all the required houseshave benefics. And he has become famous the world overas the greatest saint of the time.

A house suffers when its lord is in the 8th from thathouse, when its lord is eclipsed or debilitated, when its lordis in an enemy's house, or when no benefic planet is asso-ciated with it. The third chart shows Mercury in the 8th from

Rahu 15oJup. (R)

.|40

CHARTNo. 3Merc. (R)

28Sun 14o

y'enus 120

Ascdt. 60Sat. 4o

Moon 24oMars 29P

its own 7th house. There were misunderstandings and mal-

adjustments between the husband and wife, and the wound

was not fully healed. Note also the aspect of Saturn, and the

conjuction between the Moon and Mars' The 7th house and

the 5th stand afflicted considerably, thereby proving the

truth of this princiPle.

When the lord of a bhava is in the 6th, 8th or l2th

house from it, or when the bhava is occupied by the lord

of any of these houses, it suffers. A benefic aspect to

the house concerned is desirable. We get plenty of

i l lustrat ions for this pr inciple ' Our third chart shows

afflictions to the 2nd house, the house of family and

finance. The fourth chart shows the lord of the 8th in

the loth and the lord of the loth in the 8th from that

house. Saturn's position is not malefic since its association

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244 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

Jup. (R)' t70 ia t . (R) 1( Ketu 50

CHARTNo. 4

Ascdt. 8o

Moon 12o

Rahu 50y'enus 150

Mars 20Sun 12o

Merc .18o

with Aquarius is rather weak.

When a house, its lord, and its Karaka. are weak andflanked on either side by malefics, or are associated onlywith malefics, the house is not at all conducive to goodresults. It is all the more so when its trines and squares areoccupied by the malefics. In the fifth chart the lOth house

Rahu 25o J u p . 1 0

CHARTNo. 5

Ascdt. 20Venus 29(

Moon 29o

Sun 15o Mars 50Merc. 25o

Sat. 30 Ketu

has Saturn flanked by Ketu and Mars. Only one square isoccupied and that is by Venus which is partly redeemed bythe aspect of Jupiter, if it falls. The aspect of Saturn is thereon the 7th and the 4th. These mixed influences havebrought him success to some extent in his public life; buthe has become, with the passage of time, a source of gravedanger to the people.

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PREDTCTIVE METIIODS 245

The evil results of a house are manifested in the majoror minor periods of the lord of the 8th house reckoned fromit. The lord of the 22nd decanate from the house concernedis also bad for it; and so are the periods of the planets in the6th, 7th and Bth houses. This is helpful in dating the eventsand in a possible rectification of the birth time.

The house occupied by the lord of the ascendant is wellprotected. It will develop or promote the effects of thehouse concerned. This is to be understood with referenceto the naturS of the planet concerned-a reference that isapplicable to all the principles enunciated so far. Our fourthchart shows that the lord of the ascendant in the 2ndprotected and fostered the finances of the native very care-fully and successfully. In Candhiji 's chart, we find Venus asresponsible for the building up of a fascinating personality.

Even if the lord of the ascendant be a malefic by nature,it will not harm the house it occupies. If it is not only thelord of the ascendant, but also of a malefic house like the6th or the Bth, its character of a benefic remains because ofits ownership of the I st. Thus Mars for Aries or Scorpio,Venus for Taurus or Libra, are not malefics' In our fifth chaftwe find the lord of the ascendant protecting the I Oth houseremarkably well, even though it is Saturn. The lOth houseposition for the lord of the ascendant appears to be presentin some charts of dictators, autocrats and tyrants, particu-larly wlten it is Mars or Saturn. This is not so unanimouslytrue of other planets. These conclusions need a lot of veri-fication before we can raise them to the status of generalprinciples.

Let us get to some precise principles of interpretationwhich can help us date the events. In assessing the resultsof any house, one must consider that house as if it were theascendant and then proceed to examine it. Similarly oneshould take up the karaka of the required bhava and treatthe place it is situated in as if it were the ascendant. Tobring about good results the house, its owner and its karakamust all be strong and good' It is this principle that isabused or unused by many astrologers. Actually the task ofinterpretation is very intricate because of this very good and

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#246 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIFIC TTINDU ASTBOLOOY

highly valuable principle. On any point the astrologer witlhave to consider at least three different houses; and if hewere to offer the most accurate predictions, he must con-sider the Arudha and Chandra lagnas also.

When a planet, being the owner of a benefic house andof a malefic house, occupies a benefic one, it does notreveal the effects of its malefic ownership. In this way thereare many palliatives and these sub-clauses need a carefulassessment. Into this category we bring the aspects, thenature of the planets to a given house.

One more principle is that of tne famous Ashtakavarga.This system is usually applied to find out the longevity andto ascertain the transit influences of the planets. But theAshtakavarga is also capable of telling us, along withShadbalas, whjch planet in a given chart is strong or weak.This point cannot be too often repeated.

At the same time, the con.cerned house must have amajority of benefic dots in the Ashtakavarga of the lord ofthe ascendant. llere among the available methods we havefound the Saruashtakavarga useful in revealing the natureof a house and in enabling us to predict the type of resultsin the major and minor periods of several planets. Thiscomputation is reckoned from the house (bhava) not fromthe sign (Rasi). Ascertain the house in which a planet issituated and the place the benefic dots as given. This isdone to the ascendant also (Refer to our Secrets ofAshtakavarga).

Retrogression of planet is only an apparent vision Astro-nomically there is no backward movement for any planet.But for an observer on the earth a planet appears to gobackwards. This does not appear in the case of the Sun andthe Moon. The true position of the nodes generally showsretrogression.

Planets in retrogression are strong. Saravali states(5.5e):

qf#rFq q6rff: {rTr ge6r<r q51: I

c,-rcr qsFrd gsr EdFf, s qq|cqil 5.39 tl

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PREDICTIVE METTIODS 247

Benefic planets in retrogression give power and author-ity. Retrograde malefics give worries and futile wanderings.Jdtaka Parijata Q.37) considers the retrograde ones to bestrong. We are here concerned with planets having retro-grade motion in the signs of their exaltation. It is here thatwe have to reckon with a curious verse from UttaraKalamrita:

qsi Et-Ese: qqjsTlRt cta co grrt rqfi1 +ffm: E+srrqi T*k grrwqn 2.6 u

exaltation.€

A retrograde p lne

t i s ased with a ret e one

has mediu A in its sign ofexaltation has the hplanet in its debilitationexa

the debilita-.

of

its

t

This is a valuable verse. Yet it leaves much to be de-sired. Retrogression gives greater Cheshta-bala. When it iselalted in nisi and d!b.il,itut.9 il_l_gygms_ha. tL._@vails. Similarly one retrograde in its sign but exalted, invails. Similarly one retrograde in its_91g1put e44!t9Qnavam tlon. ntso the debiltion gets cancelled when such a planet is associated in the

"a "rofqgqe_qgn_!v!! an exaVenus is cancelled if it is with Merc14r. Similar pairs are thevenus is cancelled tI-]I ts wtrn mergg-ry. Dlmllar Palrs are [neS JuPiter. Agaiq the debilita-t6 n Ts c--mnGil€cl-T^/ tf glltr€ pi an e F-exa.Ife o_j1l h t_, lign

-i

" l;

sq ttre MoonG-6Ft'itit^tionfails to gg!-lhisrancelatiAn. Either some planet unknown tou5-is exalted in Scorpio, as the Moon's exaltation is Taurus.This is pure speculation.

Consider Jupiter being retrograde in Cancer in Rasi' Asper the text quoted above, this Jupiter gives the results ofdebilitation. Thus for Pisces Ascendant he is debilitated inthe I I th. Such a Jupiter has to affect finances, profits, elderbrothers and sisters, left ear and so on. But this Jupiter, letus assume, occupies Capricorn in Navamsha. RetrogressionIn debilitation is equal to exaltation. Exaltation in Rasi anddebilitation in Amsha denote exaltation; but in this case

)

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244 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTInIC TIINDU ASTROLOQY

Jupiter in Rasi is like a debilitated planet and this Jupiter inamsha being retrograde has to give the results of exaltation.In the sixth chart we have this typical position, as per

Ascdl.25.45

Ketu

CHAFTNo. 6

Bom on22 .1 .1920

Jup. (R)21.58

Sun 8 .10Moon19.45

Sat. (R)18.8

Mars28.38

Venus' 28.30

Verc. 3.2€Rahu29.32

l,ahiri's Ayanamsha; and it is the 12th from Amsha Lagna.But as per Dr. Raman's Ayanamsha, it does not occupyCapricorn in Amsha, though it is stil l the l2th from AmshaLagna. How are we to interpret this position?

Incidentally this chart raises serious doubts aboutAyanamsha. Using l.ahiri's value we find a bereavement inRahu'Moon-Venus and a very auspicious event in Rahu-Mars-Saturn. He had a major change in his career in Jupiter-Jupiter-Jupiter, a serious ill health in Jupiter-Moon-Ketu,and a better job in Juplter-Mars-Mars. Saturn also is retro-grade; and he gave surgical treatment in Saturn-Mercury-Mars, and a house of his own is Saturn-Jupiter-Saturn?These major and subperiods do not agree with the events,nor with retrogression.

As per Dr., Raman's value of Ayanamsha first job was inRahu-Moon-Jupiter, bereavement in Rahu-Mars-Sun, mar-riage in Jupiter-Jupiter-Venus, serious illness in Jupiter-Mars-Venus, change into a better job in Jupiter-Rahu-Rahu,surgery in Saturn-Mercury-Saturn, and a house in Saturn-Jupiter-Venus. Except for health problems in Jupiter-Jupi-ter-Mars and Saturn-Mercury, the two re[rograde planets didimmense good. They advanced his career, his qualifica-

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PAEDICTIVE METIIODS 249

tions, his publications, and many auspicious functions. It isfor better.scholars to judge the nature of the results offeredby retrograde planets.

The seventh chart is that of Mr. Morarji Desai. In the maj-

Ascdt.9.54

Rahu10.59

Sun 180 CHARTNo. 7

Born on29.2.1 896

Jup. (R)40

Mars 5.14/enus 14.36\,lerc.21.50

Moon25 .1 0Ketu10 .59

Sat. (R)26.43

or period of retrograde Jupiter he rose to prominence andin that of retrograde Saturn he became a power to bereckoned with. There was nothing bad in these periods.Both have Mercury signs in Navamsha. The retrogression ofthe exalted malefic did not give any 'Vyasana' as the Uttaral{alamrita decreed.

In the eighth chart the exalted, Vargottama and retro-grade Jupiter gave him excellent education. But in retroqr-

Sat15.42Ascdt.) q L 1

Ketu6 .1

CHARTNo. I

Born on5.12.1942Died on

25.7.1977

Jup. (R)21.58

Rahu6 .1

Sun 19.5Merc .21 .18/enus zJ.Jz

Ascdt .13.6Moon 5.59Mars 29.26

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ade Saturn-Saturn, placed with Bth he died in a major car-accident. The ninth chart is that of a lady who was jilted by

Ascdt.zz.zo

Mars 7.?9

Ketu12.16

CHARTNo. 9

Born on16 .1 .1951

Jup. (R)1.37

Sun. 2.2Merc.t o . z o

Rahu1 2 . 1 6

Venus15.34

vloon 4.56Sa t . 19 .26

her husband during the major period of retrograde exaltedJupiter. The husband deprived her of all her wealth too.Vargottama Jupiter is retrograde in the 5th, is afflicted bySaturn and the owner of that sign is in the 8th. With theadvent of Saturn, the husband is after another woman andshe is eager to get remarried. Her advanced studies werenot at all affected in Jupiter's period. In the tenth chart the

Ascdt. 28

Moon28.30Mars26.',t2

CHARTNo. 10Born on

31.12-1954

Jup. (R)3.40

Sat. (R)18 .8

Sun 16.0l\4erc. 19.33Rahu 12.27

Venus2 . 1 2

Sat. 25.4

major period of retrograde Jupiter in exaltation passedaway in her childhood. But his aspect on the 9th house andSaturn's affliction to him gave her bad children, loose chat-acter (5rd house affliction), and a totally subiugated hus-

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PREDTCTIVE METTIODS 251

band (Venus in the 7th between malefics and aspected byretrograde, exalted Jupiter).

Let us now take up some examples of exalted butretrograde Saturn. In the seventh chart we have seenthat this Saturn did not harm the native, though a maleficlord of the 8th is in the 7th. Rather this Saturn made himmore disciplined and austere. The eleventh chart is that of

Sun 14 .10Merc. (R)

28.32

Ascdt.23.40

Venus0.19

Moon10.57

Ketu 3.7 CHARTNo. ' l l

Born on28.4.1924 Rahu

3.7

Jup, (R)26.22

Sat. (R)5.38

Mr. Kenneth Kaunda, the African nationalist and freedom-fighter. The yoga-karaka Saturn is retrograde and exalted inthe 6th. During Saturn major period his career as the undis-puted future President of his country was built up. Nothingadverse happened. Saturn did not give the results of hisdebilitation, as argued by the Uttara Kalamrita.

Nextconsiderexalted but retrograde Mercury. The twelfth

Sat. 19.14

Ascdt1 .56Ketu1 0 . 1 5

CHARTNo . 12Born on

't1.10.1942

Jup. 0.29

Rahu1 0 . 1 5

Moon10.21

Venus 15.22Mars 22.36Ie(R)23.3{

$ h ? d 6

a

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252 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTInIC I1INDU ASTROLOOY

chart is that of Amitabh Bachchan. It was in the period ofretrograde Saturn he rose in films and in the last subperiod he had to quit pol i t ics unceremoniously. Themajor period of Mercury is yet to start. tle is with twomalefics and a benefic. We can only wait and see what hisMercury will do.

Chart No. l5 shows the lord of Lagna Mercury exalted

Ketu 7.11 Ascd t . 15Moon 29

Mars (R)20.48 CHART

No . 13Born on

28.9.1956

Venus 28

Jup.24

Sat. 5.48Rahu 7 .11

Merc. (R)7.50Sun

12.195

and retrograde in the 4th in Rasi; and he is debilitated inNavamsa. Mars (lord of 6 and I l) is afflicting this Mercury.She was married in Mercury-Mercury. But the first sub-pe-riod proved to be a blessing in disguise. On the day of hermarriage, her husband was arrested for murder. She di-vorced him and got remarried. She is happy. This Mercuryhas given the results of exaltation only because of hisposition is Navamsa.

How does exalted retrograde Mars behave?

Chart No. 14 is that of an efficient Surgeon, whoseMars as the owner of the 5th and the loth houses is ayoga Karaka. He is in the 7th exchanging signs withdebilitated Saturn. The results of Mars were transferred toSaturn because of the exchange. He became a distin-guished surgeon, particularly from Saturn-Mars. The retro-gression of debilitated Saturn is responsible for this. Butwhat about the mutual aspects of the two retrograde ones?

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PREDICTTVE METIIODS 253

Jup. (R)15.4

Sat (R)8 .14

CHARTNo. 14Born on

20.8.1939

{scdt, 2 9.z(Venus 28.9Merc (R)

19 .1 7

Rahu 1.3 Sun 3.5

Moonq J Y

Rahu 3.39

We are concerned here with retrograde Mars who proved tobe highly beneficial.

By way of a change and for a comparative study we givechart No. 15 as per Dr. Raman's Ayanamsa. lt is the chart

Venus (R)16.24

Mercury28.18

Sun 1.30 Rahu12 .30

Sat. 4.0

Mars 17.0CHARTNo . 15

Born on1'.t.4.1296

Moon10.7

Ascdt.22.29

Jup. 20.6

Ketu12.30

of the famous sage, ph i losopher , and founder o fVijayanagara Empire, Swami Vidyaranya. Here the 6thand eleventh lord Venus is exalted and retrograde in the4th. It is Mercury's debilitation that might be said to getcancellation. But the exaltation of Venus is not cancelled.The aspect of the Phi losophical Saturn on this Venusproved effective; the spiritual and socio-political spheresfrom about January 1529 saw the operation of the majorperiod of Venus; and the great never-to-be-forgotten Empire

d

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254 TEXT BOOK OF SCTENNFIC ITINDU ASTBOLOOY

was established. He founded and guided the destinies ofthe new Empire; and during this period he establishedthe Hampi Virupaksha Pitha, opened many branches ofthe Sringeri Pitha, got the Commentaries on the VedicSamhitas, Brahmanas and Aranyakas written under hissupervision, and himself gave us such valuable texts asPanchadasi, Jivan-mukti Viveka, Vivarana PrameyaSangraha, and Anubhuti Prakasika. Now let the scholarsre-examine the nature of results given by exalted planetsin retrogression. The field is challenging for an open andhealthy minded investigation on purely astro-scientificprinciples.

Except in the case of the lSth chart, all other charts aregiven as per L"ahiri's Ayanamsa only.

Combustlon or Astangata

Planets and the Moon are said to be combust whenthey are close to the Sun. Within twelve degrees of theSun the Moon is combust. Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venusand Saturn are combust when they are respectively within17, 14, 11, lO and 15 degrees of the Sun. RetrogradeMercury is given 12 degrees and Venus 8 degrees only.Again Venus and Saturn are not weakened by combustion.Since Mercury with the Sun gives rise to Budha-AdityaYoga, the combustion of Mercury does not apPear to bebad.

flere we may note first what Varahamihira said aboutthe Moon and the planets conjoined with the Sun. This willgive us an idea about combust bodies. We give the render-ing of Prof. B. Suryanarain Rao:-lf th@the Moon in machi andmasonry; if with Mars, of sinful deeds;ski nowned, and h r, hewill be s work; if with Venus,he will money on stage and by weapons; if with

Saturn,( r4 .appear to be bad.

and Jupiter with the

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PREDICTIVE METTTODS 255

Kalyana Varma gives more details (15.2-7). The Moon

conjunct Sun makes one controlled by women, unethical,versed in diplomacy or hypocrisy (kuta-vid)' wealthy, expertin selling and purchasing, and skilled in work. Mars with the

Sun makes one daring and courageous, obstinate, strong,

lndluging in lies, sinful and interested In killing. Mercury

with the Sun makes one a good subordinate (seva'krit)'

gives fluctuating riches, makes him soft'spoken treatinggood name as his wealth, respected, favoured by the au-

thorities, best among the righteous, wealthy and strong andgood featured. Jupiter with the Sun makes one charitable,

favourite of the rulers, keen'witted, earn with the help of

friends, and a preceptor. Venus with the Sun makes one

skilled in handling weaPons, have weak eye-sight in .the

later part of life, interested in stage, becomes rich through

women (stri sangat). and has friends also through them.

Saturn with the Sun makes one lnterested in Dhatus, righ-

teous, religious, devoid of wife and children, devout fol-

lower of his own customs and traditions, and has a petty

nature (alPa sheela).

As against Varahamlhlra we notice that Kalyana varma

spoke of combust Jupiter. This is possibly due to his state-

ment in the first verse of this chapter. There he stated that

giving up ill-will (matsarya). he has restated what is valid in

the writings of the ancients like Yavana and others. This

Yavaneshwara was an Indian cal led Sphuj idhvaja who

. taught and ruled over the lonians of Creece'

The conjunction of the Sun and the Moon was not

favoured by Kalyana Varma. This position gives a narrow

outlocit and a failure to adjust. Rigidity of outlook is com-

mon in this position. The native may be too self'willed and

subject to repressed desires.

Mercury should not be alone. With the Sun, a good yoga

ls formed. The intellect dominates and the native has a

practical outlook. In the realm of thought this conjunction

gives rise to metaphysical speculations of an abstruse na-

ture. It confers Power.

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The combustion of Venus gives mixed results. KalyanaYarma supplements Varahamihira,s view. Though theSun is debilitated in the positive sign of Venus, this con_junction gives rise to a deep interest in the fine arts. It doesnot oflfer a happy married life, nor does it denote a larqefamily.

Combust Mars can make one inflict injuries on others orbecome a victim of injuries. Otherwise this combustion isgood. The native becomes practical.

About combust Jupiter, Kalyana Varma contradictsVarahamihira who has no good word to say about it. Dxpe_rience supports Kalyana Varma. possibly if Valmiki is to befollowed the Sun is exalted in pisces owned by Jupiter. TheSun in Jupiter's houses, or the latter in Leo have beengiving very favourable results.

Kalyana Varma offers a valid interpretation of combustSaturn. As the meditative and philosophic planet, Saturndevelops the philosophical and religious tenclencies whencombust. The moolatrikona signs of these two are IBOdegrees apart, and they have a similarity. It is true thatone of these is exalted where the other is debilitated. Theenergetic Sun is made by Saturn to divert this energSrinward. It is a good position for ascetics and yogis, particu-larfy if the two are not together in houses 4, 6, B, 12 andLagna.

Thus combustion of any ptanet or the Moon is notbad in itself. Combust Moon and Mars are not fully good.The others, when combust, do give some favourableresults.

The Principle of Badhaka

There is much confused thinking about some astrologi-cal factors. In some parts of the country Mandj and Oulikaare given over-importance. But a glance at the astrologicalauthorities reveals that these entities do not give beneficresults in any house. Another such is the concept ofbadhaka. For the movable, fixed and common signs the

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PREDICTIVE METITODS 257

badhaka houses are respectively the I I th, gth and 7thhouses. Prasna Marga adds that, according to some, theangles (kendras) from these places are also houses ofharm. Moreover, some say, Aquarius is the house of harmfor all movable houses; Scorpio is the badhaka house forLeo, Virgo, Scorpio and Sagittarius; for Taurus it is Capri-corn, for Aquarius it is Cancer, and Sagittarius is thebadhaka for Gemini and Pisces. The text adds that the firstand the third views have universal acceptance (15.1I l -I l5). The aspects of the lords of these houses also causeharm. The third view has made eight signs badhaka places.

From the context it appears that the houses of harm are" to be considered chiefly_ in hgg sg!1qlggy. Ols lsglo Ie

C " .

Of the three views the first is widely accepted. Experiencedoes show that the badhaka hosue and its lord have muchto do with the obstacles that arise in connection with thefactors signified by that house and its lord and the locationof that lord. Thus for Aquarius the worries can show be-cause of the father. These get minimised by a favourableplacement of the 9th lord. But can we generalise this for allfixed signs? Increasingly enough the 9th lords for fixedLagnas are the friends of the lords of the Lagnas. For mov-able Lagnas the I lth lords are the enemies of the lords ofLagna; only for Cancer, the I I th tord is a neutral. tf at allthere is any trouble, it can arise from elder brothers orsisters, from finances, or from ailments governed by thatlord. For common signs, two have the badhaka lord asenemy and two have neutrals. Then the badhaka lords forfixed signs are truly troublesome. For Cancer, Cemini andVirgo the badhaka lord has to confer mixed results only. Forthe remaining five Lagnas one may expect adverse results.

A certain lady with Aries rising had the Sun and Saturnin the 5rd. The lord of that house is with Venus in the 2nd.while the I I th is aspected by Mars (conjunct Jupiter) fromthe 4th. The badhaka lord has not created any obstacles.She married a higher caste person who was younger to her.Another native of Aries had the Moon and Saturn in the 9thwhile the loth is aspected by exalted Jupiter. The native

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25,4 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTIFIC I{INDU ASTBOLOAY

rose from humble beginning to become an industrialist. ALibra native had Venus in the I lth while its lord is with Marsand Mercury in the l2th. The only trouble created was thateven in 44th year he was unmarried, even though heeamed a high salary. A Capricorn native had the Sun andMars in the 9th aspected by Jupiter from the Sth. He had aheart attack. A lady with Capricorn rising along with Mercuryhad Mars in the 6th aspected by Saturn from the l2th. Shewas denied marriage, though the 7th lord is in the 4th withJupiter. Another woman of the same Lagna had Saturn andKetu in L.agna afflicting the 5rd house Mars. She was men-tally affected. A Sagittarius native had Satum in l-agna af-flicting the lOth house having the Sun, Mars and Mercury.He turned insane during the major period of Mercury thoughthis planet was aspected by the 4th house Moon and the 6thllouse Jupiter.

These and other examples show that the factors involv-ing badhaka house and its lord affect some limited areas oftife. t[ the maior+erioa nr tne rrp withthe maraka fatal. The badhaka factors plaY

onlv in affairs concern and heaIn horary astrolog;l these play a prominent

r,o'iE. ns such an indiscriminate application of the badhakaprinciple is ill-advised.

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I4Signs, Planets,Constellations

tTh" various signs, planets and constellations have theirI own peculiar characteristics. They determine the na-

ture, outlook and character of the natives. These get modi-fied by the planets aspecting or conjoining these. The as-cendz.;rt sign is important.

Signs

Cardinal Signs (Movable): These give Restlessness andphysical and mental activity. There is an enterprising spirit.Flxed slgns indicate stubbornness, fixed purpose, self reli-ance, wilf power and determinations. The common signsIndicate dispassionate judgement, adaptability, and abilityto master the details. There can be indecision, too muchsubtlety, and pessimism.

Fiery signs make one headstrong, emotional, intuitive,energetic, enthusiastic, aspiring and ambitious. Airy signsindicate intellectual activity, good education, humane andrefined temperament, and wisdom. The Earthy signs makeone practical, cautious, shrewd and methodical. The nativeis social and has comforts. The Watery srgns show emotion-alism, sensitivity and impressionability. One is interested inpsychic problems, if the lagna is Mina.

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Mesha: He is an intellectual, self-reliant, active, ener,getic, and impulsive. He is more an idealist, and is strong inthought and action. He is wilful and headstrong. He doesnot form self-restraint, calmness, cool head, and consider-ation for the feelings of others. He has great enthusiasmand courage. tle loves to be praised. He refuses to bethwarted; and when thwarted, he seeks vengeance. He un-derstands the motives of others. He loves freedom andindependence in his activities. He is after change and aftersomething new. He seeks fresh enterprises and goes on tillthe goal is achieved. He creates, leads and organises.

His ideas are diffused. He does not always stic(to truth.His self-interest can lead him to jealousy and greed. He ishighly strung and tends to go to extremes. He is given toheadache, toothache, neuralgia and brain fever. His physi-cal and mental excesses lead to worries.

tlere we have actors, designers, doctors, travellers, sur-veyors, architects, electricians, promoters of companies,journalists and novelists.

The body is lean but strong. Head is broad at the top.The complexion is brown or red, shoulders are thick.

tle loves science and philosophy, has his own ideas ofright and wrong, and is busy with educational activities.lle is frank and impulsive, pioneering and martial. lle has acraning neck.

Vrishabha: The native is practical, reserved, secretiveand determined in his purpose. He has great vitality of bodyand mind, and a strong will. The natives are manufacturers.builders, moulders, executors, financial experts.

His dislikes change, he is not adaptable, and dependson his experience. His methods are conservative. He is noteasily angered; but when he is moved to anger, he cannotcontrol it. He is indolent, loves sensuous pleasure, fond ofgood food. He is obstinate; but has great powers of concen-tration and perseverance. He is generous and kind. He isfaithful or kind, a friend, or a ruthless enemy. He can beappeased through his feelings. He has to be careful inchoosing a partner.

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STONS. PLANETS, CONSTELLATIONS 261

fle loves music and can become a good vocalist. tle isgood at mathematics and finance. He is a fatalist, andobserves rituals.

The constitution is robust. Neck and throat are the weakparts. He is given to sore throat, diphtheria, mumps, andtumors near the throat. tle is liable to the heart and kidneyailments, and diabetes.

Under this sign we get cashiers, financial agents, ac-countants, stock'brokers, nurses, doctors and manual work-ers like foreman. Some work as manufacturers of paper,

chemicals and sweets. One can be a good cook or an

*'il:T::tuu".un" height; heavy strong body; stout. big

mouth, fleshy cheeks and jaws; prominent eyes, thick lips,dark hair. Women are beautiful. Authors, bookshop ownersand journalists come here. Their memory is strong. Theyhave skill in business, and exercise authority. The native isat times given to jealousY.

Mithuna: The native is intellectual, inspirational, clever,restless, nelvous, elusive, brilliant, imaginative. One can bea materialist or a pessimist. He is after intellectual persuits.

tte is versatile. He moves to extremes in his studies'

At the personal level he is acute, cunning, neither over-scrupulous nor truthful, and difficult to understand. FIe is'all things to all now'. lle cannot remain long at any onepost or undertaking. This can give rise to unstable finances.tle is honest in intention. He can be double-edged. lle haspowers of expression. He is an eloquent speaker, an actor

or a diplomat.

The ailments refer to the lungs, nerues, arms and hands.There is no strong constitution. Nerves get subjected to

worry, and over work. tle is given to bronchial trouble,

catarrah, pneumonia, and lung trouble.

Here we get brokers, auctioneers, speakers, reporters,

book-keepers, clerks, journalists and advocates.

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The body is generally tall, upright, thick; the face is long,and arms and hands are long. The forehead is broad andeyes are clear.

The native is a good mathematician, a mechanical engi-neer. He is liable to deception.

Karka or Karkataka.' He is emotional, sensitive; roman-tic. He has imaginative powers and is tenacious. He isinterested in politics, football or cricket. He is the quiet manof business, supports strongly a party. He tends to be preju-diced and judges others from his own point of view. He livesand feels the past as his idol. He can be a plagiarist. Heabsorbs the manners and speech habits of others. He lovesthe occult and the mystical, the antique and legendary. Heloves ease, comforts, and luxury. He is sensitive about hisfamily, relatives and friends. He is tenacious and has averystrong memory.

He is original and inventive, and a good organiser. He isgood at real estate business. He can be economical andalso expensive. tle loves music.

The ailments refer to the breast and stomach. Beingemotional and sensitive, he is given to gastric troubles. fleis subject to pleurisy, dropsy, and other watery and inflam-matory complaints. He does not have a strong vitality.

Under this sign we can have sailors, naval officers. Thewomen are good house-keepers, managers of hotels, ormidwives; they can be barmaids or laundresses. The nativemay do business with second-hand articles and curios.

The stature is average or slightly less. The body isfleshy. One has a round and full face, prominent forehead,small eyes, and a short nose.

The native is intelligent and industrious. He is frugal ormiserly. He is attached deeply to his children and family.His married life is not always happy. He is talkative, honestand self-reliant.

Simha: The native is proud, authoritative, ambitious,honourable, and passionate. lle cannot be repressed. He isa Commander physically and mentally. He is loyal, an

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SI ONS. PI,ANETS, COITSTELI,ATTONS 26,3

organiser and exercises authority. He esteems the ancientreligious ideas and considers his belief to be the only one.fle is sincere, generous, warm'hearted, cheerful and social.He has an uncontrollable desire and achieves it by hisstrength, intensity and vital spirits; and when this gets trans-formed into its opposite, he becomes terrible. His friendscause disillusionment to him.

[Ie has pride: haughty and boastful; and shows a supe-riority complex; he is discontented, disdainful, contemptu-ous. But in some cases this pride arises from a good opin-ion of himself. tle is hard-headed, practical, sensitive, emo-tional, and intuitive. tle takes offence easily and easilyforgives. tle is not sensuous. He loves pleasures and luxiry.

He can carry out great schemes and can put in an effortfor a long time. Thus he is a good chief, manager. tle hasstrong will power and self-control, is faithful and credible,and never gives up his principles and work. Any reversalwill not stop him till he overcomes it.

lleart and the back come here, When he goes throughdiscord, quarrels and the like, his heart becomes weak. lliscomplaints refer to the fits, back, sides, fever, pleurisy, eyesand convulsions.

He is good as an organiser, leader, manager, foreman,social welfare worker, musician, instrumentalist, artist, ac-tor. lle is not fit for business.

tle has a more than average stature, well shaped body,narrow hlps, red complexion, big head and grey or browneyes. His appearance is commanding, mqjestic' His consti-tution is bilious.

He is adaptable to some extent, is ambitious andgreedy. fle loves the arts, literature and philosophy. Hereads much.

Kanya: The native is shrewd, diplomatic, quietly active,reserved and discriminative. He appears to be harsh andtaciturn with a matter-of-fact appearance. He is nervous andretiring, but kind and sympathetic. He suffers his inner

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instincts to keep up his balanced outlook. His true nature isnot easily noticed. He is too exacting.

tle is scientific, industrious and adjustable. He is me-thodical, and can entangle the highly involved schemes. Hismental activities are analytical. He is clever in dealing withdetails. He has a strong retentive memory. Being shrewdand subtle, he is least scrupulous in business. He is consci-entious, methodical, hardworking and reliable. Being inven-tive, he improves upon things. fle is an excellent techni-cian. He is best in office and in dealing with the archives.

fle vacillates, lacks self-confidence. fle likes to give uphis ideas and schemes when he faces difficulties. He makesup his mind slowly or never. tle considers responsibility tobe a strain.

Bowels, worries, overwork cause the ailment here. He issubject to diarrhoea and flatulence. He should avoid drugsand alcohol. His nervous system is not strong.

He is good at business related to drugs and food. He canbe an analytical chemist, an editor, a literary critic, pr abusinessman.

fle has a tall or an average body, plump with dark eyesand hair, round forehead, and marked nose. tle is emo-tional and impulsive. He is good at physics.

Tula: Th.e native is artistic, refined, intuitive, perceptive.He loves pleasure, beauty, harmony, elegance and order.He has mental balance and arrives at an impartial judge-ment. lle is a good judge of style, elegance, fabrics, orna-ments. He probes into the affairs of others. He has anunquenched curiousity. He observes and compares everydetail. He is deeply interested in fashions, ceremonies, con-ventions, family histories and scandals. When provoked, hegoes to extremes. Being critical, they can create troubles inmarriage.

The native's children are elegent and charming. Thenative can have moral lapses; and he may become a gam-bler. fle is sensitive and flexible, has strong feelings andemotions, sweet and harmonious nature. He is for justice,

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SIONS, PLANETS, CONSTELLATIONS 265

generosity, kindness, courtesy. tle has charming manners.He seeks mental improvement and becomes accomplished.tle is subject to many moods and fancies. He has a greatinterest in the occult. He has intuition and is good at clair-voyance. lle loves music, poetry, painting, law. He tends todelay decisions.

The sign rules kidneys. Dxcess in eating and drinkingaffects kidneys and bladder. There can be stone. He issubject to pains in the limb, and lower part of the back. Hefrets and becomes melancholic.

Here we have lawyers, musicians, actors, artists, secre-tarial workers, decorators. Trade in antique works of art,perfumary, fancy stationery, and fabric is good.

The body is of average to tall height. tle has a fine body,round face, soft complexion, smooth hair, fatness, fine eyesand broad chest. fle has a phlegmatic constitution. He hasgood foresight and reasoning power. He is an idealist. Hecan be a good political leader or a religious reformer. fleforces his views on others. lle refuses to be argued. Heloves truth and honesty. ttis domestic life is subject totensions.

Vrischika: The person is very secretive, critical andshrewd. He has keenness and tenacity, and a hypnoticpower. tle cannot easily be followed. He is calm, has anintensity of purpose. tle is determined. One cannot takeliberties with him. He has a dignity. Orators, diplomats andseers appear under this sign. Being sensational and emo-tional, one may be perverse in matters of sex. tle hasattraction and deep attachment. He is strong, wild, selfconfident and bold. He does not like liberty taken by others.He has dogmatic dislikes. He lacks elegance. He is relent-less and destructive. Indulging in biting sacrasm, he makesmany foes.

He is highly secretive and mystical. He has a goodunderstanding of others. He is a born detective. There canbe tragic love affairs. tle is sensitive and is afraid of publiccriticism, and hates changes. He holds an influential posi-tion in life. He wants ease and security. He is highly indus-trious.

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He delays matters; but once he decides, none can resisthim. He is cool and collected and resourceful. He has firmfriends. He becomes violent if he is crossed in love. He isnot generous, but spends on himself. He does good withoutpublicity.

flis mind is acute and subtle. tle is a good researchworker, a detective, a doctor or surgeon, a military genius,or a great player of chess.

He is proud, and reveals harshness and scepticism. Heis too exacting, selfish, dogmatic, violent. He cannot forgiveothers. lle has an unbreakable will and great ability.

The secret parts are vulnerable. He has good powers ofresistence. His ailments are related to the generative or-gans, bladder, blood poisioning, kidneys and groins.

The Scorpion succeeds in martial job. One can be adoctor, a surgeon, a butcher, a mechanical engineer,ironmonger, or a smith, a hypnotist, a hypnotic healer,occultist, chemist, detective, or inventor. One can be agood sailor, or a naval officer.

The body is tall, stout and strong. tlair is rough andcurly. The eyes are prominent. The face is square and thenose is aquiline. lle has a youthful appearance. He is agood correspondent, rebels against conventions. He is agood writer.

Dhanush: The native is an optimist. He is loyal, cheerful,honourable, independent. He is very active in his enter-prises. lle has intuition and a gift for foretelling. fle has afine sense of justice. lle is religious and philosophic andhas intuition and a sense of justice. He is kind and honest.He has a sense of dignity. lle is a merciful judge, an es-teemed and respected social worker or religious leader. Heis a mystic, a seer, an upholder of law. He is more aformalist, accepting rituals, ceremony and convention.When he is guided by his outer obseryations, he tends to bea hypocrite. He is controlled by material ambitions and by adesire to- advance higher. Religion, law and politics are hismain interests.

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SIONS. PT,A NETS, CONSTELI.ATIONS 267

Sagittarian gives importance to his inner self. He isbasically honest. Then he rebels against formalism, conven-tions, power and authority. He often throws the establishedorder. He begins to guide and uplift others.

tle modifies or alters his views and changes his profes,sion. He is a born teacher. He wants others to have confi-dence in him. lle is too sensitive and loves liberty. He fightsfor freedom of expression and justice. He is humane andwants peace. tle is a good companion and has insight intohuman nature.lle has a strong will. He succeeds best hav-ing a partner. He is a born oryaniser. lle loves change andnovelty.

His Intellect ls deep and profound. He ls lnterested lnphllosophy and in abstruse subjects. tle picks up languagesquickly. fle ls a successful executive. fle ls restless, irri-table, indolent, casual, too assertive and defiant. lle doesnot have enought concentration.

Hips and thighs are under thts slgn. Excess, worries andoverwork cause nervous debllity. tlis ailments refer to fis-tula, tumors, rheumatism, varicose veins, fevers, blood,hlps, thighs, and lungs.

Under this slgn we get army officers, clvll engineers,clergtmen, professors, politlclans and lawyers. We havealso commercial representatives, advertising agents, book-makers, inspectors, and dealers in horses.

The native is tall, and has a well-knit body. tlis eyes areexpressive. lle tends to become bold. His face is oval andforehead is high. His temperament is phlegmatic.

Makara: The native is practical, shrewd, perseveringreserved, diplomatic and cautious. He rises in business withhis own efforts. tle is faithful and impartial, patient andindustrious. tle is a successful plodder. He is hard andstern, a hard task-master. tle does not waste time or mate-rial or money. But he is not mean,lle is neat and tidy, he issensible, stable and calm. He has endurance and greatperseverance. He has a dashing assertive nature.

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He is a great financer, banker, real estate agent, con-tractor, judge, scientist. He is serious, reflective and has witand eloquence.

Some others are discontented, gloomy, miserly, surlyand deceitful. The normal Capricornian is self'possessed,self-centred, moody, subtle, firm willed, and suspicious. llefights against discontent and melancholy. He is ambitious.tle has many foes.

He has a strong character and temper. He overcomes anopponent by subtle and round about ways. He loves powerand authority. tle is reserved about strangers. Those offend-ing him come to trouble. He is clever, acute, subtle anddeep. tle is fit for a purely mental pursuit or for a businessorganisation and management. tle shows tact, prudence,method and diplomacy and managerial ability.

tle is a brilliant debator. lle is interested in politics anddoes not care much for the moral issues involved in poli-cies. He is a fatalist and in power a despot. fle is material-minded, and yet orthodox and conventional. tle is an ideal-ist, seeking to preserve order and industry. He improvesand organises.

tle is guided by ambition and duty, and is prepared tosacrifice himself for the sake of duty. tle is more feared andrespected, though he is kind and affectionate.

He has malice, is revengeful, and tends to go into ex-tremes in order to satisfy his ambition. He is the naggingtype. He is unconsiderate towards the wishes and feelingsof others. He is fanatical about his religion. tle is afteraristocracy and power.

Inspite of a strong constitution, he suffers il l-health. ftisailments refer to the knees, skin and rheumatism.

Under this sign, we have managers, organisers of greatenterprises, contractors, real estate agents, lawyers, farm-ers, research scholars, and land-owners.

He has an average stature. The body is long or fatty. Theface is long and so are the nose and neck. The knees arenot well shaped. The hair is prominent.

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SIGNS. PLANETS. CONSTELLATIONS 26,9

I{umbha: It is a secretive, introspective and reflectivesign. The native is refined, artistic, humane and faithful. Heis an intellectual with practical and persevering qualities.He has intuition, great ideals, and ability to grasp the char-acter of others.

fle is quiet, strong and forceful. He has a magneticpersonality. He has a strong, open mind, and a deep under-standing of mankind. tle has fine literary gifts. He is inven-tive, idealist and thinks ahead of his times.

In some cases the native is a strong egoist. He is a falseselfish, scheming type. His inflexible will and mental facul-ties are used to promote his ambition and personal acquisi-tions. lle does not care for principles.

The normal Aquarian has fixed ideas, strong will andgood intellect. tle is quiet, reserved and thoughful. tle mayappear to be frivolous, thereby deceiving others. He isnervous, highly strung, quick and active. tle has a strongpower of resistance, thus injuring his health. He longs attimes to be left alone. He dislikes interference and help. tleis secretive and reserved. With regard to others they facedisappointments and disillusionments. He is faithful anddeeply attached. tle does not easily confide in others. He issensitive and does not demonstrate his feelings and emo-tions. He loves humanitarian work.

The native is intellectual and artistic. He loves lecturingto the public. He is a good entertainer and a fine imperson-ator. His profound mind is best fitted for literary and scien-tific work. tle has originality. His interests are poetry, writingnovels and music. He is a good manager or inspector. tle isgood at electricity and electrical work. lle hates horror andcrime.

He is sceptical, self-opinionated, has sudden fits of si-lence and waywardness. He tends to make his life sad,gloomy and lonely. Some Aquarians are religious fanatics,megalomaniacs, and egotists.

He does not have a very strong constition. His ailmentsrefer to ankles, swollen legs, bad circulation, cramps, flatu-lence and nervous disorders.

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Under this sign we get railway employees, posts andtelegraph'Radio-Television-engineers, surveyers, reformers,revolutionaries, poets, musicians, astronomers, literaryworkers, artists and secretaries.

fle has an average stature, well made body, and fatty orlean. The complexion is good. fle has a long face andmagnetic eyes. This disposition is elegant.

Mina: The native is patient, sympathetic, honourable,generous, hospitable, and emotional. He is sensitive andimpressionable. He persuades others easily. tle is tactful.He is broadminded, patient, and quiet. He has quick under-standing and is willing to learn from others. He is interestedIn archaeology, ancient history, geolog;r, psychic studies,occult, arts, astrology, literature, and philosophy. He is wellinformed in many subjects. He has great literary powers andabilities.

tle shows a dual nature. tle is dissipated, has own foes,knocked about by circumstances which he cannot control.lle is impetuous, and assertive, and appears to be confi-dent. He cannot do what he claims to accomplish. He isgiven to deceit, hypocrisy, and lying. He lacks self-confi-dence and initiative. tle frets and fumes, is peevish and isgiven to morbid fears about reverses. He feels that fate, aswell as the world, is against him. He may be prey to alcohol-ism and sensual vices. He atones for his evil acts. Hisenemies become his friends. He talks and boasts much.

The normal type is good-natured, friendly, sympatheticand generous. lle is kind, easygoing, loves beauty andrefinement. He shows spirit and dignity. He hates the vulgarand the violent. Many nurses, hospital attendants, andthose of charitable institutions are born under this sign. Heis Cod-fearing.

The native needs advice and help. fle is ill rewarded forhis labour. He is eventually ambitious. He longs for perfec-tion. Concentration is at times lacking. His career is shapedby the circumstances. He follows two or more occupationsat the same time. lle is methodical and systematic. He is agood organiser. He has vivid imagination and great Powersof expression and understanding. He can be a good vocal-

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ist, and painter. He vacillates, is easily discouraged, andbecomes despondent. Many schemes dissipate his ener-gies. He is reserved.

He does not have a strong constitution. There is troublewith his feet. He is given to boils, ulcers, tumours, mucousdisorder, bowel afflictions, cold and chill, bronchial andstomach complaints.

Under th is s ign we ge t heads o f depar tments ,oryanisers, secretaries, literary workers, librarians, sailors,naval officers, caterers, hotel keepers and nurses.

The stature is average or slightly above. The body isfleshy or lean. The limbs are agile and the face is large. tlehas prominent eyes.

ftouses from Lagna - Domlnant features

l. Body, soul, personalitY.

2. Riches, family, speech, right eye, education.

5. Courage, younger brothers and sisters, intellect, shortjourneys, ears.

4. Mother, education, happiness, house, lands.

5. Intellect, spiritual activity, children, creative activity,' pleasures, professional work, speculation.

6. Debts, diseases, enemies, relatives and collaterals,profession, healing and recovery, litigation, travels.

7. Ylarriage partner, business, joint undertakings, quar-rels, litigation.

8. Death, disease, Inheritance, bequests, legacies.

9. Father, religious nature' foftune, travels, law.

lO. Profession, father, reputation, religious activities, pil-grimages, business.

I l. Profits, elder brothers and sisters, earning, friend, ac-quaintances, social reform, philanthropy.

12. Expenses, left eye, secret or inner life, sacred societ-ies, hospitals, prisons, orp[anages, asylum.

For a detailed exposition see the chapter "what houses,govern".

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Dominant Features of planets

Su.n - Father, body, soul, pride, egoism, honour, loyalty,vitality, ardour, generosity.

Moon - Mother, mind, sentiment, sensitiveness, change-ability.

Kuja - Brothers and sisters, lands, courage, virility, im-pulsiveness, aggressiveness, fight, initiative, wound.

Budha - Education, intelligence, wit, quickness, con_verse.

Ouru - Education, religious quality, house, generosity,cheerfulness, nobility, sport, optimism.

Shukra - Marriage partner, sensual pleasures, fine arts,affection, sociability, artistic tastes, charm, grace.

Shani - Service, caution, self-resraint, pessimism, stead-fastness.

Uranus - Originality, lnspiration, sudden opportunitiesand activities, violence, eccentricity.

Neptune - Mysticism, occult, imagination, inspiration,sensitiveness, clairvoyance.

For an exhaustive list, see the chapter on ,,what planetsgovern".

Constellations

Twenty seven constellations are accepted in Indian as-trology. Abhuit constellation (Vega l9) at nirayana longi-tude 26lo 27' 51" is generally ignored for predictive pur-poses. The names of the constellations have been givenearlier. Each constellation confers certain quatities on theperson. Note the constellation in which the Moon is placedat the time of birth. Then apply the following results, givenby Varahamihira. The degrees given refer to the sidereal orNirayana zodiac, called also the fixed zodiac. The resultsgiven have to be modified by other factors.

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Constellations - Nature

In the sidereal zodiac the signs are intimately related tothe twenty-seven constellations beginning with Ashwini.Each constellation has four quarters - pada or charana.These quarters give us an insight into the nature of thenative, and also an idea of the possible ailments.

We give a brief idea of these. The numerals are countedfrom Aswini, while the letters refer to the four quarters ofthe constellation concerned.

rl I (a) Mournful I (c); deteriorating health; 2(b) despon-dent, inferiority complex; 5 (a,d) bilious; indigestion; 4(a)colds 5(c,d) Irritable, high blood pressure, cardiac trouble;6(c) shins, laziness; 6(a) sexual habits; 7(b, c) not good'forsound health; 8(a) hypersensitive; 8(b) cold and cough;g(b,d) weak health. I O (a) trouble from excess of sex; I O(d)over eat ing; I I (d) boi ls and ulcers; l2(b) bad health; lJ(c)worries, sensitive; l4(a) wrong thinking, pride; l5(a, b)epilepsy, irritability, hot temper;26(d) mentatty weak; 27(b)

. excessive indulqence in sex; 27(c) personal uncleanliness.\

The rationale of all this can be found from the sign inthe Navamsa chart where the concerned quarter of theconstellation falls.

Al l ied to this is a pecul iar feature governing theTarabala (strength of the constellation counted from thebirth constellation to the one ruling on the required day).These are called Janma, Sampat (wealth), Vipat (danger),Kshema (safety), Pratyak (cross purposes, antagonistic),^Sadhana (success after some effort), Naidhana (deatfi@Mitra (friendly), and Paramamitra (very friendly). Of thesethe seventh has always to be avoided. The constellation isto be counted from the natal star and divided by nine. Theremainder is the resulting one. In the first round of nineavoid the first, in the second round avoid the third, in thethird round avoid the fifth and in every round avoid theseventh. The presiding rulers of the nine from the birth starare - Sun, Mercury, Rahu, Jupiter, Ketu, Moon, Saturn,Venus and Mars. The carriers or vehicles (vahanas) of thenine Taras are - peacock, horse, goat, elephat, crow, jackal,lion, garuda and swan. These vahanas also explain thenature and strength of the Taras.

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Constellations and Bodily Parts

We normally assign the various parts of the body to theluminaries and planets, to the signs of the zodiac and to thehouses from the Ascendant. The Nirayana or sidereal zodiacis primarily constellational. Apart from the constellationsthe zodiacal signs have no significance. This is also appar-ent in our Dasa systems, more specif ical ly in theVimshottari Dasa system.

The constellations are twenty-seven, excluding AbhUit.These are spread over the twelve signs. The constellationsalso govern or refer to the various parts of the body. Anyaffliction to a constellation from a natural or functionalmalefic affects the concerned part of the body. We givebelow the distribution of the bodily parts, beginning withthe first star Ashwini.

I - Upper part of the feet; 2 - Lower part of the feet;3 - tlead; 4 - Forehead; 5- Eyebrows; 6- Eyes; 7-Nose;8 - face;9 - Ears; lO - Lips and Chin, l l - Right hand;12 - |.eft hand; l5 - Fingers of the hands; 14 - Neck;15 - Chest; 16 - Breast; 17 - Stomach; 18 - Right side;l9 - Left side; 2O - Back; 2l - Waist; 22 - Qenitals; 23 - Anus;24 - Right thigh; 25 - Left thigh; 26 - Shins; 27 - Ankles.

Simply because a malefic is in a certain constellation,we should not conclude that the part of the body is af'fected. lt is modified by the nature of the constellation. Theconstellations are also classified in terms of the threegunas, i.e. Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. The Tamasic groupsare the worst. Under the Sattva group are the constellations7 , 9, L6, lA, 25, 26 and 17. The Rajas group has stars 2, 5,4, lL, 12, 13, 20, 2l and 22. The others are Tamasic.

In a certain chart Mars was placed in the TamasicChitra,afflicted by Saturn and Rahu. The native has frequenttroubles around the neck while sleeping. The Sun in R4iasic

Uttarashada made him a patient of lumbago for a longperiod. Another with a malefic Mercury in the SattvikVishakha (Scorpio) aspected by Mars gave him asthma latein life. Examples can be multiplied.

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STONS, PIANETS, CONSTELI,ATTONS 275

I Similarly the twelve Adityas (Suns) have their respectiveconstellations. Afflictions to such constellations require thepropitiation of the Sungod.

; l. Mitra - Anuradha, Delta Scorplonis

2. Yaruna - Satabhisha, Lambda Aquarii

5. Yama - Bharani, Beta Persei

4, Bhaga - Poorvaphalguni, Delta L,eonis

5. Aryama - Uttaraphalguni, Beta leonis

6. Savita - ftasta, Delta Corci

7. Tvashta - Chitta, Spica

8. Indra - Jyeshta, Alpha Scorpii

9. Vishnu - Shravana, Beta Capricornl

lO. Pusha - Revati, Zeta Piscium

I l. Aditi - Punarvasu, Beta Qemini, Pollox

12. Surya

The twelfth is all-peruading.

Similarly the eleven Rudras are also placed in certainconstellations. Afflictions to these require the abhisheka ofRudra with the Rudra Adhyaya, or regular reading of Rudra-Nanakar.

l. Mriga vyadha - Labdhaka, Ardra, Sirius

2. Sarpa - Ashlesha

5. Ntrriti - Moola

4. Na Ekapad - Poorvabhadra

5. Ahirbudhnya - Uttarabhadra

6. Pinaki - Mrigashira or Rohini

7. Dahana - Krittika

8. Isana - Punarvasu

9. Kapardi - Mrigashira

lO. Sthanu - Rigel, Beta Orionls, Mrigashlra

I l. Rudra - Ardra.

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t .

2 .

5.

4 .

5 .

6 .

7 .

8.

9 .

Ashwini (Oo to l3o.20') : loves ornaments, has abeautiful appearance, liked by people, capable, intelli-gent.

Bharani (l5o.2O'Lo260.4O') : strong determination tocomplete the work undertaken, skilled, free from sor-row.

Krittika (260.4O' to 4Oo.O') : fond of eating much, fondof other women, dignified, famous.

Rohini (4Oo.O'to 55o.2O') : Speaks truth, has no desirefor others' women or for others' wealth, follows theshastras and dharma, pleasant speech, fixed or deter-mined mind, beauty.

Mrigashira (55o.2O'to 660.40') : fickle mind, able, hasfears, skilled in speaking, enthusiastic, wealthy, enjoysluxuries.

Ardra (660.40' to 80o.O') r Foolish or stubborn, speaksone thing and does the other etc., proud, ungrateful,cruel, sinful.

Punalasu (8Oo.O'to 950.20') : Endurance, patience,happiness, good nature, dul l -wit ted, unhealthy,pleased with small gains, and thirsty.

Pushyami (93o.2O'to 1060.40') : Peaceful, self-control,liked by others, scholar, wealthy and righteous.

Ashresha or Ashlesha ( l060.4O ' to l2Oo.O') : Wicked,sinful, steals the property of others, sinner, ungrateful,deceitful, cruel.

Magha ( l2Oo.O' to l53o.2o') : Many servants orfollowers, many kinds of riches, enjoys luxuries andpleasures, devoted to the gods and parents (and deadancestors), undertakes great enterprises, full of enthu-siasm.

Purvaphalguni or Pubba (1330.2O'to l460.4O') : pleas-a n t s p e e c h , g e n e r o u s , c h a r i t a b l e , e l e g a n t o rrefined appearance, love of wandering, governmentofficer.

l o .

l l .

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12. Uttara phalguni (1460.40' to 1600.O') : Loved by all,popular, enjoys pleasures and luxuries, free from sor-

' row, has good education which gives him wealth.

15. Hasta ( l600.0' to 173o.2O') : Dnthusiasm, f ixed mind.finances, alcoholic, unsympathetic or cruel.

14. Chitra (1730.2O'to l860.4O') : Fine garlands, f lowers,ornaments and clothes; fine impressive eyes.

15. Swati (1860.40' to 2OOo.O') : f lumil i ty, sel f-controltradesman, compassionate, pleasant speech, righ-teous.

16. Vishakha (20Oo.O' to 2l5o.2O') z Dnvy and malice,miser, assertive, eloquent, quarrelsome.

17. Anuradha (2I3o.2O' to 2260.4O') : Many friends, con-tented, righteous activities, fil led with anger.

lB. Jyeshtha (2260.40' to 24Oo.O) : Many friends, con-tented, righteous activities, filled with anger.

19. Mula (24Oo.O' to 253o.2O') : Proud, wealthy, happy,opposed to kill ing (prevents cruelty to any livingbe ing) , de termined mind, en joys p leasures andluxuries.

20. Purvashadha (253o.2O' to 2660.4O' ) : Happy andcheerful wife, self respect or honour, deeply attachedto friends.

21, Ultarashadha (2660.40' to 2BOo.O'): Humility, righ-teousness, many friends, full of gratitude, prosperousand happy.

22. Shravana (28Oo.O' to 2950.20') : Wealthy, scholar, gen-erous wife, famous.

25. Dhanishtha or Shravishtha (295o.2O' to 5060.4O') :Charitable and generous, wealthy, brave,loves music,and avaricious-

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24. Shatabhisha : (5060.40' to 52Oo.O' ) : Clear and em-phatic speech, fond of vices like womanising and gam-bling, destroys foes, daring, cannot be caught or un-derstood easily.

25. Purvabhadra (32Oo.O' to 355o.2O') : Agitated andworries, loses money to victorious women, skilled,unsympathetic.

26. Uttarabhadra (5330.2O' to 3460.40') : Dloquent speak-er, happy, has wife and children, overcomes enemies,righteous.

Revati (3460.40'to 5600.0 ) r Well-knit body, fortunate,popular, heroic, clean mind and character, wealthy.

27 .

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I5Iillhat the llouses

Govern

he details about the followlng have to be read from thefirst house which is the l-agna:( I ) Body, (2) Limbs, (5) rtappiness, (4) Unhappiness,

(5) Old age, (6) Knowledge, (7) Birth ptace, (8) Fame,(9) Dreams, (lO) Strength, (l l) Dignity, (t2) Potiticat tife,(15) Longevity, (14) Peace, (15) Age, (16) Hair , (17) Appear-ance, (18) Self-respect, (19) Livelihood, (2O) Cambting forothers, (211 511g-a, (22) Honour, (25) Skin, (24) Sleep,(25) Wisdom, (261 Wealth, (27) Nature to insutt and toavenge, (28) Freedom from ill health, (29) Nature to re-nounce, (5O) Ability to do work, (51) Dndeavouring to pre-serve live-stock, (52) toss of decency, and (55) Defamationfrom one's own kinsmen or persons of the same caste.

The following items are to be judged from the secondhouse:

(l) Speech, (2) Wealth, (5) Faith in the sacred texts,(4) Maintaining others, (5) Nails, (6) Enjoyment of pleasures,(7) Truth and falsehood, (8) Tongue, (9) Eyes, (lO) Ctothes,(ll) Diamond, copper and precious stones, (12) ?earl,(15) Determination in control, (14) Artificial products,(15) Family, (16) Sale and purchase, (17) Soft speech,(18) Generous or charitable nature, (19) Efforts to acquiremoney, (2O) Helping others, (21) Friends, (22) Splendour orgrace, (25) Miserliness in giving money, (24) Great elo.

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quence, (25) Learn ing , (26) Co ld , (27) F ine s i l ver ,(28) Corn, (t29) flumility, (50) Nose, (51) Firmness or steadi-ness of mind, (52) Close follower or neighbour, (55) Follow-ing the rules of going and arriving, and (54) Powerful orprosperous living.

From the third house the following factors have to beinterpreted:

(l) Courage, (2) Brothers, (5) War, (4) Ears, (5) Feet,(6) Road, (7) l,and or place, (8) Mental instability, (9) Abilityor fitness, (lO) Abode of the gods, (l l) Causing sorrow,(12) Dream, (15) Soldier, (14) Valour, (15) One's near rela-t ions, (16) Fr iends, (17) Wandering, (18) Throat, (19) Takingclean food and the like, (2O) Power, (21) Partitioning ofinheritance, (22) Ornaments, (25) Good qualities, (24) Ddu-cation, (25) Pastime or hobby, (26) Strength, (27) ?rofits,(28) Physical growth or development, (29) Descent froma good family, (5O) Servants, (51) The part of the handbetween the thumb and the index finger (which is sacredto the dead ancestors), (52) Maid servants, (55) Small goodveh ic les o r shor t good journeys , (34) P i lg r images,(55) Great undertakings, and (56) Performingpersonal reli-gious duties.

The things that can be delineated from the fourth houseare the following:

( l ) Dducat ion, (2) Nat ional or governmental work,(5) House, (4) Travels, (5) Vehicles drawn by men, boatsand similar conveyances, (6) Oil-bath, (7) Mother, (B) Rela-t ives, (9) Fr iends, ( lO) Caste, ( l l ) Clothes, (12) Smal l wel l .(15) Drink, (14) Mi lk, (15) Spices or perfumes, (16) Onehaving happiness, (17) A good name, (18) Miraculouslyefficient medicine, ( l9) Faith or trust, (2O) False allegations,(21) Mandapa or ausp ic ious pav i l ion , (22) V ic to ry ,(25) Works that give sorrow or suffering, (24) Agriculture,(25) Land, (26) Carden or pleasurable place, (27) Diggingtanks and wells, (28) The several sacred installations"(29) Relatives on the mother's side, (5O) Pure or steadyintellect, (51) Father, (32) Wife, (55) Securing and keepingsafe one's earnings, (54) ?alace, (55) Sculpture, (56) Enter-ing into one's own new house, (57) Qharacter, (58) Loss of

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one's house, (59) Paternal property, (40) Food like that ofthe gods, (41) Art of giving mentally ctues to the placeswhere stolen property is hidden, (42) Ant-hill, (45) Devetop-lng or contributing to the extensive spread of the Vedictexts and Shastras, (44) Buffaloes, cows and bulls, horses,and elephants in an intoxicated state, (45) Abundance ofcrops from wet lands, and (46) Wealth.

From the fifth house one has to examine the following:(l) Children, (2) Virtuous deeds of the father, (J) King,

(4) Minister (or minister of a king or ruter), (S) Cood charac-ter, (6) Sculpture, (7) Mind, (8) Dducation, (9) pregnancy,( lO) Discret ion, ( l l ) Umbrel la, (12) Listening to or spread-ing good stories, (15) Auspicious documents or parch-ments, (14) Clothes, ( l5) trmploying great prayogas or man-tras for achieving.varied desired ends, (16) paternal prop-erty, (17) Foresightedness, (lB) Wealth and prosperity ac-quired through the wife or her relatives, ( 19) Affairs withcourtesans or loose women, (20) Profundity or seriousness,(21) Firmness, (22) Secrets, (25) Ftumility, (24) Cood report-ing of news, (25) Welfare, (26) Friendship, (27) Composi-tion of kavyas and prabandhas (minor epic narratives),(28) Undertaking some good work, (29) Stomach, (bO) Man-tra, (51) Upasana or worship with penance, (52) Splendourwhich is graceful and pleasing, (Ji) Distributing food,(54) Discrimination between virtue and vice, (55) perform-ing the japa of mantras, (56) Wisdom, (57) Deep thought,(58) Means of earning money, (59) Having the instrumentalmusic of mridanga and the like that give delight, (4O) Schol-arship in literature, and (41) Acquisition of the hereditarypost of a minister.

We can judge the following from the sixth house:' ( l )

Diseases, (2) Obstacles, (5) Fight ing in war, &) na-ternal uncle, (5) Phlegm, (6) Tumor, (7) Cruel or fierceactivities, (B) Madness, (9) Smallpox, (lO) Foes and enmity,( l l ) M iser l iness , (12) I l l -hea l th , (15) Venereat bo i ts .(14) Bo i led r i ce , (15) Heavy brea th ing , (16) Debts ,(17) Slanders, (18) Del ight of the foes, (19) Tubercutosis.(2O) tlealed constitution, (21) Wounds, (22) ytentat agony orworry, (25) Many intense worries, (24) tlated by many,

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(25) Frequent diseases of the eyes, (26) Receiving alms,(27) Untimely food, (28) Fall or loss or destruction broughtabout by foes who are collaterals, (29) Profits, (SO) Weari-someness, (51) Poiscn, (32) Peptic or duodenal ulcer,(55) Fetters, (54) Protecting one's own fame, (55) Urinaryailment, (56) Dysentery, 6Z) Six flavours (tastes in food tikesour, sweet, bitter etc.) (58) Reproach, (59) Sorrows fromservants and theft, (40) Imprisonment, (41) Quarrels frombrothers and others.

The seventh house reveals the details about the follow-ing:

(1) Marriage, (2) Loose sex life, (5) Victory in tove orpassion, (4) Hatred of a loose woman, (5) Deviation fromthe right or proper path, (6) llaving perfumes, music andflowers, (7) Delicious food, drinks and the like, (8) Chewingbetal leaves (tambula), (9) Break in travels, (lO) Curd,(l l) Loss of memory, (12) Possessing clothes and the like,( l5) Semen, ( l4) Husband's (or wife 's) pur i ty, ( l5) A pair ofwives, ( l6) Cenerative organ, (17) Urinary track, ( I B) Anus,(19) Commerce or trade, (20) Milk, (21) Sweet or pleasantmansion, (22) Food with cereals and ghee, (25) Charities,(24) Yalour, (25) Destruction of enemies, (26) Victory,(27) Acquisition of money that is kept at a differentor distant place, (28) Arguments, (29) Sexual union,(5O) Adopted son, (51) Preparations with ghee, (52) Ownplace, (55) Foreign or distant place, (34) Wife(or husband),(55) All secret sex affairs, and (56) Theft.

From the eighth house we have to judge the following:(l) Longevity, (2) Happiness, (5) Disgrace or defeat,

(4) Money coming from the death of some one as in insur-ance or as in the case of a dead distant relative, (5) Afflictedface, (6) Worry about or arising from death, (7) Absence ofquarrels, (B) Sorrow from an ailment of meha, (9)worriesarising from brother, enemy, wife (or huband), (lO) Thefortress of the enemy, (l l) Misery or worry, (12), Idleness,( l5) Fear of punishment from the government, ( l4) Loss ofmoney, (15) Debts, ( l6) Receiving the money of others outof ignorance, (l7O Long awaited money, (lB) The arrival ofa wicked person, ( l9) Sin, (2O) Killing a live being, (21) Lossof a limb, (22) Capital punishment, (23) Terrifying sorrows,

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WflAT ME TTOUSES OOVERN 28,3

(24) A story that disturbs the mental peace, (25) Seriesof affections, (26) Attempting to do highly cruel acts,(27) Battle, and (28) Utmost mental anguish.

The following are to be judged from the ninth house:(1) Charity, (2) Virtuous acts, (5) Pilgrimages, (4) Pen-

ance, (5) Respectful devotion and service to the teachersand other elders, (6) Purity of mind, (7) Worship of thegods, (B) Effort to learn, (9) Splendour, (lO) Travel or con-veyance, ( I I ) Fortune or prosperity, ( l2) Polity, ( 15) Valour,(14) Listening to or spreading good stories, (15) Travels,(16) Worshipping Shiva by pouring water on the idol , (17)Nourishment, (lB) Coming into contact with the virtuous,(19) Auspiciousness, (20) Paternal property, (21) Sons anddaughters, (22) Dight forms of wealth, (25) florses,'el-ephants and buffaloes, (241Coronation, (25) Temple, (26)Establishing or consecrating Brahma, or firmly securing theBrahmanic faith, (27) Vedic rituals and sacrifices, and (28)Circulation or distribution of money.

Note

The fourth house is of great significance in the chart ofpoliticians. The fifth house primarily refers to children andintellect. Consider chart No. l. Here two powerful malefics

KujaShaniRahu Chandra

RaviBudha

Lagna

CHART No. 11912.12.24

Shukra

GuruKetu

are aspecting the fifth, and also the significator of children.One is debilitated. The combination of the fifth and seventhlords in the fifth also denied him children. Quru in the fifthfrom the fifth and in enemy's sign is also responsible.

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The sixth is primarily the housechart No. 2. The sixth lord Shani in

of disease. Considerthe ninth had given a

Shani Kuia

Ketu

CHARTN o . 2Ravi

GuruBudha'Shukra

Rahu

Chandra Lagna

hip-bone fracture. The lord of the natural ninth Jupiter isdebilitated and aspected by malefic Mars.

The seventh house refers to the husband or wife or part-ner. The significator is Shukra. For a happy married life, theseventh house, its lord, Jupiter and Venus should be well-placed. This house also indicates gpposition and,quarrels.

The eighth refers to longevity. Earlier we have givenexamples for short, medium and long terms of longevity.Any relation of the Sun or Mars with the eighth causes deathby fire. The ninth house also refers to fire. A watery planetlike the Moon associated with the eighth may cause deathby drowning. An example of death by suicide is the chart ofHitler. Death at the hands of assassins are those of Ma-hatma Candhi, J.F. Kennedy, Mrs. Indira Qandhi and others.Abraham Lincoln's chart also may be studied.

Association of lagna and the third with the ninth, ifbeneficially posited, makes one a devotee, a seeker afterspiritual reality. In chart No. 5 Curu as lord of the third is inthe ninth aspecting lagna, Ravi and Budha. The native, aMuslim by birth, was a great devotee of Ramana Maharshi.He built a house near the Ashram so that he be near theSaint.

Chart No. 4 is that of a great Saint, a Jivan-mukta. TheMoon, lord of the fifth, is in the fourth owned by Budha andaspected by the Sun. The planet of renunciation and the

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WTIAT TTIE TTOUSES OOVEfrN 2a5

KstuShani

Guru

CHART No. 3

KulaShukra

RaviRahuBudhaLaqna

Lagna Ketu

Kuja

CHART No. 4

Buddha Guru

Ravi Shukra Rahu Shani

lord of Moksha house (twelfth) is in the seventh aspectingthe third lord and the Moon. One kona house and onekendra have natural benefics. Lords of 7 and I I haveexchanged signs. Curu as lord of lagna is also aspecting theninth lord and the Sun. Sixth and tenth lords have changedhouses.

When the Sun and Shani are together in the tenth, thenative is subject to disgrace or dishonour. When the lagnaand the tenth houses and the Sun are strong and have nomalefic association, the native becomes famous. Takethe chart No. 5 of Rabindra Nath Tagore. Curu and the Moon

21.59Chandra6.9 Lagna

:lavi 25.38Shukra24.32

ludha 9.'18

Kuia 1.36K€tu 26.1 7

CHART No.5

Guru27.24

Shani12.37

26.17Rahu

have changed signs (lords of l, lO and 5). Budha and Kuia(lords of 2 and 4) have changed houses. Curu aspects hisown house, the lagna. Ravi is exalted in the second. The

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286 TEXT BOOI{ Of SCIENTInIC TTINDU ASTfrOLOOY

tenth lord is strong. The chart clearly estabishes his great-ness and vision.

When the second house or its lord, the eleventh or itslord, and Guru join together by aspect or conjunction, thenative becomes very wealthy. If there is also an associationwith the ninth house or its lord, fortune smiles on himpermanently. Consider chart No. 6 which is that of M.A.

27.20Chandra

lahu 22.12Shani11.24

Lagna 9 CHART No.6

22.12Ketu

Budha23.30

lavi 1 1.45

Shukra9.rtoGuru25.23

24Kuja

14.14f )handra

CHART No.7

Sheni

Kuja 14.18Rahu 24.5(

24.53Ketu

Havl21 .56Budha16.2

Lagna11 .12Guru

12.45Shukra

R

Jinnah. Here the second, eleventh and ninth lords are to-gether in the tenth. One is Guru. Lords of 9 and lO haveexchanged signs. The tenth is aspected by Shani, the lord oflagna. The eleventh house has the lords of the fifth and theseventh. Quru is also the lord of the Moon sign and asPectsit.

The twelfth is primarily the house of expenditure, separa-tion, danger and also final emancipation (moksha). sePara'

tion or loss can refer to wife or husband, and children as

well. Chart No. 7 is that of M.M. Gopinath Kaviraj, a great

scholar, a Shakta, and a great spiritual sadhaka. The ninth

lord Moon, and the fifth lord Guru have mutual aspects

from the sixth and the twelfth. The sixth and the ninth lords

have exchanged signs. The twelfth lord Shukra is debili-

tated but retrograde in the eleventh. Shani aspects this

Shukra. Shani causes renunciation. The tenth house is well

fortified.

ln this way the twelve houses have to be examined

carefully.

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WTAT TT{E NOUSES OOVERN 247

The tenth house gives us the details about the following:

( I ) Commerce, (2) Honour from the ruler, (5) Riding on

a horse, (4) Wrestling, (5) Work of or in the Government,(6) Service, (7) Agriculture, (8) Doctoring, (9) Fame,(lO) Buried or hidden treasure, (l l) Sacrifices and the like,

(12) Pre-eminepce or the position of the best merchant,( 15) Teachers, ( l4) Religious yantras or symbolic diagrams,(15) Chanting of sacred spells or mantras, (16) Mother,

(17) Wide spread or extensive religious merit, (lB) Medi-

cine, (19) Thighs, (2o) gods, (21) Acquisition of the full

power of a mantra, (22) Prosperity, (25) Adopted son,

iZ+) ro.Oship, (25) Right path, (26) Cood living with self-

respect, (27) ttonour, (28) A prince, (29) Fame, (5o) Expert

teaching ability and the like, (51) Authority using a seal,

(52) lnfluence, self-control, and (55) A mind that gives or-

ders to be obeYed.

The following facts can be investigated from the elev'

enth house:

(t) Qains in 7ll possible ways, (2) Dvil desires, (5) All

forms of income, (4) Dependence on others, (5) Elder

brother, (6) Paternal uncle, (7) Worship of the gods,

(8) Worship of the sattvic deities, (9) Education, (lO) Qreat

skill in earning gotd and money, ( I I ) Ancestral property,

(12) l{nee, (15) SPecial position, (14) Love of or fondness

for ornaments and precious stones, (15) Wealth, (16) tost

wealth, ( l7) Seeking to possess ornaments made of gold for

the sake of arts and women, (18) Wisdom, (19) Position of

a minister, (2O) Brother of the wife, (21) Profits, (22) Rise of

fortune, (25) Achieving the desired goal, (24) Easy or good

returns, (25) Cooking, (26) Desires, (27) Longevity of

mother, (28) Ears, (29) Shankhs, and (5O) Skill in the art of

painting.

The twelfth house gives us the details about the follow

l n g :

(l) Disturbed sleep, (2) mental worry or anguish, (5) The

two feet, (4) Fear from foes, (5) Imprisonment, (6) Freedom

from suffering, (7) Relief from debts, (8) Elephants and

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horses, (9) Patemal property, (lO) Enemy, (ll) Ascentinto heaven, (12) Left eye, (lJ) flated by the public,( l4) Crippled limbs, ( l5) Loose sex life, ( I 6) Break-down ofmarr iage, (17) Civing up the sleeping bed, ( lg) toss ofpower or authority, ( 19) Kept in chains in an enemy,shouse, (2O) Mental imbalance, (21) Miserable condition,(22) Harm, (25) Hurt by the thought of the loss of happi-ness of the father and brothers, (24) Disputes, (25) Anger,(26) Physical ailment, (27) Death, (28) Migrating to adefferent place, (29) Expenditure of all kinds, and (JO) tossof wife or husband.

Note: These are the karakatvas or factors signified bythe twelve houses starting from the lagna, These have to becorrelated with planets that signify them. Thus the ninthhouse refers to the father and so does the Sun. The twohave to be taken together. The fifth house and euru refer tochildren. The second house and Guru indicate money. Inthis way one has to proceed. llence the author gives a listof factors signi f ied by the di f ferent luminaries (Raviand Chandra), shadowy planets (Rahu and Ketu), and theremaining five planets.

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T6Iilfhat the Planets

Govern

rTlhe Sun is the significator of the following:I

( I ) Soul, (2) Power or strength, (5) ereatest severity,(4) Fortress, (5) Cood strength, (6) Heat, (7) Influence,(8) Fires, (9) Worship of Shiva, ( I O) Courage, ( I I ) Treeshaving thorns, ( l2) Favour of the king or ruler, ( l b) Bittertaste, ( l4) Old age, ( l5) Catile, ( l6) Wickedness, (tZ) t-and,(18) Father, (19) Taste, (2O) Awakening of knowtedge orenlightenment, (21) Looking up towards the sky-very greatambition, (22) One born to a timid person or one whoseactions are born out of fear, (2J) World of mortals,(24) Square or harmonious, (25) bones, (26) Valour,(27) Grass, (28) Stomach, (29) Enthusiasm, (JO) Forest,(51) Half a year, (32) Eye, (5J)'Wandering in or over thehills, (54) Quadruped, (5b) King, (SO) Traveiling, (SZ) Deat-ings with affairs personal or social, (bg) Bile, (J9) Feverishor inflammatory complaints, (4O) Circular forms, (41) Dis-eases of the eye, (42) Body, (45) Timber, (44) Mentat purity,(45) Sovereignty over the entire country or over all coun-tries, (46) Freedom from disease, (42) Rulership overSaurashtra-Southern Qujarat, (48) Ornaments, (49) Diseas-es of the head, (50) Pearls, (51) Ruler of the sky-controlover air-space, (52) Short or dwarfish stature, (b5) Rulershipover the eastern direction, (54y 6,stter, (55) Btood or

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blood-red gems like ruby, (56) Kingdom, (57) Blood-redcloth, (58) Stones, (59) Undishguished or open conduct,(60) River bank, (61) Red coral, (62) Strong at noon,(65) Dast, (64) Face, (65) Long-standing anger or strongindignation, (66) Capturing the foe, (67) Sattvik or benevo-lent and good temper, (68) Red sandal paste or saffron,(69) Otherness or opposition or hostility, and (70) Thick orcoarse yarn.

The Moon is the significator of the following:

( l) Intelligence, (2) Flowers, (5) Perfumes, (4) Coing to afortress, (5) Disease, (6) Erahmana or Dvija, (7) Laziness,(8) Phlegmatic constitution, (9) EpilePsy, (lO) tlidden orulcerous troubles in the stomach, (l l) nature of the mind,(12) Heart , (15) Woman, (14) Benef ic and malef ic nature,(15) Acidi ty, (16) Sleep, (17) t tappiness, (18) Liquids,(19) Silver, (2O) Stout sugarcane, (21) Ylalarial fever,(221 ?ilgrimage, (25) Wells, (24) Tank, (251 Mother,(26) Impartial outlook, (27) Noon, (28) Pearls, (29) Con-sumption, (5O) Whiteness, (51) Waist-band, (52) bell-metal,(55) Salt, (54) Short stature, (55) Mind, (56) Abilities,(37) Ponds, (58) D iamond, (59) Sarad or au tumn,(4O) Muhurta or 48 minute duration, (41) Facial lustre,(42) White colour, (45) Stomach, (44) Worship of Gauri-theconsort of Shiva, (45) t loney, (46) Qrace or favour,(47) Sense of fun or humour, (48) Nourishment, (49) Wheat,(5O) Pleasures, (51) Splendour, (521Face, (55) Swiftness ofmind or agility of mind, (54) Fondness for curd, (55) Onewho does tapas or Penance, (56) Fame, (57) Beauty'(58) Strong at night, (59) Facing west, (60) Lover,(61) Saline, (62) Acquiring a post, (65) Love of the west,(64) Middle world, (65) Nine gems, (66) Middle age,(67) Self , (68) trat ing, (69) Going to distant places,(7O) Ailments of the shoulders, (71) Umbrella and otherroyal insignia, (72) Qood fruits, (75) Fine blood circulationor vi tal energy, (74) Fish and other aquat ic beings,(75) Serpents and the like, (76) Clothes, (77) Fine blossom-

ing, (78) Lustre, (79) Clean crystals, and (8O) Refined cloth-ing.

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Kuja is the significator of the following items:(I) Valour, (2) Land, (5) Strength, (4) Carrying weapons,

(5) Ruling over people-administrator, (6) L,oss of virility,(7) Thief, (8) Battle, (9) Opposition, (lO) Foes, (l l) Charita-ble nature, (12') Love of deepred objects, (15) Ruler oversacred places-archaeologist, or religious endowments,( l4) Sound of a trumpet, ( l5) Fondness, ( l6) Quadrupeds,(17) King, (lB) Obstinate fool, (19) Anger, (2O) Qoing toa foreign country, (21) Steadfastness, (22) Supporter,(25) Fire, (24) Controversy or arguments, (25) Bile,(26) tleat, (27) Wounds, (28) Service under the ruler,(29) Day, (5O) Sky, (51) Sight, (52) Shortness, (55) Ailment,(54) Fame, (55) Tin, (56) Sword, (57) Spear, (58) Minister,(59) Firmness of l imbs, (4O) Jewels, (41) Worship ofSubrahmanya, (42) Youth, (45) Pungent taste, (44) Hall ofthe ruler, (45) Earthenware, (46) Obstacles, (47) Eatingnonvegetarian food, (48) Abusing or bitterly criticising oth-ers, (49) Conquering foes, (5O) Bit terness of taste,(51) Strong towards the end of the night, (52) Cold,(55) Summer season, (5/-) Valour, (55) Strength of the ene-my, (56) Profundity, (57) Courageous behaviour, (58) Man,(59) Character, (60) Brahama, (61) Axe, (62) Moving in theforest (forest officer), (65) Chief ruler or officer of the vil-lage, (64) Favours of the king, (65) Painful urination, (66)Square (67) Qoldsmith, (68) Wicked one, (69) Bumt place,(7O) Aood food, (71) Leanness, (72) Skill in archery,(75) Blood, (74) Copper, (75) Yariegated or pecul iarclothes, (76) Face turned towards the south, (77) Fond ofthe southern direction, (78) Desire, (79) Anger, (8O) Spread-Ing scandals, (81) House, (82) Commander of the Army,(85) A fire arm that kills a hundred-something-like amachinegun, (84) Tree, (85) Sama Veda, (86) Brothers,(87) ttatchet, (88) Controlling fierce or wild animals,(89) Independence, (9O) Persistance, (91) Land, (92) Onewho awards pun ishment , (95) Snake, (94) Wor ld ,(95) Speech, (96) Fickleness or imbalance of the mind,(97) Cetting on a vehicle, (98) Seeing blood and (99) Dryingor coagulating of blood, and many other such things areattributed to Kuja by the wise.

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Budha is the significator of the following:( 1) Education, (2) Horses, (5) Treasury , &) ptathematics,

(5) Knowledge, (6) Speech, (7) Dvi jas, (8) Infantry,(9) Script, (10) Writing, (l l) New ctothes, (12) Constructionof palaces, ( 15) Creen colour, i l4) Sculpture, ( l5) Astrolog5rand astronomy, (16) Pilgrimages, (17) Wise orgood conver-sation or lecturing, ( 18) Temples, ( l9) Commerce, (2O) Bestornaments, (21) Soft speech, (ZZ) Vedanta system of phi-losophy, (23) Ylaternal grand-father, (24) Bad dreams,(25) Eunuch, (26) Face turned to the north, (27) Skin,(28) Moisture, (29) Bell-metal and the like; (5O) Renuncia-tion, (51) Seasons, (52) Fine palace, (b5) Medical practitio-ner, (34) NecK (55) Black magic, (b6) Child, (bz) LooLtnncross-wise, (58) Heaven, (59) Humility, (40) Collaterals,(41) Fear, (42) Dancing, (4J) Devotion, (44) Tendency tolaughter, (45) Strong at sunrise or morning, (46) The seasonof hemanta or the beginning of winter, (47) Scratchingailments, (48) Self-control, (49) Navel, (5O) Flourishing ofone's own dynasty, (51) Mixed or compound substances,(52) Presides over the Telugu language, (55) Worship ofVishnu, (54) Shudras, (55) Birds, (56) younger cobornsor brothers and sisters, (57) Witty language, (58) Sticks,(59) Atharva Veda, (6O) Carrying out the karmas or religiousrites, (61) Towers of temples, (62) Dust, (6J) Carden, (64)Sex organs, (65) Evenness, (66) Beneficial nature, (621Wandering in the villages, (68) Balanced nature and out-look, (69) Fond of the north-western direction, (70) Wellversed in the Puranas or minor epics, (71) Grammar,(72) One skilled in researching and testing the preciousstones-r?atna-Parakhi. (75) Scholar, (74) Maternal uncle,(75) Mantras or sacred spells, (76) Yantras or symbolicreligious diagrams, (77) Yery powerful tantrik and thelike.

Jupiter is the significator of the following:(l) Brahmanas, (2) One's own teachers, (S) Religious,

social and other duties, (4) Chariot, (5) Cows, (6) Infantry,(7) Deposits, (8) Mimansa or enquiry into jurisprudence andthe nature of dharma, (9) Treasure, (f O) Horses, (l l) Buffa-

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loes, (12) Large or stout body, (lJ) Valour, (14) Fame,(f5) Logic, (16) Astronomy and astrolory, (17) Sons,(lB) Qrandsons, (19) Complaints of the digestive system,(2O) Wealth of the elephants, (21) Vedanta system of philos_ophy, (22) Dlders like the greatgrand-father, (25) Mansion,(24) Qomedha or hassonite, (2b) Elder brother, (26) Crandfather, (27) lndra, (ZB) Second half of winter, (29) Acrsarising from great indignation, (bO) precious stones,(51) Tradesman, (52) Physical health, (5J) Strange or pecu,liar palace, (54) Honour from the king, (Jb) Great gods,(56) Penance, (57) Charity, (58) Dharma, (59) Doinggood toothers, (4O) Impartial outlook, (+ t ) Facing towards thenorth, (42) Circular forms, (45) yellow colour, (44) Wander_ing in the villages, (45) North, (46) Dear friends, (47) Swing-ing on a plank or on an elephant, (48) Creat eloquence,(49) Brain, (5O) Cloth of a medium count, (5t) HuOOtn"""in a newly built house, (52) OId age or old persons,(55) Mantra, (54) Dvijas, (5S) Hoty water or ptace of pilgrim-age, (56) Knee, (57) Moving towards heaven, (58) Housethat offers happiness, (59) Intellect, (60) ereat proficiency,(61) Qreat long poems, (62) Towers, (6i) Delighting orimpressing an audience, (64) Throne, (65) Installation ofthe idol of Brahma, (6O1 Cat's eye or lahsunia, (67) Thegreat results of Agnishtoma sacrifice, (6S) Sweet juices,(69) Sattvic nature, (7O) Happiness and unhappiness,(71) Length , (72) Centle or benefic, (Zb) Understanding theminds or thoughts of others, (24) Aold, (75) Decorations,(76) Tantra or technical subjects and the like, (77) Windcompla in ts (78) Ph legm, (79 ' ) Cood ye l low topaz ,(8O) Sound knowledge of the sacred texts and scriptures,(81) Soft and pleasant stones , (82) Worship of Shiva,(85) Performing religious and moral acts stricily, and(84) Travelling in a carriage covered on the four sides.

Shukra is the significator of the following:(l) White umbrella which is a royal insignia, (2) Cood

chowrie, (5) Cood clothes, (4) Marriage, (b) Income,(6) Bipeds, (7) Women, (8) Dvijas, (9) Genile or benefic.(f O) White colour, (l l) Wife or husband, (tZ) Happiness

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from sex-life, (15) Short stature, (14) Acid taste, (15) trlowers, (16) Commands, (17) Fame, (18) Youth, (19) Pride,(2O) Conveyance, (21) Silver, (22) Fond of the south-east,(25) Saltish taste, (24) Cross-wise vision, (251 Cough,(26) Fortnight, (27) Rajasik nature, (28) Firmness,(29) Pearls, (5O) Yajur Veda, (51) Vaisyas, (32) Beauty,(55) Buying and selling or buying and selling the articlesthat contribute to beauty, (54) Pleasant talk arising frommutual love, (55) Watery place, (56) Dlephants, (57) Horses,(58) Peculiar or strange poetry, (59) Dancing, (40) Middleage, (41) Music, (42) Enjoyment, (45) llappiness from wifeor husband, (44) Precious stones, (45) Love of humour,(46) Swimming, (47) Seruants, (48) Fortune, (49) Strangelustre, (5O) Tenderness, (51) Kingdom, (52) Fragrant gar-land, (55) Taking pleasure in violin and flute, (54) Pleasantmovement or walking, (55) tright kinds of prosperity,(56) Well-proportioned limbs, (57) Frugal in taking food,(58) Season of spring, (59) Ornaments, (60) Possessingmanywomen, (61) Facingtheeast, (62) Eyes, (65) Speakingtruth, (64) Skilled in the fine arts, (65) Semen, (66) SportingIn water with love, (67) Profundity, (68) Excess or emi-nence, (69) Pleasant musical instruments, (7O) Decorationfor the dramatic shows, (71) Indulgence in amorous sports,(72) Declining physical form, (75) One who attaches greatlmportance to sex, (74) Receiving good respect or honour,(75) Fondness for having white clothes, (76) Expert inBharata's Natya Sastra, (77) tlaving the seal of authorityor of the government, (78) Ruler, (79) Fond of worship-ping Gauri and l-akshmi, (8O) Dmaciated from the pleasuresof sex, (81) Playing the role of a mother for those bornduring the day, (82) Skilled in composing Kavyas, minorepics and the like, (83) Blue-black hair, (84) Benefic,(85) genitals, (86) Urine or urinary tract, (87) Moving in theworld of the snakes, (88) Strong in the aftemoon, (89) Anawareness of the genital olgans and the secrets connectedwith them.

Shani is the significator of the following:

(l) Il l-health and other sufferings, (2) Obstruction,

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WTTAT TTTE PIANETS OOYERN 295

(5) ilorses, (4) Dlephants, (b) Skin, (6) Income, (Z) Stan_dards, (8) Distress, (9) Disease, (lO) Dnmity, (l l) Sorrow,(12) Death, (15) Happlness from a woman, (14) Maid-ser-vant, (15) Asses, (16) Outcastes, (17) persons with strangeor mutilated limbs, (18) Roaming in the woods, (19) Dis-gust, (2O) Charity, (21) Lords, (22) tongevity, (2b) Dunuch,(241 One born outside the four castes, (25) Birds,(26) Tretagni-one of the three sacred domestic fires,(27) Sentant's duties, (ZB) Doing something other thanthe traditional or accepted duties, (29) One losing his ego,(5O) Telling lies, (51) Lasting long, (52) Wind, (J5) Otd age,(54) Tension, (55) Strong at the end of the day, (56) Thesecond half of winter, (57) Indignation, (b8) pxertion,(59) Born of a low woman, (4O) Bom in adultery, (41).Awidow's bastard, (42) Dir ty cloth, (4A) Dir ty house,(44) Mind turned to dirty things, (4b) Friendship with thewicked, (46) Black colour, (47) Sins, (48) Cruelty, (49) Ash-es, (5O) Grains in black colour, (51) precious stones,(52) lron, (55) Qenerosity, (b4) A year, (55) Shudras,(56) Vital or supporters of the lover, (bZ) Significator of thefather for one born at night, (58) Leamlng what belongsto another caste, (59) l_ameness, (60) Fierce or severe,(61) Blanket, (62) Faclng the west, (6b) Remedies for restor-ing life, (64) rooXing downwards, (65) Livlng by agricuttureor farming, (66) One who knows where the arms are kept,manager of an ordnance factory, (67) Cousin, (6g) An exter-nal position, (69) Fond of the north-east, (7O) World of thesnakes, (71) Falling, (72) Wandering in the batile fields,(75) Bones, (74) lead, (75) Wrong or wicked valour,(76) Turks, (77)Torn clothes or things, (7S) Oil, (79) Wood,(8O) Brahman having Tamsik quality, (81) Wandering inpoisonous places, (82) Roaming in hilly areas, (g5) Longstanding fear, (84) Hunter, (85) Strange or ugty hair,(86) Whole kingdom, (87) Fear, (88) Qoats and the tike,(89) Buffaloes and the l ike, (9O) Indulgence in sex,(91) Displaying amorous intenfions in dressing, (92) Wor-ship of Yama, (95) Dogs (94) Thefts, and hard-hearted-ness.

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Rahu is the significator of the following:(l) Umbrella, (2) Chowrie, (5) Acquiring a kingdom,

(4) Faulty logic, (5) Harsh speech, (6) One belonging toa caste outside the four main castes, (7) A sinful woman,(8) A conveyance covered on all four sides, (9) An irreli-gious person or a Shudra, (lO) eambling, (l l) Strong atsunset, ( 12) Having sex with a wicked woman, ( l5) going toa different country, (14) Unclean, (15) Bones, (16) Hiddenabdominal ulcer, (17) Falsehood, (18) Looking downwards,(19) Perplexity, (2O) Dmerald, (21) Facing south, (22) De-pending on mlechchhas, low castes and the like, (2J) Malig-nant tumour, (24'l Great forest, (25) Wandering in difficultPlaces, (26) Suffering from mountains, (22) Stayrng outside,(28) South-western direction, (29) Complaints of wind andphlegm, (50) serpents, (51) Southem breeze, (52) Severe,(55) tong, (54) Reptiles, (55) Interpretation of dreams,(56) Travels, (37) One muhurta, (58) Old age, (J9) Convey-ance, (4O) World of the snakes, (41) Maternal grandfather, (42) Air, (45) Acute duodenal pain, (44) Catarrh,(45) Breathing, (46) Great valour, worship of nava,Durga,(47) Wickedness, (48) Association with animals, (49) Writ-Ing Urdu or Persian, and (5O) Harsh speech.

Ketu is the significator of the following:( I ) Worship of the lord of Chandi, Canesha and others,

(2) Medical practitioner, (5) Dogs, (4) Cocks, (5) Vuttures,(6) Final salvation, (7) All sorts of prosperity, (8) Consumption, (9) Painful fevers, (lO) Bath in the Ganges, (l l) Creatpenance, (12) Wind complaints, (15) Friendship with hunt-ers, (14) Acquiring prosperity, (15) Stones, (16) Wounds,(17) Mantra Shastra, (18) Instability of mind, (19) Knowl-edge of Brahmn, (20) Diseases of the stomach and eye, (21)Stupidity, (22) Thom, (25) Knowledge of the animals, zool-oW, (24) Observing silence religiously, (25) Vedanta, (26)All kinds of luxury, (27) Fortune, (28) Suffering from foes,(29) Sparing in eating, (5O) Renunciation, (51) Father's fa-ther, (32) flunger, (55) Qreat pain from peptic or doudenalulcer, (54) Small pox, or boils and such other diseases, (55)Homed animals, (56) A devotee of Shiva, (57) Cetting the

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ord€r of imprisonment revoked, (58) conversation or asso-ddql with Shudras.

We.will now illustrate some of these Karakatvas.Chaft No. 8 is that of Mr. Nanavati. It was alleged that he

14.20Ketu

Favi17.19

Budra 24

Shukra7.30

Chandra5.45

CHART No. I

2 .19Lagna

Kuja 2\rUfU H

18.3Shani 8.5Rahu 14.20

shot dead the paramour of his wife. The Moon is weak andas lord of 12 is placed in the I lth aspected by malefic lordof the fourth and ninth lord Kuja. The seventh tord is devoidof aspects. The seventh lord is with Rahu and retrogradeQuru. The seventh lord afflicts the Moon. Both body andsoul are afflicted and so are the fifth and eighth houses.Shukra is between malefics. Curu,s aspect on him showslove and a rival led to the final shoot-out.

Chart No. 9 shows the seventh lord afflicted by Kuja

23.2'lKuja

5.31Ketu

11.28Shukra

L 25.30Ravi 15.26

Budha29.20

CHART No. 9

12.39Chandra

27.56Shani R

5.31Rahu

28.41Guru

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(lord of 6 and ll). The significator of marriage is in hisown house, but is aspected by the powerful Shani fromthe sixth. The lagna is aff l icted by Mars. This gir l 'shusband committed suicide within ten months of themarriage.

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I7Planets in tilouses

fD lanets in various signs and houses give differnet kindsr of effects. These have to be carefully noted. They getmodified by the aspects and other factors. Hence theyshould not be applied blindly.

Counting Mesha as one and Mina as 12, we give theeffects of the several planets briefly.

Sun: (l) Small wealth; (2) delight in music; (5) thinks ofacquiring learning and wealth; (4) ignorant; (5) clever, wellversed in arts; (6) eager to acquire money; (7) daring;(8) esteemed; (9) small trader; (lO) clever in all activities;( I I ) lacks the joy of children; ( l2) prosperous in agricultureand irrigation.

Chandra : (1, 8) Gets wealth from the govemment,agriculture and other professions; (2,7) indulges in sensualenjoyment; (5,6) dejected; (4) favoured by the government,acquires wealth; (5) secures wealth; (9, 12) victory overfoes, comforts and happiness; (lO) king or his equal (l l,yserved by bad persons.

Budha : (1,8) Poor; (2,7) learned; (5) happy; (4) dissi-pates his wealth; (5) henpecked ; (6) virtuous and free fromdangers; (9) favourite of the rulers; (lO, I l) artisan, menialservant; (12) subdued servant.

Gurr : ( l, 8) superior to others, wealthy, good sons,virtuous, bountiful; (2,7) energetic; (5,6) large following of

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f r iends; (4) wise, r ich, good chi ldren; (5) famous;(9, L2l ruler; (lO) wanderer and full of cares and anxieties;(l l) enjoys pleasures.

Shulaa : (l) gallant; (21 wields large influence, hasfriends and relatives; possesses fortune; genius; (5)leamed, wise and wealthy; (4) coward ; (5) dull children; (6)bad conduct and habits; (7) favourite of the ruler; (8) servedby bad women; (9) lord of men; ( 10) has enjoyments; ( I I )immoral; (12) fortune, learning, amiable.

Shani : (l) stupid: (2) has little wealth; (5) bereft ofmoney, intelligence, and children; (4) no maternal happi-ness; (5) disreputable; (6) little wealth, few children; (7)leader of a community, village, or town; (8) cruel heart, (9)enjoys dignity coming from riches, sons and wife (lO) likedby the ruler; (l l) wealthy; (l2l surpasses in energy andvirtues.

Kuja : The Americans have sent Mariner VI and VII toexplore the red planet. Mars or Kuja is also called Mangalaand Bhauma. lle is Bhauma or the son of the earth, accord-ing to Hindu mytholory. As such, Mars was to be posteriorto the earth, and these twb planets are taken to have a greatdeal in common. In Hindu astrology, his importance cannotbe underrated. He was the god Tiw of the Teutons. This'earth's true and most fascinating brother" was calledNeruel by the ancient Chaldeans and Babylonians, and hewas said to be the judge of the dead. Possibly this is theidea underlying the tlindu identification of Mangala withSubrahmanya, the snakegod. One will remember that theDelphic oracle shrine was originally a serpent-shrine. Platocalled him ffroes or the fiery one. The Qreeks namedhim Ares, one who kills. The Roman god of war was calledMars.

Mars was associated with war and today probably withsuryical job, engineering and other implements. The sign ofMars is a combination of shield and spear. A fifteenth cen-tury Latin manuscript records: "Mars rules catastrophesand war: it is master of the daylight hours of Tuesday and

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the hours of darkness on Friday: its metal is iron: its gemsjasper and hematite: and it rules the colour red, the liver,the blood vessels, the kidneys, and the gall bladder as wellas the left ear. Being of choleric temper, it especially rulesmales between the ages of 42 and b2.ln the same centurythere appeared a German poem in which we read thefollowing:

Third planet am l, cdlled Mars,Fiercest and angriest of all the stars.By nature I am hot and dry,Choleric my temper, though people sigh.Of the twelve signs, not all are friendly,But Aries and Scorpio attend me.While in their realms my fearful raysCause murders, wars and death all days,My highest seat is Capricorn.In Cancer of my might I am shornThrough'all twelve signs I aboundAnd in two years sweep clear around.This is a precise introduction to Mars from an astrologi-

cal standpoint.

The Dane, Tycho Brahe (1546-160l) examined thisplanet astronomically. In l57l he showed that Mars has anelliptical orbit. Qallileo Qallilei (1564-1642) made a system-atic search with the telescope. He sought an answer to thef requent g ibbous appearance; and in August l65gFrancesco Fontani saw the gibbous phase.

The Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)gave the first sketch of the Martian surface. He was the firstto see the southern polar cap. He thought that the Martianday is closer "to 24 terrestrial hours". Sir William Herschel(17 58-L822) determined the length of the Martian day as 24hours, 59 minutes, and 31.67 seconds. This is about 14seconds short of what is known to be the real duration. Hestated in 1784 that the polar caps were eccentric to thepoles, and that these caps of snow and ice melted away insummer. He was the first to report colour changes and alsoto emphasize the presence of an atmosphere.

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The ltalian astronomer Ciovanni Virginio Schiaparelli(1855-l9lO) and the American Asaph Hal l (1A29-1907)

observed this planet in 1877. The former drew up bettercharts of the planet. tle saw many straight, dark lines; andhe called them Canali which means grooves. When theword is applied to natural features, it means channels. In1882 he wrote : "There are, on this planet, traversing thecontinents, long dark lines which may be designated asCanali, although we do not know what they are. Those linesrun from one to another of the sombre spots that areregarded as seas, and form over the lighter, or continentalre,gions, a well-defined network. Their arrangement appearsto be invariable and permanent at least as far as I can judge

from four and a half years of observation. Sometimes theseCanali present themselves in the form of shadowy andvague lines, while on other occasions they are clear andprecise, like a trace drawn with a pen. They cross oneanother obliquely or at right angles. They have a breadth oftwo degrees or 12O kilometers and several extend over alength of 8O degrees or 4,800 kilometers' Their tint is verynearly the same as that of the seas, usually a little lighter.

Every Canaliterminates at both its extremities in a sea, or in

another Canali; there is not a single example of one comingto an end in the midst of dry land".

Then everyone started talking about Mars; and the

Canali became canals. Asaph tlall discovered that Mars

had two very small moons. Actually in 1726 Dean Swiftpredicted the existence of Martian moons. In Laputa, hesaid; "They have made a catalogue of IO,OOO fixed stars.They have likewise discovered two lesser stars or satelliteswhich revolve-about Mars." trarlier stil l, in 1610, Keplerguessed the existence of two moons circling around

Mars. These moons were actually seen in 1877 by Hall.

One satellite is called Phobos or Fear, and it has a diameter

of about ten miles. The other is Deinos or panic, having

a diameter of s ix mi les. These two are "dynamical

nightmares". Phobos is only 3,7OO miles away from the

surface and it moves round the planet in about 7 hours,

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59 minutes. Deimos is l2,5OO miles away and it takes 5Ohours for a single revolution.

In 196O a Russian astrophysicist called Dr. Shklovskiargued that the Martian moons were originally artificial sat-ellites which may have been put into orbit by the Martiansby about 1a75. This theory may be dismissed as fanciful.The close-up pictures sent by Mariner VI and VII were nottaken from a close range. Probably the mystery of the planetmay be revealed only when man manages to get on theMartian surface and explore it well.

Mars ls a dry, barren and inf lammatory planetsymbolising the war-like and quarrelsome elements. Acci-dents, fires, wars, quarrels and passions are generally attrib'uted to this planet. If Mars is in the advanced degree of thesign, then he is taken to be the victor. If, on the other hand,he is behind the other planet or planets in a single sign, heis said to be defeated and therefore powerless. This aryu-ment carries considerable weight. Yet we come acrosssome interesting cases where this rule seems to be falsified.

Consider Chart I. It is remarkable in many ways. The

Moon 17oMars 30Kelu 260

Ascdt. 27oMerc. 28o

Sun 170V6nus

CHART No. I

Jup. 28oRahu 260

Sat. 21o

twelfth house has three planets. The Moon is in the l Tthdegree, Mars in the 5rd and Kethu in the 26th. Quru who isaspecting them is in the 28th. In January l9O5 the majorperiod of Mars came to a close and he was 59 years old bythat time. He became the Judge of the Calcutta tligh Court

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ln 19O4. This means that the periods of the Moon anrd Marswent without much significance. We can understand theperiod of Mars but not that of the Moon. Herr we can onlyargue that if Mars is behind any planet, he spoils him also.The conjunction of these two indicates that the period ofboth these planets is a time of hasty conduct. It will be aperiod when one should be careful about his dealings withothers. Attachments and friendships will not run smoothly.It is a dangerous period for all personal affairs. For intellec-tually and morally great the period will bring excitementand increase of mental enerry.

Take the second chart of a young boy who was not

lars 131/z'J u p . 1 3 0

Rahu 13o{scdt. 19o

Sun 1?bMerc. 12oy'enus 21c

CHART No. 2

Moon 1 10

Sat. 21oKetu 13o

keeping well till the other day. His Rahu Dasa began in1945. As in the previous case here too Mars is in his ownhouse and he is ahead of Curu by half a degree. We nor-mally accept that the period of Mars cannot be totally bad.However it was in the period of Mars that he was mentallyaffected and it continued for full seven years in the periodof Rahu with occasional spells of good times. This factbecomes inexplicable when we consider the fifth house. Yetthe fact remains and we have to find out the basis of thefact. The conjunction of Mars and Jupiter is not completelygood. Too much consciousness of dignity and pride go withthis position. This conjunction makes one over-liberal andthere is a tendency to litigation. At least he will lose or he

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will malte his parents lose large sums of money. This lossextends roughly over a period of seven or nine years. Atendency to frivolity and giddiness is also indicated. To thedeveloped minds it c:n bring a spirit of enterprise, a senseof independence, and a great increase of enerS/. lf onelacks both ability and prudence, it wilt bring a bad period.This result is further accentuated by the l2th house wherethey are situated.

A third combination appears in the third chart where we

Moon 19e \scdt. 2S

CHART No. 3

Ketu 29P

Rahu 29Py'enus 260Sat. 21oMars 9P

Sun 15oMerc. 20

Jup. 28o

have the eighth house showing Mars, Shanl, Sukra and' Rahu. These are however aspected by Quru who is the lordof two angular houses. Mars is behind all these planets. Assuch the other planets must be favourable to the native. Tillthe end of 1945 he had the mqjor period of Mars. Thisperiod did not help him intellectually or educationally oreven socially. In such a case Rahu and other planets mustbe good. Yet the conjunction between Rahu and the otherplanets is so close that much good cannot be expected.Here we do find Kuja casting his rays within eight degreesand thereafter it is Shani that carries his and Kuja'sinfluences over to the other two planets. In other wordsa conjunction is operative within eight degrees and ifthere is a third planet beyond these two, we have to findout whether it is within eight degrees of any one of theplanets. If it is not so situated, then it escapes the influenceof Mars.

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The conjunction of Mars and Saturn is serious. It stirs upthe animal side. All the passions are awakened at the operlation of this position. Rash and impulsive behaviour, regret-ful conduct, are some of the occurrences during this highlycritical period. The association of Venus through the medi-ation of Shani brings forth disappointments, loss of honourand credit. lt is good neither for financial affairs nor for thedomain of affections. It might reveal acquisitiveness andavarice in some cases. The native becomes a slave to hisown emotions. The mediation brings Venus nearer Marsand thereby affects the native's feelings and emotionsdeeply. A regular conflict between the sensuous and thehigher aspects of life will be the normal features during theperiod.

The fourth chart is a very significant one in that the

J u p ' 1 8 ' Sa t . 19o Ascdt 9' Ketu 50

CHART No. '[

Moon 12o

/enus 150Rahu 50

Mars 1 'Sun 12'

Merc.28'

Martian combinations appear in the fifth house. The fifthhouse is generally bad for Mars and so is the second. HereMars is associated with the Sun. Mercury is far ahead ofboth these planets. Mars is in the very first degree and theSun is in the twelfth degree. They are both said to beaspected by Jupiter though in reality only Mercury isaspected by him. This native completed his major period ofMars in 1926. Till them he was no doubt popular and well-known; but he was still in the rear. tle could come to theforefront in the latter part of Rahu; and he became the

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President of the Congress in the major period of Curu. Heretoo Rahu stands afflicted by Kuja. The conjunction of theSun and Mars did affect his health during that period. ltdenotes a very critical period. The native, if he is not suffi-ciently cultured, will be easily excited and more readilyangered. One becomes self-assertive and aggressive. llewill be energetic, active and enterprising. The blood be-comes overheated and serious trouble will face him wher-ever he goes.

There is another nativity where the ascendant is Leowith Jupiter in it. Aries has three planets posited in it. Theyare Mars on the third degree, Mercury on the fourth and theSun on the ninth. All the three are in exact conjunction.'Themajor period of Mars started in 1945 and three or four yearslater he lost a property worth a lakh of rupees in a civil suit.This result may be taken to come from the fact that Marsstands defeated. The period of the Sun was no doubt pros-perous; but he did not have any peace of mind. It was aperiod of intense activity and strain. This is attributable tothe conjunction of Mars with Mercury. This conjunctionmakes one practical and dogmatic. The native will be obser-vant, shrewd and alert. He might at times commit indiscreetactions. He will try to hold his own under any circum-stances. tle is likely to fall a prey to some fraud or other.This conjunction stimulates the nervous system to a veryhigh degree of excitement. Some of these results wereactually experienced by the native during the period of theSun. Travels and the like are to be strictly prohibited duringthis period.

Goering had Mars on the tenth degree and Jupiter onthe l Tth degree of Aries, the Ascendant being Scorpio withMoon situated therein. The aspect of Mars falls on the Moonwho is on the l6th degree. Thus from behind Mars afflictsthe Moon and Goering had to die an unnatural death in them4jor period of the Moon. In the first two horoscopes wehave seen these conjunctions. More than that however is

the aspect of Mars to the Lagna. This aspect brings about

feverish and inflammatory complaints, liability to accidents

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and a tendency to losses. The native will have an adversetime having a series of disputes. During the period whenthis aspect operates, one can easily predict some violent orunexpected hurt or injury. There will be disfavour of others.From the standpoint of health this is a very adverse aspect.In Churchill's horoscope we find Mars on the l Tth degreeand Jupiter on the l4th degree of Libra, the Ascendantbeing Scorpio. The period of Mars came to a close in 19l Iand the readers can judge the influence of these two. Acertain return to power and stability cam€ back to him inthe period of Shani.

The fifth chart peresents another peculiar set of conjun,

Moon 13o Ketu 250

Yenus 27rc

CHART No. 5Sun 24o

Merc. 20oMars 19o

Sat .90{scdt. 22o

Jup. 15oRahu 25o

ctions in the second house. It is also the house where Marsis said to be exalted. He is on the lgth degree, while Budhais on the 2oth and the Sun is on the 24th degree. Hecompleted the major period when he was in very bad time.Domestically, he was haunted by ill-health. Financially hewas not very well off. Strain, anxiety, worry, ill-health, Iossof children and restlessness were some of his experiences.The period of the Sun also was not good. It was a period ofunsettled wanderings and aimless undertakings. Thus hewas able to overcome because the period of Kuja gave riseto Rahu who, though he is in Kuja's house, is with Curu.Still the Martian evil influences are there to a certain extent.The situation of this coqjunction in the second is better

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than that in the fifth or ninth. The trine positions are particu-larly unfavourable to the combinations of Mars. Anothr na-tive born in Sagittarius had Mars (lO). Venus (12) andMercury (271 in the second. As soon as the major period ofltars began, he poisoned himself. Another born in the same

Lagna had Mars (2) and Sun (2O) in Aries, while Quru (ll)

and Rahu (14) are in the L,agna. The ninth house was af-flicted by the presence of the Moon; and at the end of theperiod of Kuja he committed suicide.'

In Candhiji's horoscope we find Mars, Mercury andVenus situated in the l.agna, Libra; and till the period ofMars was over he was little known on this side of the Orient.Here Mars is ahead of all the planets and yet the fruitfulperiod of his life began after Mars period was over. During

the period of Mars, Arobindo was a revolutionary editing

Vandemataram; and he had the debilitated Mars (6) and the

exalted Quru (22) in the fifth' Hitler's Mars was ahead of the

Sun and Mercury and he came to the.Reichstag after his

Kuja Dasa. Bhulabhai De'rai's Kuja was behind Sukra in the

fourth house for Scorpio; and yet his Kuja did not trouble

hirn enough since there is a distance of l4 degrees between

the two.

These conslderatlons give rlse to the following conclu-

sions. Whenever there is an exact conjunction of planets

with Kuja we can obserue a distance of l2 degrees. Beyond

this distance there can be no conjunction even if both the

planets are in the same house. ln every such conjunction

Mars is always better if he is behind the other planet or

planets. The planet that is ahead of him will be afflicted and

spoiled by Kuja; but Kuja himself will not prove so bad as

he would otherwise be. The evil inherent in Kuja is released

to the planet that is ahead of him. The planet that is behind

him or beyond him, having a distance of more than I

degrees will always prove beneficial. In every conjunction

the main affliction falls on the nervous system and the

bowels, disputes, losses and the like. These results will not

be severe if the coqiunction is not in the fifth or the ninth

houses.

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There is at present a needless controversy going onabout marriage and married life in connection wlth theassociation between Mars and Jupiter. Before we attempt toexamine this, it is better to note what Kalyana Varma had tosay about these planets.

The conjunction of Mars and Jupiter, says Sarauali,makes one learned in sculpture, scriptures (Vedas), intelli-gent, wise, eloquent and fond of weapons (15.14). Thesignifications of both the planets are fused here. But whatneeds to be examined is the fact that Mars is debilitated ina sign where Jupiter is exalted, while Jupiter is debilitatedwhere Mars is exalted. It is this which raises serious doubtsabout the relation between these two.

In Sagittarius Mars makes one have a wounded body,harsh speech, dependent, warrior, mercenary, happinessafter great struggle, irritable, loss of money and happiness,and undevoted to elders (25.17-18). In Pisces he makesone sick, have few children, wander abroad, rejected byrelatives, sorrowful, loss of money by fraud or deceit, greatsorrow, insulter of teachers and elders, selfish, and fond ofgetting flattered (25.24-24). Kalyana Varma thus appears tobe out of favour with Mars in the signs owned by.Jupiter.While Mars is aggressive and violent, Jupiter is withdrawnand pacific. The zodiacal signs owned by them are in 2and 12 relation. This should not be forgotten in any assess-ment.

When Mars in his own houses is aspected by Jupiter, thenative is well-versed, pleasant, beautiful, loved by parents,wealthy, powerful (25.28).ln the houe of Venus the aqpectof Jupiter makes one a minister, commander of an army,favourite of the rulers, and famous (25.55), one is skilled ina variety of works when Jupiter aspects Mars occupyingMercury's houses (25.40). Mars in Cancer aspected by Jupi-ter makes one famous, a minister, scholar, charitable, anddevoid of pleasures (25.46). In Leo, Mars aspected by Jupi-ter makes one favourite of the rulers, teacher, have a cleanmind (25.52). ln Jupiter's signs Mars aspected by Jupiter

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makes one devoid of wife and happinest worried by foes,wealthy, and interested in physical culture (25.2a). hSaturn's houses Mars aspected by Jupiter makes one de-formed, royal, determined, live long, and loved by relatives(25.64).ln the houses owned byJupiter we notice that Marsgives unpleasant reults including the loss or absence of awife or husband. lf Mars and Jupiter are mutually friendly,why does Mars behave like this ? lf Kalyana Varma is cor-rect,. is he following Yavanacharya?

Jupiter in the houses of Mars aspected by Mars makesone courageous, fierce, royal officer, humble, polite, poor,have disobedient servants and wife (27.27). In the signs ofVenus the aspect of Mars on Jupiter makes him affectionhtetowards wife and children, wise, wealthy, brave, happy, androyal of f icer (27.33). ln the signs of Mercury the aspect ofMars on Jupiter mahes one wealthy and successful withouteffort (27.39). In Cancer the aspect of Mars makes onehappy with wife and children, lead a life of luxury, heroic,and have a body with wounds (27.45). Jupiter in Leoaspected by Mars makes one truthful, attached to the wiseand to the elders, undertake distinguished actions, highlyskilled, pure, brave and cruel (27.51). One has a bodydeformed in battles, helpful. courageous and the likewhen Jupiter in his own signs is aspected by Mars. (27.57).In the signs of Saturn the aspect of Mars on Jupitermakes one brave, great soldier, proud, splendorous, wellfeatured, respected by the wise and famous (27.63). tlereagain the aspect of Mars on Jupiter in the signs of theformer is adverse. In the houses of Mars the aspect of thisplanet on Jupiter is declared to be unfavourable to marriedlife. Mars is too physical and sensuous while Jupiter isspiritual.

Mars with Jupiter in Lagna makes one a minister, headof the group or society, famous for righteousness, andalways enthusiastic (51.51). In the 4th one has relativesand friends, firm mind, is a royal officer, and is happy(31.52). In the 7Lh, one is fond of wandering among hills,forts, lakes and forests, has good relatives, courageous and

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devoid of wife (51.55). In the lOth, one becomes a ruler,famous, wealthy, skilled and have a great retinue (Sl.S4).The conjunction of the two in the 7th is said to deprive thenative of his or her life-partner. Then we cannot brush asidethe view that Mars dosha is accelerated by Jupiter.

The con junc t ion o f Mars and Jup i te r , saysVarahamihira, makes one the head of a town, royal officer,wealthy, or wise (L4.31. According to Jataka parijata (9.4)this conjunction makes one loving, respected, worthy, andskilled in ganita. In aitual experience we find that theconjunction of these two is generally favourable for acquir-ing wealth. One may become ambitious or greedy, havingpronounced prejudices. But in the signs owned by Mars orSaturn, this combination can make one rebelious and re-sentful. The native becomes a controversial person havingenough energy and resources. Such a conjunction appearsin the chart of J. Krishna Murthi who never married and inthat of Ruskin who had a troubled married life.

Vaidyanatha held that if Jupiter is in a Rasi or Navamsaowned by Mars or Saturn in the 7th, the native has affairswith other women. The same result appears when Jupiter iswith Saturn or Mars here (14.lZ). Mantreshwara gives theseresults to Venus, not to Jupiter.

When Mars, Jupiter and Saturn are said to have specialaspects, these are only full aspects. All the planets, say?arasara and others, aspect houses S, lO, 4, g, b, 9 and7 from where they are. In the case of Jupiter, we are toldthat his aspects, if not placement, are beneficial; and thereverse is true of Saturn. We can extend this prinqiple toMars also. Subject to his lordship of signs for a givenascendant, and also subject to his position in a given chart,the aspects of Mars do not appear to be generallyfavourable.

Mars associated with Jupiter by position or aspectmakes the native vigorous, energetic and dogged. Sport,travel, politics and the like are strenuously pursued. Re-formers and missionaries like Annie Besant and Helen

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Keller, and militarists like Bismarck are good examples.They are usually honourable, loyal and proud. Though Jupi-ter is the significator of wealth, his association with Marsdoes not appear to confer wealth, even if the native leads acomfortable life.

When the association between these two is decidedlyadverse,.the native lacks temperance or moderation in allhis activities and thoughts. He is subject to discontent anddepression. William Blake offers a good example. The na-tive is emotional and excitable, ignoring conventions. Thisis true of the novelist Oeorge trliot who lived with her loverwithout getting herself married. One might even become agambler or be interested in song and spectacle like RichardWagner. A woman with Aijes rising had Mars in the 7thopposed to Jupiter and Mercury from l"agna. She left herhusband the day after marriage. Another whose married lifeis a failure had Mars in the 5rd aspecting debilitated Venusand exalted Mercury and aspected by Jupiter from the I lth.Dxamples can be multiplied. What is important is to recon-sider the association of Mars with Jupiter. Our ancient au-thorities have given us enough directions in this regard. Elutlater writers and students appear to have taken up onlywhat they wanted.

We request the interested readers to consider the exal-tation and debilitation signs of these two and to examinethe relation of their own signs to each other. When Mars isthe enemy of Saturn, how can we explain his exaltation inan enemy's sign. Some genuine statistical research basedon experience is called for.

Chandra : The Moon is a powerful centre of radiation ofenergp/ in a horos@pe. It is even said that afper one com-pletes 52 years of life, all prediction must be based on thefact that his Ascendant is the sign occupied by the Moon.Ancient texts have given us an account of yogas or specificcombinations formed by the Moon. A review of some ofthese will be of great value, if only to remind us of the greattruths enunciated in our texts.

If a planet other than the Sun is in the 2nd house fromthe Moon, it is called Sunapha Yoga. A similar situation for

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the l2th house is named Anapha Yoga. If both the housesare occupied by planets other than the Sun, it is DurudhuraYoga. The effects of these can be had from any good book.

When there is no pianet in the 2nd and in the l2th fromthe Moon, it is called Kemadrurna Yoga, one of the worstcombinations. Some authorities extend it to the NavamsaposiLion of the Moon also. This yoga is negated when one ofthe following is present : ( I ) if the Moon is with or aspectedby a planet other than the Sun ; (2) if there are ChandraYogas; (5) if there are benefics in the 5rd, the 6th, the I Othand the l lth from the Moon; (4) if the Moon and Venus arein squares aspected by Jupiter; (8) if there are planets in thesquares from the Moon; and (9) if in Navamsa, the Moonhas planets other than the Sun on either side.

There are some yogas. The conjunction of the Moon andMars is called Chandra Mangala Yoga. Some take it to in-clude the square positions and even their mutual aspects.This yoga is not auspicious. One is given to duplicity anddouble standards.

Gaja-Kesari Yoga arises when Jupiter is in a square fromthe Moon. This makes the native good, virtuous, generousand capable. He becomes famous as a constructive orcreative power.

Sakata Yoga arises when the Moon is in the 6th, the Bthor the 12th from Jupiter. Poverty, misery and loneliness areindicated. But according to ?arasara and others, S,his yogaarises when all the planets are in the Ascendant and in the7t}:^.

When all benefics are in the I Oth from the Ascendant orthe Moon, itis Amala Yogawhich gives fame, righteousnessand prosperity.

When the Moon is exalted or is in his own house and, isaspected by Jupiter, it is Oauri Yoga. Some hold that thisyoga arises when the lord of the Navamsa occupied by theowner of the loth if exalted is religious, virtuous andblessed with a $ood familY.

Indra Yoga arises when the lords of the 5th and the I I thchange their houses and the Moon is in the 5th. One be-

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comes courageous and famous, though short-lived.When the Sun and Mars are in a trine to the Moon, it is

Trilochana Yoga which brings victory over foes, prosperity,keen intelligence and long life.

When the Moon and Jupiter are in mutual opposition,posited in the lst and the 7th, it is Ishtarishta Yoga. Oneachieves his goals, but leads a mixed life.

Chandra Yoga is formed when Jupiter and Saturn are inthe 2nd from the Moon, Mars in the 5rd, and Venus in the8th, one becomes a self-made man.

Adhi Yqas are to be examined also from the Moon.When Jupiter and Venus are in a trine from the Moon,

and the Sun is in a square, itis Marut Yogawhich gives greatscholarship. Some other combinations are listed below :

(l) The Moon in a square to the Sun gives great humility.In the Panaphara places this is less.

(2) The Moon in his own or in a friend's Navamsaaspected by Jupiter and born in the day makes one wealthyand happy. In the case of those born in the night, the sameresult appears if aspected by Venus.

(5) Poverty is the result if there is no planet in the Src,the 6th, the lOth and the llth houses from the Moon.

There are many such combinations listed in our works.These have to be carefully applied before offering any pre-diction. But one has to interpret these judiciously. Then wecan formulate interesting approaches. For instance, theMoon-Mercury conjunction can suggest engineering con-nected with textiles; the Moon-Mars-Mercury, marine engi-neering; the Sun-Moon-Mercury, mechanical engineering;and the Moon-Saturn-Mercury, mining. Similarly, digestivetroubles can be referred to the Sun-Moon-Mercury; herniaand appendicitis to the Sun-Moon-Jupiter; diabetes to theSun-Moon-Venus. I

Chandra: ( I ) asp{ted by Kuja he is a ruler; by Budha, aman of learning; by Curu, equal to a ruler; by Shukra,amiable qualities; by Shani, a thief; by Ravi, a beggar.(2) aspected by Mars bereft of property; by Budha, a judge;by Curu, honourable; by Shukra, aruler; by Shani, rich; by

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Ravi, a servant. (5) aspected by Kuja, defective limb; byBudha, king intelligence; by Curu, sagecious; by Shukra,brave; by Shani, a villain; by Ravi, poor. (4) aspected byKuja, Valient; by Budha, honourable; by Curu, hlghest po-etical talent; by Shukra, royal rank; by Shani, working withiron; by Ravi, defective sight. (5) aspected by Kqia, ruler; byBudha, speaks leamedly; by Guru, wealthy; by Shukra,ruler; by Shani, wicked; by Ravi, mighty. (6) aspected byKuja, wealthy; by Budha, mighty; by Quru, lordly; byShukra, learned; by Shani, badly behaved; by ravi,comroftable. (7) aspected by the benefic Budha, a ruler; byGuru, mints money; by Shukra, merchant; by Mars, Ravi andShani, impotent. (8) aspected by Budha, adopted; by Quru,favourite of the ruler; by Shukra, mean wretch; by Shani,sickly; by Ravi, poor; by Kuja, a minister. (9) aspected byBudha, Quru or Shukra much leaming, wealth, wisdom,fame, strength;, by Kuja, Kavi or Shani, arbitrator in a court,immoral. (lO) aspected by benefics, learned scholar, fondof mirth; by malefics, foul method, evil minded.

When the Moon is aspected by malefics in Navamsha,he will be wicked and licentious; by benefics, he becomesfamous. The above aspects apply also to the Navamsha.

L.et us consider the placement of the planets in l-agnaand other houses.

Lagna

When the Sun is ln lagna, he has few sons, has a life ofease, is cruel, eats sparingly. He has a defective sight,boasts, well-bread, and good as an actor. When the Sun isexalted, he acquires the knowledge and virtue, has goodvision, fame, and independence. When the Sun is in Pisceslagna, he will be waited upon by women. If it is Simha, hewill be night blind.

Moon in lagna: deafness, defective limb, menial ser-vant. If with a malefic, no vitality. There can be an earlydeath. If the Moon is in Vrishabha or Karka as l"agna-plentyof wealth, fame and beauty. If the full Moon is in l-agna, hehas long life, and is learned.

Mars in Lagna: Cruel, daring, wondering fickle mindedand unhealthy.

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Mercury: devoted to acquire wealth, leaming, virtue andreligion.

Jupiter: long:llved, untainted knowledge, wealth, andbeauty.

Shukra: Licentious, beautiful appearance, learned,blessed with wife and children.

Shani: foul nostrils, fistula, defective limb. In Tula-<qualto a ruler, amiable, virtuous, long life.

Rahu: cruel, no compassion, no moral virtue, sickly.

Ketu: sickly, greedy. Aspected by benefics-princely en-joyment.

Rahu in Simha - prosperity, prlncely life. Ketu in ShanllsHouses--{reat wealth.

Second llouse

Szn.' liberal, owns minerals, cherishes even ill-wishers,eloquent.

Moon: fond of women, beloved, agreeable speech,shrewd at guessing the mov€s of others, fond of study,wealthy.

Kqja: Pursues metallurgl and agriculture, hot-tempered.

Eudha: Virtuous, moral values, wealthy.

Ouru: wealthy, commands comforts, liberal.

Shukn: leaming gallant, graceful, wealthy.

Shan i : untruthful, thoughtless, vagrant, indigent, deceit-

ful.. Rahu: quarrelsome.

public enemy or highlY lntuitive.

nrird llousc

Sun: brave, served by the bad ones, wealthy, liberal.

M&n: little wealth, kind to relatives, virtuous.

Ituja: famous, great strength, honest views and outlook'

Budha: practises deception, vagrant habits, vacillatingmlserable.

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Ouru: indigent, henpecked, addicted to evil.

Shukra: vicious, controlled by wife.

Shani: eats sparingly, wealthy, moralist, good family

traits.Rahu: valiant, rich.

Ket u : virtuous, wealthY.

Shukra in 5 and 6 causes sorrow, diseases, dangers'

This Shukra becomes a benefic if he is ahead of the Sun'

Fourth Bhava

Sun: heart disease, lacks money, grains and intellect,

hard-hearted.Moon: has learning, prosperity, good nature, immoral'

Kqja: no relations, henpecked, courageous'

Budha: no friends and relatives, strong knowledge and

prosperity.

Quru: eloquent, wealthy, comforts, fame, strength, has

beauty, is craftY.

Shukra: over-ruled by wife, boasts of his comfort' has

fame, wealth and learning.

shani: fails to follow the traditional observations of his

caste; causes trouble to his mother; crafty'

Rah u : secretive, susPicious.

Ketu: indulges in scandals.

Fifth Bhava

Sun: courtier, unsteady mind, lives abroad'

Moon: noble mind, rich, compassionate, diligent' delib-

erate.Kuja: cruel, wandering habits, restless, daring' unrigh-

teous, voluptuous, wealthy. Loss of children or miscar-

riages.Budha: scholar in sacred texts, overcomes foes by

magic spells, blessed with wife and children' wealthy'

scholar, famous, strong'

Quru: clever in giving advice, virtuous, rich, few sons ol

no sons or worries from sons.

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Shukra: good'sons, friends, wealth, much beauty, com-

mands foltowers or vehicles

. ' Shani: mentally unsteady, fickle, unhappy, long life, vir-

tuous, conquers foes.

Rah u: cowardly, poor, compassionate'

Ketu: craftY, sicklY.

Sixth tlouse

Suz.' lustful, brave, honoured by rulers, full of self-es'

teem, renowned, wealthY.

Moon: short life; if full Moon, longlived and voluptuous'

Kuia: owns property, destroys foes, opulent' famous'

strong, has a Powerful aPPetite.

Budha: instructive, amusing, quarrelsome' friendly' im-

moral, and gives nothing to relatives'

0uru: lustful, victorious, weak'

Shukra: sufferer and columnar'

Shani: glutton, afraid of opponents whom he conquers'

wealthY.

Rahu: subdues foes, long life, haPPY'

Ketu :k ind tore la t i ves , famousforh isgenerousv i r tuesand famous scholar.

Seventh flouse

Sun : hates women, wicked, wrathful'

. Moon: compassionate, wandering habits' yields to

wonlen, voluPtuous'

I{ry'a: quarrelous reagarding women, fond of quarrels''

Budha: defective lirnbs, skilled in arts'

Ouru: resolute, has a lovely wife; hates parents and

spiritual teachers'' ,atshukra: iivours women of loose character or is volup'

tuous; beautiful, lame.

Shani: indigent, distressed, depressed' carries a heavy

burden.

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Rahu: proud, foremost among the brave gallants, illhealth.

Ketu: bad wife or no happiness from wife, sleepy, de-jected, block head, wanderer.

Eighth HouseSnn..wins the hearts of others, skilled in disputes, dis-

contented.Moon: eager for war or quarrels, liberal, fond of amuse-

ment and learning.

Kuja: plain in dress, rich, exercises authority.Budha: famous for his good qualities, wealthy, good

breeding.Quru: long-lived, sagacious, ignoble deeds.Shukra: long life, has all comforts, matchless strength,

great wealth.

Shani: long life, hero, fiery nature, has neither strengthnor riches.

Rahu: troubles, public censure, dilatory in action, sickly.Ketu: desires the wealth of others and longs for other's

women, profligate, greedy, unhealthy. Aspected by abenefic, he will be long lived and wealthy.

Ninth llouse

Sun:hates parents and spiritual teachers, can become aconvert.

Moon: devoted to his duties towards the dead ancestorsand Cod, gives liberal gifts.

Kuja: deals with the untoward, wrong acts regarding theparents; enjoys fame in other respects.

Budha: righteously acquired wealth, leamed, virtuous.

Ouru: wise, devoted to his duties, seryes a minister.

Shukra: possesses learning, wealth, wife and children.Shani: famous in battles, rich, no helpmate.Rahu: hates his father, wealthy, famous.

Ketu: shoft temper, eloquent, criticises others, no vir-tues; brave, opposed to parents, showy, arrogant, enjoysthe company of the indolent.

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321PI,ANETS IN TTOUSES

Ttenth House

Sun: hereditary wealth, virtuous, scholar, famous,strong, equal to a ruler.

Moon: seeks and obtains riches, grain, clothes and or-naments; skilled in arts, sports with women.

Kuja: highly cpurageous, wealthy, famous.

Budha: advances in all kinds of knowledge, wealthy,famous.

Cluru: succeeds in his undeftakings, virtuous, stronglyattached to his own religion, wealthy, wise.

Shukra: wealth through a tenant or woman, powerful.

Shani: Magesterial powers to punish offenders, proud,wealthy, prominent in his family, heroic temperament.

Rahu: genius in stealing, no virtues, eager for a fight.

I{etu: wise, strong skilled in the arts, has self-knowl-edge, loves people and acts differently, brave, wanderingphlegmatic.

Eleventh llouse

Sun: extensive wealth, happy, has wife, children andseryants.

Moon: wealthy, pensive disposition.

I{uja: clever in speech, lustful, wealthy, courageous.Budha: acute intellect, famous for hls learning, wealthy.Ouru: strong intellect, famous wealthy.

Shukra: lives in comfort, longs for other's women, wan-ders, wealthy.

Shani: voluptuous, wealthy.'

Bahu: deaf, famous in battle, weatthy, scholar.

Ketu: valiant, kin{to others, honoured, contented, pos-sesses power, limited eqjoyments, practises virtue, goodsocial serice.

Twelfth llouse

Sun..has sons, maimed, energetic, becomes an apos-tate and a vagrant.

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Moon: lives abroad.

Kuja: odious, has neither wealth nor wife.

Budha: odious to relatives, poor, senseless.

Quru: religious sceptic, irresolute, evil minded, wander-ing habits.

Shukra: loses relations, penurious, immoral.

Shani: deficient in intellect, obstinate, poor, deceitful.

Rahu: Immoral, prosperous, disposed to help others,defective limb.

Ifetu: fickle, loses ancestral wealth, attains liberation.

Planets in Exattation

San.'possesses wealth, commands in army.

Moon: rich food, clothing and ornamen[s, bad sons.

Kuja: valiant.

Budha: raises the family status, rules over others, tal-ented, vigtorious, lives in happiness.

Guru: founds a long enduring family, possesses moralworth, clever, learned, favoured by the rulers.

Shukra: fond of women, music, and dance.

Shani: rules a village, a town, or a forest; addicted to alicentions life.

Rahu: a robber chief, leader of a tribe, wealthy, evildeeds.

Ketu: company of thieves, enjoys the favour of a richperson.

Even if one planet is exalted and aspected by afriend, the native becomes a ruler, an eminbnt person;honourable; has plenty of grains and wealth. When twoare exalted and strong, he becomes a rich zamindar.I f three are exalted, he becomes the chief ruler. I ffour exalted planets occupy Kendras, he becomes a Kingof Kings. If five are exalted he becomes supreme inthe world. The results will appear only when their dasasoperate.

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Planets in Mulatrikona

Su n : w ealthY, resPected.

M'oon: rich, haPPY.' Kuja: wrathful, ruthless

Budha: rich, religious

Quru: VoluPtuous, liked bY rulers

Shukra: rules a village or a town

Shani: brave

Rahu: wealthy. (Rahu's mulatrikona is Kumbha)

, Ketu: same as Rahu's, Ketu's Mulatrikona is Simha'

Planets in own Houses

San.'oqns a mansion, depraved life, full of lust'j

Moon: has Power, wealth, and beautY.

Kuia: famous in agriculture

Budha: learned.

Guru: devoted to poetry and the arts, traditional doc'

trines and sacred scriPtures.' Shukra: Intellectual, wealthY

Shani.' fierce strength, no happiness

Rahu : famous and wealthy. Rahu owns Kumbha and

Ketu owns Vrishchika

Ketu : gives the same results as Rahu'

Planets in the house of a FYiend

Sun: firm friend, liberal, famous.

Moon: wealthY, lives in comfort.' Kuia: favour of rich friends.

Quru : society of the leamed, virtuous'

Shukra: happy in the society of children'

Shani: led bY others, no wealth'

The same results as of shani aPply to Rahu whose

friends are Budha, Shukra, and Shani' To Ketu whose

friends are Ravi, Chandra, Kqja and Guru apply the results

of Kuja.

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Planets in the house of an enemySun : gives up the happiness of his father, serves

others.

Moon: afflicts his mother, has heart diseases.Ifuja: defective limb, ungrateful, unclean.Budha: miserable, follows evil ways.Ouru : speculater about the future.Shukra: a labourer.Shani : Suffers sorrows.Results of Shani apply to Rahu, and those of Kuja to

Ketu. Rahu's enemies are the Sun, Moon, and Kuja. Ketu,senemy is Budha.

Planets in debilitationSun : no friend or relatives; lives abroad.lfoon: ailing, little religious merit or wealthItuja : indigent, ungrateful.Budha: base, offends to relativesQuru: Censured and disgraced, wicked.Shukra: solrows

Shani: without wealth, wife, or luck and mischievous.Rahu is like shani; his debilitation is in Dhanush; Ketu is likeKuja, and his debilitation is in Mithuna.

Good and bad planets for various LagnasThere are benefics and malefics for each lagna. Some

natural benefics can become functional malefics. Somemalefics can also become functional benefics. We tabulatethese.

Budha is a malefic for Mesha lagna. Sun and Guru arebenefics; if they are together, they become yogakarakas.

For those bom in Mesha lagna Budha is a malefic. Sunand Curu are benefics; and if they are together, they areyoga karakas. The conjunction of Quru and Shani is benefi-cial. The conjunction of Quru with others is not good.Shukra is a maraka. Shani and others may be malefics; butthey do not klll.

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325

Notes: Guru and Shani as lords of 9 and lO proveauspicious only in 9 or lO. Shani is the lord of a Kona.Budha as lord of 5 and 6 is a malefic. Shukra owns twomaraka houses. Some authorities hold that Shukra forMesha lagna, and Kuja for Tula are not marakas.

Shani can do good for Vrishabha lagna. trven if Curuand others prove marakas, if they are alone they do notcause death.

For those bom in lvlithuna lagna Shani, Kuja and Quruare malefics. The effect of their conjunction gives adverseresults. The Moon by himself will not cause death. The restcan kill.

For those bom in Karkataka lagna Budha and Shukraare malefics. Kuja and Curu are benefics.

Notes: For Vrishabha Shani owns the strongest konaand kendra. As regards karkataka lagna, we cannot acceptthe author's view about Guru. The mulatrikona of Gurubecomes the sixth and hence he is a malefic. SimilarlyShukra for Vrishabha lagna is not a benefic as he owns thesixth as his mulatrikona.

Kuja is a yogakaraka for Karka lagna as he owns akendra (lO) and kona (5). Other than the Sun the rest cancause death. These are the effects for those born inKarkataka lagna.

For Simha lagna Budha and Shukra are benefics. Kujaand Curu are yogakarakas. The conjunction of Quru andShukra is not beneficial. Budha and others can bring aboutdeath.

Kuja, Curu and Chandra are malefics for Kanya lagna.Shukra is the only benefic.

For Karkataka and Simha lagna Kuja is a yogakaraka ashe owns a kendra and a kona. Budha is a malefic forKarkataka as he owns houses 5 and 12. For Simha lagnaShukra owning a kendra becomes a functional malefic.Curu owning his mulatrikona as the fifth house is a benefic.

For Kanya lagna Kuja owns 5 and 8, while Curu ownstwo kendras. These two are malefics. It is debatablewhether the Moon becomes malefic.

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Here is a modification. Chandra and Shukra are yogakarakas for Kanya lagna. It is better that they are together.Shukra alone is a maraka, and not the others.

ForTula lagna Curu (lord of 5 and 6), Ravi (lord of ll)and Kuja (lord of 2 and 7 maraka houses) are malefics. TheMoon (lord of I O) with Budha (lord of 9) causes Raja yoga.Kuja is a maraka. Ravi and Guru do not cause death. Shaniand Budha are benefics.

Other standard texts state that Shukra for Mesha lagnaand Kuja for Tula lagna are not marakas.

Shani is a yoga karaka as he owns a kendra and a kona.Having his mulatrikona in the twelfth, Budha cannot beconsidered as a full benefic. Guru is a malefic. But in thefourth or in the tenth he has given excellent results.

For Vrischika lagna Kuja (lord of I and 6), Budha (lordof 8 and ll), and Shukra (lord of 7 and 12) give inauspi-cious results. The Moon is the only benefic. Ravi andChandra give very good results when they are together orseparate. Curu by himself is not a maraka. If Budha andothers behave like marakas, they can cause death.

For Dhanush lagna Shukra alone is a malefic. Rhvi andKuja are great benefics.

For Vrischika lagna the mulatrikona of Kuja falls inthe sixth, and hence he is a malefic. In spite of theauthor, the conjunction of Ravi and Chandra is not at allfavourable as i t takes place around the new Moon(amavasya). Budha as lord of the eighth is found to begiving good results.

For the lagna of Dhanush Kuja's mulatrikona and Ravi'sare in 5.and 9. They are great benefics, But Kuja must beahead of Ravi.

For those born in Dhanur lagna, the combination of Raviand Budha (lords of 9 and lO) causes Raja yoga. But Budhais a maraka, and not Shukra and others.

For Makara lagna Chandra, Kuja and Curu are malefics.Budha and Shukra are benefics. By himself Shani will notkill. Kuja and others can kill. The best yoga karaka isShukra.

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PLANDTS IN IIOUSES 327

For Dhanush lagna Budha owns two kendras. If he is notwith benefics, he becomes a malefic, With Ravi he is abenef ic. .

For Makara lagna Shukra's mulatr ikona fal ls in akendra. Does he not become a malefic?

Budha is a benefic as his mulatrikona is a kona house.

Experience shows that Guru gives good results f,drMahara lagna. Shani is not a maraka as he owns the lagna.But in lagna he can cause death.

For those born in Kumbha lagna Chandra (lord of 6),Kuja (lord of 5 and lO) and Guru are malefics. Shukra is abenefic. The combination of Kuja and Budha causes abenefic yoga. Quru is not a maraka. Ravi, Kuja and otherscan kill.

For those born in Mina Lagna Shukra and Shani aremalefics. Kuja and Chandra are benefics. Curu and Kuja inconjunction cause Raja yoga. Kuja is not a maraka. ButBudha is a maraka. If Shani and others Prove marakas, theycause death.

How can Kuja be a malefic for Kumbha? tle owns anupachaya and a kendra. The author contradicts himselfwhen he speaks of a yoga for the conjunction of Kuja withBudha (lord of a kendra and a kona).

Shukra is a first rate malefic for Mina lagna as he ownshouses 5 and 8. Shani 's mulatr ikona fal ls in the twelf th 'Mars as the lord of 9 and Moon as the lord of the fifth arebenefics.

If Budha is a benefic for Simha lagna, Curu can as wellbe a benefic for Kumbha lagna.

These are the results for those born in Mina lagna.

The benefic or malefic results of any planet are to beinterpreted in the light of the nature of the concernedplanet, its position its ownership, and its association withothers.

The benefic planets give the native wife and children,happiness to the father, profits and other benefits in theirperiods. These are related to the Bhavas they own and theyoccupy. The results witl appear in their sub-periods of other

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Ifora Nirnaya Sangraha by Vasishta Canapati Muni ofTiruvannamalai is an importnat work. It throws fresh light asthe nature of the planets for each lagna. They are classifiedas (a) most benefic, (b) benefic, (c) malefic and (d) mostmalefic. The table given below will explain it.

l,agna ltlost Benefic Benefic llaleftc ltost MaleflcMesha Ravi Kqja, Curu Shani, Shukra Budha

Chandra

Vrlshabha Shanl, Budha Shukra Ravl Chandra,Kuja, Curu

Fllthuna Budha l(qia, Shani Chandra, Ouru Ravi, KqiaKarka Chandra, Kqia Ravi, Curu Shukra Budha, Shani

Slmha Ravi, Kqia Chandra, Kr4ia Budha, Shukra Shani

Kanya Budha, Shukra Shani Ravi. Curu Chandra,Kuja

Tula Shani Budha, Shukra Chandra, Kuja Ravi, GuruVrischika Chandra, Curu Ravi, Kuja Shani Budha,

Shukra

Dhanush Ravi, Ouru Chandra, Kqia Budha, Shanl Shukra

l{akara Shukra, Shanl Budha Ravi. Kqia Chandra,Curu

Kumbhh Shukra Budha, Shanl Chandra, Kuja, RaviCuruBudhaMina Chandra, Kqia, Ravi

GuruShaniShukra

This table shows that for some lagnas the Sun and theMoon as lords of 5rd, 6th, I lth are benefics, while forothers they are malefics. This is explained in the secondchapter of the book.

l. For Mina lagna the 6th lord Sun is friend of the lordof lagna and hence benefic. For Simha and Dhanur lagnasthe Moon is lord of l2th and 8th; and he is the friend of thelagna lords. For Kumba lagna, the Moon is the 6th lord; andsince Shani is neutral to the Moon, the latter is only amalefic, not the most malefic. For Vrishabha the Sun ownsa kendra; but he is the enemy of the lagna lord, and hencea malefic. For Vrishabha lagna the major period of the Sungives malefic results.

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PLANETS IN IIOUSES 329

gives malefic results.

2. For Kanya lagna the Moon as lord of llth is mostmalefic, being the enemy of Mercury. In this way the rela-tion of the planets to the lord of lagna is said to determinetheir nature.

5. When a most benefic planet is associated with amalefic, the most benefic planet gives the results of themalefic, and the malefic one gives the results of the mostbenefic. Thus for Mesha lagna if the Sun is associated withBudha, Shani or Shukra, the major period of the Sun givesmalefic results. The period of the malefics will give beneficresults of the Sun.

4. When the most benefic is associated with a benefic,the former gives the results of latter and vice versa. Thus forMesha lagna if the Sun is associated with the Moon, Mars orJupiter, the period of the Sun gives the results of the latterand vice versa.

5. When the lord of a kona (l ,5, 9) is with the lord of 4thor lOth both, he forms a Raja yoga.

6. When a malefic or the most malefic lords of Btl-r andl2th are together, they give rise to yoga - if there is noother plarret there. Thus for Karka hgna the conjunction ofShani and lludha is most auspicious. In the chart of Sri. P.V.Narasimha Rao, the Sun dnd Mars are together; the majorperiod of Kuja proved auspicious. Any lagna which showsthe lords of Bth arrd l2th as malefics as in the above lagna,for such a lagna the lord of the 6th is said to be a benefic.

7. lf the lord of a house is in the house of his friend oris with a friencl (as per the above table), he becomes a yogakaraka. Such a planet should be in a benefic house like atrine o: an angle. Similarly a malefic like Budha for Minalagna in association with Shani or Shukra in 2, 3, 6, 7, lO,I I gives yoga.

ln the above combinations note the planet aspectingthem fully. Then the weaker and the stronger too give goodresults. The most benefic is stronger than a benefic, and themost malefic is weaker than the malefic. Thus for Meshalagna Curu in the 7th from the Sun, both confer yoga.

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provided they are not aspected by the most benefic or themost malefic one respectively. Thus for Vrishchika lagnaCuru in lagna aspecting the Sun in Mina, makes the Sun,speriod auspicious. Similarly Kuja in lagna aspected by Curufrom Mina or Karka makes Kuja's period benefic.

8. The lord of 4 or lO exchanges house with the lord of5 or 9 confers yoga. The lord of 4 and lO may be afunctional malefic. But if he is in 5 or 9, he becomes abenefic. Thus for Vrishabha lagna the Sun in 5 or 9 givesbenefic results. The same for Shukra in 5 or 9 for Karkalagna.

9. When the most malefic is with the most benefic, theformer becomes a benefic and the latter a malefic. ForVrishabha lagna if the Moon is with Shani or Budha, theMoon becomes a benefic; and Shani or Budha becomes amalefic.

lO. When the most malefic is with an ordinary beneficor with an ordinary malefic, the most malefic gives beneficresults. If he is with an ordinary benefic, the latter also givesbenefic results, for Mesha lagna Budha is the most maleficone. If he is with benefics gives benefic results. When thisBudha is with Shukra or Shani, Budha gives benefic results.

I l. When differently related three planets are together,the best one spoils the yoga and the lowest one becomesbenefic. Suppose the most benefic, the ordinary beneficand a malefic are together. Then the most benefic spoils theyoga, the malefic gives benefic results, and the ordinarybenefic confers good results. Thus for Sagittarius native theconjunction of Ravi, Kuja and Budha makes the Sun a giverof malefic results; Budha gives benefic results; and Kujaincreases the yoga.

It is in this light that we have to interpret the nature ofthe results given by a pianet. We have tried these principlesln many charts and they are found valid.

r' .il

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IBKahu and Ketu

1f}r. astrological authorities have mastered the technique\f of confusing the students when they speak of Rahu andKetu. These are said to be shadowy planets who give theresults of the lords of the houses where they are locatedand of the planets with whom they are associated andyet Krishna Misriya, Mantresvara and others speak of theresults which they give when they are in their own,exalted or mulatrikona signs, in various bhavas, and in thehouses of their friends or enemies. In same houses they aresaid to cause even Raja yogas. Guru's conjunction withRahu is said to destroy yogas. lt is even said: q{qf {gd-ffiltrsriqFmrqr

Rahu's naisaryika or inherent strength is said to betwice that of any other planet. How can shadowy planet likeRahu be a malefic as Mantreswara says (2. 27) ? We are told- 'trgalgq6 ffit1gq141" Rahu gives strength of the arms andputs an end to one's foes. These are some of the contradic-tions.

Rahu and Ketu are the nodal points of the Moon. Asnodal points, they are astronomical facts, not shadows, onels the enemy of the other, since Ketu as the giver of salva-tion ls a benefic, Rahu should be a malefic. In Jaimini'ssystem Ketu is auspicious.

Our confusion is worse confound when we look at thethings that are to be divined from Rahu. Uttara kafamrita

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332 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTInIC IIINDU ASTfrOLOOY

Our confusion is worse confound when we look at thethings that are to be divined from Rahu. Uttara kalamrita(5.51.55) gives a formidable list of Rahu's karakatvas.These are; umbrella, chowrie vechicle bordered on allsides, bone, enlarged spleen, acute pain, bad swelling,emerald, big forest, mountain, night breeze, facing south,inclined to south west, wind and phlegm, serpent and otherreptiles, breathing catarrah, air, vehicle, fallacious argu-ment, wounding or harsh speech, falsehood, gambling, im-purity, downward look, perplexity, moving in rugged place,sorrow, severity, wickedness, low persons, wicked women,resorting to the outcastes, going abroad, staying outside,travel intrigues with wicked women, interpreting dreams,wriling from right to left, strange at twilight, irreligious,worship of Durga, old age, gathering kingdom. Is this notenough to confuse a student of astrology ? Rahu becomessynonymous with evil. He is said to be three-quarters evil(4.17) though he is stated to be auspicious in 4, 7 , 9, 1O, I I(4.e)

Jataka Parijata states that Rahu gives benefic resultsonly when he is in 6, 5, and 1l from lagna, mixed results in7 and 9, and malefic in the rest (B: 60 to 99), though he isdeclared to be a malefic only. In the sub periods of theplanets' major periods he is to give bad results only. Theonly except ion is in the major per iod of Budha ( lB, 66,76,86, 97 , I 19. I 50, 15l , l4O). In Shukra major per iod he iscredited with mixed results (18. 165).

Parashara is better. Rahu is bad in B and 12. trxceptingin Shani's major period (Chap 42) in the other major peri-ods he gives mixed results. But from the lord of the majorperiod he should not be in2,6,7, B or l2 (Ch. 37-45). Onlyin the second six years of his major period he is beneficial(36-42-43). Whom are we to trust? Of course Parashara is a'better

guide.

Parashara states (Cha. 40) that Rahu is better placed inCancer, Virgo, Scorpio and Sagittarius. Does it mean thatthe Sun, Mars, Mercury and Jupiter are his friends ? JatakaParijata states (2.68) that Rahu is favourable in Aries, Tau'rus Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio and Aquarius. Then only the Sunand Jupiter become his enemies.

Bowing to the other set of confusions let us tabulate theset of facts for Rahu.

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frATTU AND I{ETU 333

Own house Exaltatlon ltlulta-0:lkona

l. Parashara Aquarius or Virgo Taurus

2, Jataka Panjata Viryo Gemini

5. Uttara Kalamrita Aquarius Tautus

4. Gopal Ratnakar Virgo Oemini

CancerAquariusAquarius

These and other views are confusing. But Parashara andJaimini are clear in stating that Aquarius is owned jointly byShani and Rahu. Following this Mantreshwara states thatthe results given by Rahu are similar to those given byShani. This enables us to speak of Shani, Budha and Shukraas the friends of Rahu. Based on the glimpses of truth foundin our texts we are compelled to state the following.

Rahu's own house is Aquarius, exaltation is on thetwentieth degree of Gemini and Mulatrikona is Kanya. Hisfriends are Sun, Mercury and Venus. Enemy is the Moon,and the others are his neutrals. This will solve many of ourdifficulties.

Nala-Veshtana-Shanti is prescribed only for Rahu. Thepresiding deity of Rahu in Kala and the snake is thepretyadhi devata.lt is not for nothing that Parashara speaksin some cases of childlessness brought about by Rahu thatit is due to the curse of a snake. The blade of grass is thesacrificial twig along with black dhuttura for this planet.When Rahu is in Karkamsa lagna one has to worship Chandior Durga, according to Jaimini. lle governs maternal grandparents. Touch comes under him. Skin ailments like pox,leprosy and so on come under him, as per Mantreshwara (2,

26, 35, 14.9). This relates him to Shani who also hascontrol over the skin. Only Budha can keep Rahu undercheck. Again kalasarpa yoga arises when all planets arebetween Rahu and Ketu, not between Ketu and Rahu, andno planet should be within twelve degrees of either in thatcase.

But Rahu is not to be merely dreaded. ln MukaPanchashatiwe read that Rahu and Ketu are the two feet ofthe supreme Mother Coddess. Rahu refers to Ajnana orAvidya which has to be controlled and dispelled in order toachieve moksha.

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As Jataka Parijata admits the conjunction of Budha andRahu is desirable, not that of Rahu with any other planet. InBudha's major period Rahu gives very good results. But thereverse is not always true. Sarpadosha arises when Rahu isin the fifth or the fifth house is owned by Rahu.

Kahu has thus an independent status and the effects, hegives rise to have to be carefully analysed and systematisedby students of astrolory. Though Uttarakalamrita gives em-erald to Rahu, his precious stone is Gomedha. Rahu is veryhelpful for any one interested in Kundalini yoga and in theworship of Shakti.

The students of astrologt are wamed against a hastyand literal acceptance of the rules and effects of Rahu givenin our different texts. The confusions arising from thesetexts have to be resolved before finalising our judgement.

Some of the rules are sound like those referring to SarpaShanti for loss or denial of children. Again a conjunction ofMars and Rahu does indicate danger from a reptile. Alsosound is the rule stating that Rahu can tell us about thegrand parents on the mother's side.

Mantreshwara refers skin to Saturn, Rahu and Ketu(2.26); and when he comes to speak of skin diseases(2.55, 14.9) and venomous bi tes and Pox (14.15) hementions only Rahu. Shani as a planet of limitation refers tothe skin which is the outer limit of the body. Rahu and Shaniare generally involved in the afflictions of the skin. Consi-der the chart of a lady who was the victim of a horrible skin

Ravi23.28

Moon5.32

L 18.28Budha 13

Sun 14Mars 16

Fleh" l2 SA

Ketu12.56

Guru 24.4 Shani (R)14.50

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MIIU AND KETU 335

disease. Four including Rahu are conjunct near the degreeof the lagna and all are aspected by retrograde Saturn. The

tord of the lagna is afflicted by debilitated Mars. flere wefind the violance of ailment traceable to Shani, Kuja andRahu.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad had Rahu in Kanya in the tenth

house which is his Mulatrikona. The period of Rahu was

very bright. In another instance for Kumbha lagna the

eighth house has the close degree conjunctin of Kuja and

Rahu; and the native was a great astrologer, scholar and

religious person, of course, there were other factors in his

chart to account for this' But Kuja and Rahu are mutually

inimical and yet are both incentiary. There is another cqse

where Kuja and Rahu in the eighth house were separated by

twenty five degrees. The native escaped from a snake bite

exactly at the age of twenty five and a half years.

In certain areas of south India people attach importance

to Rahu kala. The only text which refers to it is the Muhurta

Dipika. Possibly Rahu kala may hold good of the people

following the solar, not the lunar, year. Diksula (The direc-

tion to be avoided on a journey) is not given for Ketu, but it

is mentioned by some texts for Rahu alone.

Conjunction of Rahu with Shani or Kuja is bad for

health; with the Moon such a contact may produce the

effect on the mind and body, with the Sun it is highly

critical; and with Jupiter it might result in heterodoxy'

Jaimini is right in assigning Kumbha to Rahu' ?arashara

supports him (55.77). Nilakantha has quoted other authori-

ties in support of this. Not only in predicting the results of

the dasa, but in all other matters Rahu is to be treated like

Shani. It is for the readers and students of astrologt to

investigate thoroughly the nature of Rahu.

It is usually believed that Rahu and Ketu give the results

of the bhavas they occupy, or of the planets with whom they

associate, or of the planets that aspect them :

qs(.ilq.rd\ qrfr qs-q. q|}ql{ig+rr

irf,{ q-f,ri{ ri-d\ cRirtt{ adr rdrrr

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336 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTInIC HINDU ASTBOLOOY

The Sun and the Moon are known as luminaries; Mars,Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn are planets; and Rahuand Ketu are the tamograhas or shadowy bodies. Before wecome to examine the; principle enunciated by this verse, letus look at these shadows a little more carefully.

There is a maxim , 'ff: q|{qt|-gJk". Jupiter Mercury and

Rahu are capable of giving a good height to the person. Adominant Rahu in a horoscope makes the native an impor'tant official who loves pleasure and who is irritable orangry. The native will have skill in foreign languages. Hemay be heroic or he may become a diplomat. He would bedevoted to Shakti. Rahu governs the mother's father. To-bacco, lead, bones, and weapons fall under his governing.He is allotted the south-western region.

Ketu confers a short size. fle governs forests, islandsand the like. Hill tribes, sculpture or stonework, and multi-coloured objects fall in his governing. Ketu gives the pursuitof artificial or synthetic products, and he governs thefather's father. He is assigned the north-western region.Ketu has something to say about asceticism, tsrahmajnanaand meditation.

Can we assign any houses to these two ? It looks asthough the two luminaries and the five planets divided thezodiac among themselves even prior to the arrival ofRahu and Ketu. This makes the two look like guests intothe zodiac, and permanent guests at that. As a traditionalstory has it, these two begged the various stellar bodiesto permit them to live with them. The planets granted atemporary stay, but Saturn refused to entertain the request.This anecdote only goes to show that Saturn alone is capa-ble of counteracting the influences of Rahu and Ketu, andthat can control them. The periods of Rahu and Ketu, whenthey are located radically in Capricorn or Aquarius, are notgenerally believed to be good periods. But Jyotisharnava

Navanitastates , "{-g*qq qdsfr ns[q: lar]-dt: TTdTl. All thetwelve houses are said to be the own houses of Rahu andKetu.

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BATIU AND KETU

. . , i t i : ,

337

Mantreshwara in his Phaladeepika observes that thefriends of Rahu are also the friends of Ketu. The same holdsgood of enemies and neutrals.

firrrtorffiffisi+qr,ilq, qfr Frr|<ar Rqfl'vq elqr: n 2s5 rlMercury, Venus and Saturn are their friends, while Mars

alone is neutral; the others are enemies. But in the eighthchapter, he states :

"vtfrq{rg q[qsE+E s?KrdT sfE'.Rahu gives results like Saturn, and Ketu like Mars. If

Mars is a neutral, what is this strange association ? If theyhave identical relationships to others, Ketu too ought to*"'nlfintfili)"n"r"states

rhat the enemies or n.nu arethe Sun, the Moon and Mars, and the friends are Venus andSaturn. Ketu has Venus and Saturn as enemies, and thefriends are the Sun, the Moon and Mars.

ln Chamatkara Jyotisha, we read :'tr6Yq nr-drfor e'frtqq' tq{Edcr: ftvqwdt f{: u"The friends of Rahu are Venus, Mercury and Saturn; the

enemies are the Sun, the Moon and Mars; and Jupiter isneutral. As regards Ketu the friends are the Sun, the Moonand Mars; the enemies are Venus and Saturn; and theneutrals are Mercury and Jupiter.

These are conflicting authorities. But all these areunited in giving us a list of the friends and enemies of Rahuand Ketu. Then they cannot blindly give the results of thelords of the houses they are situated in, or of the planetsthey are associated with. The very fact that they havefriends and enemies like any other planet * even thoughauthorities are not agreed about the precise planets in eachgroup - this in itself falsifies the premise of our openingverse. Moreover, it is meaningless to speak of a shadowy,unlocated, homeless planet as malefic.

Let us first determine the exaltation sign. According toGopalaratnakara, Rahu's exaltation is in Gemini. Uttara.Ilalamrita takes it to be Taurus. Pandit Nehru had Rahu in

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Sat.MoonRahu

Jup.Sun

Merc.Venus

MarsKetu

Ascdt.

Cemini and Rahu's period started inchart too. we find Rahu in Gemini.

1954. ln the fol lowingRahu's sub-period in

Satum's major period suddenly translated him from statepolitics to Central Government in 1958 June, Rahu in Tau-rus does not appear to be conferring good results.

If Rahu is exalted in Cemini, Ketu's exaltation must bein Sagittarius alone. Ketu in Scorpio too at times givesbenefic results. But it is much belter in Sagittarius.

Rahu appears to own Virgo. Then Ketu's house wouldbe Pisces. There de many horoscopes with Rahu in Leo andin all these Rahu has given highly benefic results' This doesnot appear to be true of Ketu in Leo.

We can then tentatively state that Rahu is exalted inCemirri and Lhat he owns Virgo. Ketu is exalted in Sagit-tarius and he owns Pisces. Here it may be remarked thatsome of our contemporaries in the West are not willing toaccept Jupiter's ownership of Pisces; they prefer to assignPisces to Neptune.

Rahu's friendly sign is given as Libra by UttaraIfalamrita and this seems to be correct. The same authoritygives Ketu's friendly sign as Capricorn.

The inimical sign of Rahu is Leo according to UttaraItalamrita. But in many charts Rahu in Leo has been giving

benefic results. This tempts us to accept Aquarius as theinimical sign. IJttara Kalamrita is however correct in as-signing Cancer as the inimical sign to Ketu.

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BAITU AND KETU 339

The neutral sign of Rahu is Aries; and for Ketu the signis given as Sagittarius. We cannot accept Pisces as theneutral sign of Ketu because here Ketu has been found tobe giving very good results.

Since Cemini is the exaltation sign of Rahu, andsince Rahu gives very good results in Leo, the Moolatrikonaof Rahu appears to be Leo, Ketu owns Pisces andhis Moolatrikona is Pisces. It cannot be Aquarius, asQopalaratn akara states :

Rahu and Ketu are said to be incapable of doing anygood if they are in houses of the Moon, Mars or Saturn. ButRahu in Capricorn and Ketu in Scorpio appear to be exceP-tlon to this rule.

When all planets are hemmed in between Rahu and

Ketu, there is the formation of Kalasarpa Yoga. But there aresome misconceptions attached to this Yoga:

ed {g{rtt-Ewd {urr61 qEI' 1dFls{i q.rdscf@

No planet should be in conjunction with Rahu or Ketu.

Rahu must be ahead of the ascendant and Ketu behind it.

This is the Kalasarpa Yoga. But if other benefic yogas arepresent in the horoscope, this Kalasarpa Yoga does not

operate. But if Ketu is ahead of the ascendant, then there is

no Kalasarpa Yoga. By'ahead' it meant the first of six signs

from the ascendant. If any planet is joined to Rahu or Ketu,

then also there can be no Kalasarpa Yoga.

Rahu and Ketu are the two nodes of the Moon. Mytho-

logically one is represented as having only head and the

other as having no head at all. They are integrally related to

each other, and this relationship is astronomically pre-

sented as their uniform constant distance of l8Oo. They are

bound up with the Moon, and the Moon is dependant on the

earth. Consequently, the earth-borns have to take into con-

sideration the influence of the Moon and also the influences

of these two nodes.

The earth itself is symbolically presented in horoscope

in two important ways. One is the position of the earth with

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340 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIqIC ruNDU ASTROLOOY

reference to the earth's annual motion; and this is given tous by the apparent position of the Sun. The second is theparticular point of space and moment of time when a birthtahes place; and this is the ascendant or Lagna. Thus themost important factors in the consideration of a horoscopehappen to be the ascendant, the Sun, the Moon, Rahu andKetu. The other planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter andSaturn come next in importance. Then, if one is to acceptsomething of the western astrolory, then one may followUranus and Neptune.

Rahu and Ketu are related to the earth and to the Moon.By implication they are related to the astrological Sun. Sothe signs, where the Sun and the Moon have ownership orexaltation, must be favourable to Rahu and Ketu. Thus, thesigns involved are Aries, Taurus, Cancer, and Leo. ExacilylBOo away from these, we get Libra, Scorpio, Capricorn andAquarius. Rahu will be favourable in four of these houses,and Ketu in the other four. Let us look at this more care-fully, also keeping in mind the conflicting authorities regard-ing the own houses, the signs of exaltation and the like ofthese two shadowy entities.

Aries or Mesha must be a strong house for Rahu sinceRahu appears to be more closely related than Ketu to theSun. Aries is the exaltation sign of the Sun. What will Rahudo here?

In Chart No. I we have Karl Marx who dreamt of the poli-

CHART No. 1KARL MARX

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BAITU AIID T{ETU 341

tical power of the working classes. This is reflected in hisSaturn dominating the Lagna. Rahu eclipses metaphoricallythe exalted Sun. The royal planet stands eclipsed by the twoin the house of valour. The Sun is powerless and the powerhas passed on to Rahu.

A similar third house affliction of the Sun by Rahu inSagittarius is present in Stalin's horoscope; and Saturn andthe Moon are in the 6th house. Rahu in Aries and Jupiter inSagittarius seem to be powerful for good or bad.

Chart No. 2 presents Rahu in the house of the intellect

Moon Rahu Jup.

CHART No. 2

Venus

Ascdt.Sal.

KetuSunMars

Mercury

coinciding with Aries. The owner of this hosue is not exactlyaspected by Saturn; but he aspects this Rahu and he isaspected by Jupiter from the 6th. This peculiar mixture ofthe 5th, 6th and lOth house influences has brought abouta certain mental instability and a hallucinatory charactergiving rise to a split personality. Something of the lownessof Rahu did enter into the mental make-up, and it is notrelieved by any healthy tendency unless it be that of Jupiter.The Dasa of Ketu aggravated the tendencies.

In Chart No. 5 which belongs to Lenin, Rahu is in theMoon's sign and is aspected by the Moon and Mars. The 9thhouse position appears to be one of the factors responsiblefor making him fanatical in his opposition to religious ortho-doxy. Here again the nature of Rahu did affect the religiousattitude, though the emotional nature of Cancer was di-verted towards other goals. But Ketu in Capricorn being in

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SunMercury

MarsJupiter

Venus

CHART No. 3LENIN

Rahu

MoonKetu

Satum Ascdt.

the 5rd or in the 9th house is a much more favourableposition for good. This is because Ketu is more in tune withthe Moon; and the Moon's {rature is carried forward moresuccessfully. This would suggest that Rahu will give betterresults in Aries and [,eo, while Ketu will do the same inTaurus and Cancer. Likewise Libra and Aquarius are goodfor Rahu while Scorpio and Capricorn are good for Ketu.

. How does Rahu react in a house owned by Mercury ?Mercury is not friendly to the Moon. This may make us takefor granted that Rahu will prove good here; while on thebasis of the same principle, Ketu will have to be good in thehouse of Jupiter. Whether this is true needs careful exami-nation.

Consider Rahu in the other house of Mercury as we haveIt in Pandit Nehru's chart. Here it is the l2th house. There is

Rahu

CHART No.4JAWAHAR LAL

NEHRU

MoonAscdt.

Sat.

KetuJup. Sun

Merc.Venus Kuia

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RATIU AND T(ETU 343

also the aspect of Jupiter. This position in Gemini is atthe opposite end to that of Virgo. If Virgo is traditionaland more catholic, Gemini is anti traditional to a largeextent since it is a more pragmatic sign. This inherentpragmatism is coloured by Jupiterian influences and theresult is a conflict within between forces of traditionand forces of modernism. The ultimate tilt is towards tradi-tion. It aiso points to the fact that Rahu is not so good inQemini.

Likewise of the two houses of Jupiter, Rahu is better inSagittarius than in Pisces. This may be due to the fact thatRahu agrees with the nature of Dhanus (Sagittarius), and notwith that of the watery Pisces. Of the two hosues of Saturn,authorities speak highly of Rahu in Aquarius. But in actualexperience we find Capricom giving a better position toRahu.

There is then a great need for a systematic study ofRahu and Ketu in the twelve signs and in the twelve houses.A kind of classified analysis will yield a better understand-ing of the nature of these shadowy entities. This is the needof the hour.

The importance of Ketu appears to be shrouded inmystery and confusion. The authoritative texts are highlymisleading about Ketu. Jataka PaflJata. for instance,speaks of bad results in the sub-period of Ketu in any majorperiod except that of Jupiter (18.69, BO,90, lOl, 125, 155,146, 167). The exception is in Jupiter's mqjor period(l8.ll4). In the mqjor period of Ketu, the only beneficresults are derived when he is with a benefic (18.155). Ketuis taken to be powerful in the last portions of Taurus, Virgoand Sagittarius, and for all night births (2.68). Ketu is saidto govem itches, pox, troubles from enemies and so on.The only houses where Ketu is taken to give good resultsare 5, 6, 8, lO and I I and in a Lagna owned by Satum(a.6o-rol).

llttara l{alamfita finds Ketu favourable in the 5rd (4.9);

beneficial with the lords 9 or lO, also in a trine or a square

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344 TEXT BOOI( OF SCIENTInTC ITINDU ASTROLOOY

or with the lords of these, or in conjunction with these lordswithout having any association of the lords of B or 12(second Khanda, verses 82-85). Jatakadesa Marga takesKetu to be a malefic (1.55). ?arashara is more sympatheticto Ketu. In the beginning of his own major periods of theSun, Rahu and Saturn (5 chapters, 57 to 44). Ketu is said togive good results in trines, squares, 5 and I l, not at all in2 and 7 from the place of the lord of the m4jor period. Ourcpnfusion is complete.

These accounts are in sharp contrast to the karakatvas(things fo be divined) given to Ketu in Ilttara kalanrita.These are : dog, cock, vulture, deer, stone, thom, hornedcreatures, hunter, wind, fever, pain, consumption, wound,stomach, eye trouble, abdomen, hunger, sparing in eating,boils, medicine, prosperity, wealth, science of witchcraft,friendship, paternal grand father, enemy trouble, revoking order of arrest, inconsistancy, stupidity, knowledge,phi losophy, knowledge of Brahmn, salvat ion, vow ofsilence, penance, bath in the Canges, indifference tothe world, worship of Chandisa, Canesha and Shiva(5.55-54). This list is enough to drive any student ofastrology to madness. Varahamihira kindly spared us byomitting Ketu.

Another confusion arises when Ketu is said to be ashadowy planet who gives the results of the lord of the signhe occupies and of the planets associated. yet KrishnaMisriya and other texts speak of the results of Ketu being inown house, in exaltation, or debilitation in his moolatrikonain his friend's or enemy's or neutral house. Horv can Ketugive these results when he is a shadowy planet ? SinceKetu is a nodal point of the Moon, he is not a shaclowyplanet but a real astronomical point. Of the two nodalpoints one is benefic and the other malefic. Jaimini has thevaluable aphorism sr{ {t{: *$: (2.5.50), lt means that"here" Ketu is a benefic. We should accept Jaimini formany valid reasons.

In Muka Panchashati Ketu is said to be one of thefeet of Mother goddes3 since he brings Moksha. In the

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RAT|U AND KETU 345

propitiatory rites for Ketu the sacred grass darbha isemployed. Jupiter's conjunction with Rahu, and not withKetu, is said to destroy all yogas. Mantreshwara givesq-+dfAfC: (eminence in family or society) to Ketu. fle givesTaurus, Virgo, later half of Sagittarius and Pisces as bene-fic signs for Ketu. Though he made the Sun, the Moonand Jupiter to be the enemies and Mars neutral to Ketu(2.35). He states that Ketu acts like Mars (8.54). Thenthe friends of Mars must be the friends of Ketu also. Thetexts confuse us more about the friends and enemies ofKetu.

In Jaimini's system Mars and Ketu together own Scor-pio, while Saturn and Rahu own Aquarius. This is the bagisfor Mantreshwara's statement :

Trfffflg: Trq-(This view goes back to Parashara :

gWr+n d q EGr+(fc-Q-nqtE,tiI qTJ EErs cfdd f{<sq td-q!

?arashara and Jaimini cannot be brushed aside. Theother authorities need not be relied upon.

Regarding exaltation, moolatrikona and own houses,and about the friends, or enemies, and neutrals of Ketu andRahu our tex ts b r is t le w i th cont rad ic t ions . Thesecontraditions and confusions are the product of each au-thor mixing up the genuine with the false. We give here fourauthorities out of which we can remove the chaff and arriveat a picture that agrees with the facts of experience.

6.qr n€'T6'm.m nqa frgl qalt

Tdff i . Iwri*f f iRrrFor Rahu Virgo is the own house, moolatrikona is Pisces

and exaltation is Cemini. The seventh houses of these arefor Ketu. Only the exaltation sign is given correctly.Aquarius for Rahu is ignored and Pisces, whose lord withRahu gives a Chandala Yoga, is raised to importance fault-ilv.

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*-{lrl€ gtaqq ffipTg"q 1grc cqq CcTqqtTfrRq: +fr Tqfd {rfrwf,wd: qqwi q +fr: tlRahu's own house is Virgo, moolatrikona is Aquarius

and exaltation is the twentieth degree of Cemini. Ketu hasthe seventh of these. Aquarius is brought in as amoolatrikona and by implication Mercury and Saturn aresaid to be the friends of Rahu. Then Ketu's friends must beJupiter and the Sun.

sis 1glq qzri ffiuf 6-qq€ U*rtd q fctlq4r vrvn+1 wtgd"ru rt-er ftgd'{Tlfdfi: y{r{r: | |

This is the same as the second view. In addition we aretold that the Sun, the Moon and Mars are the enemies ofRahu. Then these must be the friends of Ketu as the as-sumption that the seventh hosues from Rahu's hold good ofKetu. It is a faulty assumption since friends can have theirexaltation and debilitation in the same sign as we notice inthe cases of Mars and Jupiter, and of Mercury and Venus.Now a last text :

fuaffi ErJt-.='w$d'fri Tt {'*rrfi fdcfrtWfr+<t' g6{r: rnrd fr+5-q\ sq frrbfl T{r{t: tlThis i s be t te r than the o ther tex ts . Ketu has

moolatrikona in Leo, exaltation is on the sixth degree ofSagittarius, and own house is in Pisces. His friends are theSun, Moon and Mars, and neutrals are Jupiter and Mercury.These relations arise if Leo is his moolatrikona. One encour-aging fact is the association of Ketu with both the houses ofJupiter.

On the basis of Jaimini and Parashara, on that of theglimpses of truth found in these texts and on that of ourexperience, we formulate the following:

Rahu's own house is Aquarius or Pisces, moolatrikonais Virgo, and exaltation is on the twentieth degree of Gem-ini. His friends are Mercury, Venus and the Sun ; neutralsare Mars, Jupiter and Saturn; and enemy is the Moon.Ketu's own house is Taurus, moolatrikona is Pisces, and

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RAT{U AND KETU 347

exaltation is on the sixth degree of Sagittarius. Ketu'sfriends are the Moon, Mars and Jupiter; enemy is the Sun;and the others are neutrals.

Consider the fifth chart. The 5th house and the Sun rule

lup. 25.49llerc 14.2(Sun 23.19Verus 7.4(

sat. (R)0.19 CHART No. 5

Bom: 7.7.1963Balance of Venus

2-30 yearsAscdt. 6.1

Uranus16.43

vlars 26.21

vloon 25.€(etu 28.3i

Nep. (R)2 .15

the heart and lungs. Ketu is in his exaltation sign afflictedby the aspect of his enemy the Sun, while the lord of the Sthis afflicted by Mars and Satum. Because of Ketu's positionthe attack of consumption was detected early. The sixthchart is that of Ramana Maharshi. Ketu is in debilitation in

Sat. MarsMoonKetu

SunCHART No.6

RAI\IANAMAHARSHI

SunRahu

VenusMerc.

Ascdt.2 .18

the 9th with the Moon, and is afflicted by the Sun.The major period of Ketu was one of struggle, strain,and indifferent health. But being in the 9th, Ketu promoted

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his spiritual quest. The seventh Chart belongs to the late Dr.Shyama Prasad Mukheqiee who strove for Hindu religious

MoonKetu

NeptuneSun

CHART No. 7DT. SHYAMA

PRASADMUKHERJEE

Merc.Venus

Ascdt.

Jup. (R)Sal. (R) Uranus Rahu Mars

and cultural values and fell a martyr at the end of Rahu'smajor period. Again Ketu is in the 9th well aspected byJupiter. Ketu's association with the Moon, Mars and Jupiteris always beneficial; not so Rahu's. In the chart of SaintTyagaraja (Chart 8) the Moon is conjunct Ketu in l-agna

Merc,Sun

Sat.Venus

Mars

CHART No. ISAINT TYAGA

RA'A

Ascdt.KetuMoon

Jup.

while the 9th lord is in the exalted friendly planet's house.His devotion was supreme. Ketu in l,agna with the Moonexplains his introvert nature. The ninth chart is a contrast tothis. Ketu is in Saturn's house, while the Moon is eclipsedby Rahu. The lord of tht 5th is conjunct with the lord of the

,,\:

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RATIU AND KDTU 349

Mars26.24

Ketu22 .18

CHART No. 9B o m : 1 3 . 1 1 . 1 9 6 0

Balance olVenus

15-16 years

RahuMoon16.36

Ura. 3.33

Sat.22.36Venus5.28

Juo. 1 1.29

Ascdt.

Merc. (R)17.30

Sun 29.56Nep. 17.6

5rd and aspected by Mars. This is that of a boy who is'avictim of mental retardation shown by the affliction of lordof the 9th. The Moon has made Ketu helpless. The tenth ch-

Ura. (R)29.0

Moon29.1 0Rahu22 .17

CHART No. 10Bom: 8.1 1.1932

Balance ofJupiter

years 5.0.9Ascdt.1 9 . 1 3

Sat. 7.46

Mars 5.42!ep .18 .2 iJup. 26.3C

Ketu

Merc.15.39

Sun24.14

Venus15.45

art has Ketu with Jupiter (lord of l2th) in the 8th while theMoon is eclipsed by Rahu. The affliction of the 6th lord byMars did not prevent death by cancer. Ketu, however, madehim religious. The eleventh chart is that of a young man aff-licted mentally. Ketu is with the 5rd lord and afflicted bydebilitated Venus from the 5th; and Venus is subjected toSaturn's aspect. In the major period of Ketu he has torecover from the effects of radiation on his mind. The

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350 TE/YT BOOK Of SCIENTIFIC IUNDU ASTBOLOOY

Moon13.3

Ketu'11.8

Ascdt.10 .18

CHART No. 11Bom:11 . ' 1 . 1959Balance of Sat.

5.1.26 years

Uranus29.0

Sat. 12.4lup. 15.3(

Merc.17.32

Nep .15 . l 6Vae )) 1\

Venus9.42RahuSun 26.28

twelfth chart has the ideal coniunction of Jupiter and Ketu inSun 14.7

Merc.6.10Sat. 23.29/enus 29.5i

Jup. 9.57(ehr 10.27

Ascdt.29.10

CHART No. 12Bom:25.4.1882Balance of Sat.

years 4.9.29

Moon't3.17

Mars 2.25

Rahu

the l2th. He was a highly leamed ascetic and yogi. The I lthis well fortified. His disciples are too many. The l5th Chart

Sun 25.53/en.(R) 9.3'Jup. 22.59Merc.26.2(

qA

Nep .15 .5

Sat. 10.45Ketu 14.38 CHART No. 13

Bom: 8.5.1905Balance of Mars

0.5.18 years

Ascdt.2.O

Rahu

Jranus (R)12.45 '

Mars (R)26.43

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'i:'

351

has Saturn with Ketu in the Bth. As soon as Saturn's majorperiod started he had to sell his huge property, and he hasto wait till Ketu's period was over to get his children mar-ried.

These examples clearly show that the textbooks wehave, do not do adequate justice to Ketu. A careful andthrough enquiry is needed.

It is generally believed that Rahu and Ketu give theresults of the owners of the signs where they are located.They are not taken seriously as owning any sign. In thiscontext it is proposed to examine the prevalent views relat-lng to Rahu and Ketu.

Jataka Parijata states (1.28) that Aquarius is theMoolatrikona of Rahu, Gemini is the exaltation sign andVirgo is Swakshetra. The available text of Parashara statesthat Rahu is exalted in Taurus, Ketu in Scorpio, Rahu'sMoolatrikona is Cemini and Ketu's is Sagittarius, and Rahuowns Virgo while Ketu owns Pisces. We will show later thatthis ls faulty.

In my copy of Parashara (flrst part Chapter 51.26) | findthe following verse :

Rahu has full aspect on houses 5, 7 , I and l2 from hisposition, half aspect on houses 2 and lO, and one-fourthaspect on hosues 5 and 6. In effect Rahu and Ketu are notnonentities depending of others.

Rahu and Ketu are sensitive points calcualted math-ematically. Rahu is the north node of the Moon and Ketu isthe south node. Such nodes are there for all the planetsand their positions can be calculated. We have takenRahu and Ketu alone only to emphasise the importanceof the Moon in a natal chart. The great Varahamihira didnot recognise these nodes in his Brihat Jataka. Whyhe refused to recognise them is a matter for specula-tion. Also why did he ignore Vimshottari and other Dasasystems?

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35.2 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIEIC TIINDU ASTROLOOY

Text Ownhouse

Exalta.tion

Deblita,tion

Itloolatrikona

Friends

l. Parasara

Rahu

ketu

2. Phala.

deepika Rahu

Ketu

5. Jyotisharnava

Ilavanita

Rahu

Ketu

4. Uttara

.Kalamrita Rahu

Ketu

5. Gopala

Ratnakara

Rahu

Ketu

6, Chamatkara

Chintamani' Rahu

Ketu

ViryoPisces

All houses

All houses

Aquarius

Scorpio

Viryo

Fisces I

Taurus

Scorpio

Taurus

Scorpio

Gemini

,agittarit

Scorpio

Taurus

Scorpio

Taurus

Gemini

Cancer

Mercury

Venus

Oemini

Virgo

L @

Aquarius

I

Satum

Moon

Jupiter

Satum

Venus

Sun, Moon

Mars

Satum

Mercury

Venus

Sun, Moon

Mars

s

Sun

Jn, Moon

Mars

Saturn

Venus

Sun,

Moon

Mars

Satum,

Venus

Uttarakalamri ta observes (4.9) that Rahu givesfavourable results when he is in houses 4,7, LO and l; andthat Ketu gives good l'esults in the 5rd. According to phalaDeepika (2O.52-53) Rahu and Ketu give the results of theplanets with whom they are associated. In the same text weread sfTq {Q: and qw+1r*$: Rahu is like saturn and Ketuis like Mars.

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BATTU AND KETU 353

In my copy of Parashara (55.77) I find :

EM{l-fr d a gv*qf*iraqrRvrSct grqe Tfi dr ffi( fdq!

Scorpio is owned by Mars and Ketu, while Aquarius isjointly owned by Saturn-Rahu. Here is a fresh avenue whichdeserves to be explored.

And yet Parashara's text gives a different version atother places. Before we proceed further we tabulate theopinions found in some texts.

Confusion is worse confounded. These authorities donot appear to have analysed and examined the position.Even Parashara has given two differnet views. Let us exdm-ine some earlier authorities. One such text reads :

6-qr {rgTd **i qta fcgr qolrTd ssli +fr+d( qqd Ql1

Rahu owns Virgo, has exaltat ion in Cemini andMoolatrikona in Pisces. The 7th houses of these are givento Ketu. There is fallacy here. Rahu owns Virgo andhas Moolatr ikona in Pisces on this view. Ketu ownsPisces and has Moolatrikona in Viryo. This is patentlyabsurd.

Another authority states :

rF-:rr 116 {11c'{idfru|5Eq Tflq.1 qrq loisqrrrfifqur: qqF{ rR)R(: qqklrr'm s +fr: rl

Rahu owns Virgo, has Moolatrikona in Aquarius and isexalted on the 2oth degree of Cemini. The 7th houses ofthese are for Ketu. Then Ketu's friends will be Jupiter, Sun,Moon and Mars. Mercury is neutral. For Rahu the enemieswill be Sun, Moon and Mars. Jupiter is neutral; and thefriends are Mercury, Saturn and Venus.

A third authority has the following to say :

s*i ;rqrq qaq fiqirui 6,-qr rJ€ E*.vtd q fqlrqd' rr{rq=l q{ungdr-q rd: ftgffiwFco: qti{t: rl

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354 TEXT 6OOK OF SCIENTIFIC TTINDU ASTROLOQY

The same meaning as of the previous verse is here.Another authority states :

Rreffi uga eri df,it rJ€ V"{rfr fsqqlrrqrtre<: ge<: vrrrd ifr\ql Tet frrfu+: {Ii{t: tl

Ketu has Moolatrikona in l.eo, exaltation on the 6thdegree of Sagittarius, own house in Pisces. His enemies areVenus and Satum; friends are Sun, Moon and Mars; andneutrals are Jupiter and Mercury. If the Moolatrikona is Leo,Jupiter cannot be a neutral.

The Sutra of Jaimini q Wiq( ( l. 1.28) and the reckoningof Chara Dasa refer to the dual ownership of Scorpio andAquarius. Scorpio is owned by Mars and Ketu, while Aquar-ius is owned by Rahu and Satum. The corresponding versefrom Parashara was given above.

Jaimini has an aphorism eiT W: *$: (2.5.50). In thisscience (or system) of astrologr, Ketu is a benefic one. Weextend this idea to Parashara's system. Othenuise Ketu inthe l2th cannot give Moksha. Rahu with Jupiter causesQuru4handala Yoga which destroys all auspicious Yogas.Jupiter with Ketu gives benefic results.

We arrive at the following conclusions on the basis ofthe acceptable authorities and experience. Rahu ownsAquarius, has Moolatrikona in Aquarius, is in exaltation inthe 2Oth degree of Gemini. His friends, foes and neutralsare the same as those of Saturn. Ketu owns Scorpio, hasMoolatrikona in Leo, and is exalted on the 6th degree ofSagittarius. tle has friends, foes and neutrals like theSun.

Next there is the Kalasarpa Yoga which arises when allthe planets are between Rahu and Ketu and if there is noplanet with these. When the Lagna and the planets arebetween Rahu and Ketu, it is mild. If l-agna or Rahu has theaspe-t of Jupiter, it is Mahapadma Yoga. If the aspect isfrom Venus, it is Padrta Yoga. Both these are benefics. If inthat position we find Mercury, Moon, Sun, Mars, Mandi, or

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:.ql

355

Saturn, the Yogas are called respectively Shankha, Ananta,Vasuki, Takshaka, Qulika, l{arkotaka. Ananta and Vasukiare mild Yogas. Shankha, Padma and Mahapadma arejharmless. Karkotaka, Culika and Takshaka are ferocious.These cause difficulties and serious problems upto the age

27, 35, 36 or 48., There are at least three remedial measures' The first isreading the three Trl fupama sections twenty times everyday. These sections are in the (Maha) NarayanaiyaUpanishad. The second is reading five times a day the

second section of the same Upanishad. Each is to be read

for 72 days. tf favourable results do not aPpear repeat the

same. The third is wearing Qomedha of 728 miligrams'in a

silver ring on the right hand little finger.

There are some Yogas involving Rahu :

(l) The first is Kalasarpa. Lagna has to be lncluded. If all

the planets are in the first seven houses, it is generally good

for spiritual activities; if from the second to the eighth

houses, it is bad for finances; if from the third to the ninth,

the native advocates unpopular causes and comes to lime

light; if from the fourth to the tenth, the native faces difficul'

ties, disappointments, failures and disgrace, and the chil-

dren cause discomfort; if from the fifth to the eleventh, he

misuses the trust, and has bad friends; if from the sixth to

the twelfth, there can be imprisonment.

(2) Sholaskodhu Yoga arises when Rahu is in the Lagna

wlth the Moon or his friends, and Satum ls in the 2nd. The

native faces troubles and quarrels.

(5) Kapata Yoga arises when Satum and Rahu are in the

l2th from the Moon. The native shows inconsistency be-

tween his thought and action.

(4) Ashtalakshmi aPpears when Rahu is in the 6th and

Jupiter is in a Kendra from I-agna. Jupiter in the lOth is the

best.(5) Pishacha Yoga aPpears when the Moon and Rahu are

ln Lagna, while malefics are in Konas. This is indicative of

suicidal and pessimistic tendencies.

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(6) Curu-Chandala Yoga is when Jupiter is with Rahu.This destroys all good Yogas.

(7) Sarpa Sapa - Curse of snake - appears in a variety ofways :

(a) Rahu in the 5th, particularly in Aries; Scorpio orVirgo; (b) Rahu with the lord of the 5th; (c) Rahu in the Sthaspected by Mars; (d) Rahu in Lagna while Mars and Jupiterare in the 5th; and (e) Rahu with Mercury in the 5th.

These are counter-productive as far as children are con-cemed. During the first year of marriage, the couple shouldgo to Rameswaram to Tryambakeshwar and perform NagaPratishta. They must bring some sand from that place andinstall an idol of the snake on that sand and must offernaivedya. This will alleviate the curse.

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I9Planetary Aspects

tT h" kinds of aspects have been mentioned in a previousI chapter. These include conjunction. One planet on 28oand another on 22o is a separating aspect. The oneaspecting from 22o another at 28" is an applying aspect. Aplanet on 50.25' aspects another on 80.lO', but does notaspect another on 190.45' who is with another on 80.lO'.But through the aspected planet, he aspects the other.These factors have to be kept in mind. Also note the orbs ofaspects given earlier. The aspects can only be favourable orunfavourable. Whether they are benefic or malefic dependson factors like their ownership, placement and relation.

Co4iunction

Sun-Moon : Submissive to wife, clever in every under-taking, daring, defective sight.

Sun-Mars : famous, strong, energetic, intellectual, un-truthful, accident-prone, irritable, daring.

Sun-Budha : learning, strong, fickle, philosophical

Sun-Guru : religious, active, wealthy, liked by rulers;Teacher.

Sun-Shulrra : Intelligent, attentive to the relatives fromhis wife's side. Skilled in archery, loses eyesight as hegrows. Wealth after marriage. Love of dance.

Sun-Shani : Sorrows from wife and children, attachedto his traditional dharma.

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Moon.Kuja : courageous, brave, defect in blood circula-tion, deceitful, love of painting.

lloon.Budha : Skilled in poetry and the arts, riches,overcome by women, righteous, fond of humour.

Moon.Guru : loyal friend, righteous conduct, respectsrelatives, devoted to the gods and elders, wealthy.

Moon-Shukra : fond of good clothes, flowers andscents; knowldege of duties, famous in the community,Indolent, skilled in trading.

Moon.Shani : attached to old women, different convey-ances, philosophical, fond of sacred lore, not wealthy, goodfollowings.

Kuja-Budha t real estate business, interest in trafficwork and engineering, works in metals, medical prepara-tions, mathematics.

Kuja-Gum : Interest in sculpture, knowledge of sacredlore, eloquent, wise and skilled.

Kqia-Shulra : lincentious or deeply attached to wife,mathematician, angry, gambling, untruthful.

Kuja-Shant : Skin trouble, accidents, love of magic, nota good outlook or canduct, low work, untruthful.

Budha-Guru : wisdom, commonsense, interest indance and music, intelligent, happly.

Budha-shulrra : Immense wealth, diplomatic, legalknowledge, knowledge of sculpture and sacred texts,tactful, comforts.

Budha-Shani : boastful, debts, no good comfort, knowl-edge of science, good speech, wandering.

Gum-Shulrra : Teaching profession, righteousness,uphold standards, good nature, excellent preceptors.

Guru-Shani : Courage, wealth, fame, authority,headship or a social organisation.

Shutrrra-Shanl : cutting wood, felling trees, skilled inpainting and stone-building, love of painting and sculpture,cattle wealth.

These results cantbe applied even in cases of the ex-change of the houses by the concerned planets.

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PLANETARY ASPECTS 359

Ravi.chandra-KuJa : the sense of shame, fond of allkinds of work, skilled in handling machines, bricks.

Ravi-Chandra-Budha : skilled, strong, interest in knowl-edge, performs governmental work, brave.

Ravl-Chandra.Gum : anger, envy, service, wandering,firm intellect, fickle.

Ravi-Chandra-Shulsa : fond of others' women andwealth, learned in many branches of knowledge.

Ravl-Chandra.Shanl : Good knowledge of sexologl,stubborn, serves others, poverty.

Ravt-Kqla.Budha : famous, skilled in warfare, daring,harsh speech, devoid of shame, has money, wife and chil-dren.

Ravi-Kuja-Gum : skilled and eloquent speech, greatwealth, truthful, equal to the rulers.

Ravl-KuJa-shulsa : good family, beauty, wealth, eye-disease.

Ravi-KuJa-Shant : defective llmb, poor, slckly, stub-born, no relatives.

Ravl-Budha-Guru i eye disease, wealthy, stubborn,knowledge of sclences, authorship.

Ravi-Budha-Shulrra : restless, talkative, wandering,lives abroad, ruled by wife.

Ravl-Budha-Shanl : loss of traditional conduct andmanners, hated, conquered by others, rejected by relatives.

Ravl-Guru-Shulsa : eye disease, courage, intelligent,poor, serves others, interest in politics.

Ravl-Guru-Shanl : respected, foe of his relatives,favoured by the rulers, fearless.

Ravl-Shulsa-Shant t fear from foes, loss of honour,crooked, skin disease.

Moon-KqJa-Budha : sinful deeds, no relatives andfriends.

Moon-KuJa-Guru : bent body, fond of women, stealing,angry and irritable.

lloon-Kuja-shulrra : bad parents and wife, mentalworry and anguish.

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Moon-Kuja-Shani : no maternal happiness, corruptmind, hatred of people.

Moon.Budha-Guru : wealth, goodness, happiness,good speaker, famous, strong.

Moon-Budha-Shukra : knowledge o f d i f fe ren tbranches, miserly nature, bad ways of conduct.

Moon-Budha-Shani : unhealthy, defect ive l imb,commonsense, speaker, respected, rules.

Moon-Guru-Shulra : knowledge, commonsense, com'pany of the good and the wise.

lloon-Guru-56nni : knowledge of various branches,healthy, authority, responsible.

Moon-Shulrra-Shani : authorship, philosophical and re-ligious enquiries.

Kuja-Budha.Guru : scholarship, rulership, enquiry intoultimate Keality, skilled in music.

Kuja-Budha-Shukra : devoid of good family back-ground, defective limb, fickle, wicked, unpleasant speech.

Kuja-Budha-Shani : Service of a low king, goes away orinto exiles, tolerance.

Kuja-Gum.Shulra : favoured by the ruler, happinessfrom wife, loved and honoured by people.

Kuja.Guru-Shani : favoured by ruler, defective limb,devoid of traditional customs and manners, quarrels withfriends, unsympathetic.

Kuja.Shulra-Shani : worries from unnatural or im-moral houses, sorrows, loves to be away or abroad.

Budha-Guru-Shani : good house and wealth and pros-perity, commonsense, enjoys comforts, happiness, cour-age.

Budha-Shulsa-Shani : unpleasant speech, anger, un-truthful, wicked nature, patriotic, well versed.

Guru-Shulra-Shani : Born in a family without a goodbackground, acquires authority, responsible, good nature.

Ravi-Chandra-Kuja-Budha : authorship, stealing, un-pleasant speech, ill health, envy, engineering.

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Ravi-Chandra-Kuja-Guru : wealth, fond of women, vir-tuous, energetic, skilled, devoted to duties.

Ravi-Chandra-Kuja-Shulrra : skilful in speech, goodeducation, able to earn well, medical science.

Ravi-Chandra-Kuja-Shani : ill health, poor, stubborn.Ravi-Chandra.Budha.Guru : wide eyes, sculpture,

wealth, courage, teaching, banking.

Ravi-Chandra.Budha-Shukra : pleasant speech,favoured by the ruler.

Ravi-Chandra-Budha.Shani : rejected by parents orrejects them; no wealth and no happiness; wanderer.

Ravi-Chandra-Guru-Shukra : fond of water, animalsand woods, happiness, respected.

Ravi-Chandra-Gum.Shani : angry, fbnd of women,wealth.

Ravi-Chandra-Shukra-Shanl : behaves like a woman,weak body, afraid of others.

Ravi-KuJa-Budha.Shulsa : fond of other women, steal-lng, bad money, untruthful.

Ravl-KuJa-Budha-Shani : quarrelsome, bad habits,scholarship, equal to the ruler.

Ravi-Kuja-Budha-Guru : courageous, poor, sorrowful.

Ravi-Kuja-Guru-Shani : mental imbalance, self-re-spected, respected by friends and relatives.

Ravi-Kuja-Shukra.Shani : evil ways, eye defect, hatredof relatives, disgrace.

Ravi-Budha.Guru.Shukra : wealth, happiness, rela-tives.

Ravi.Budha-Guru.Shani : quarrels, lack of enthusiasmand self-respect.

Ravi-Budha Shul,ra-Shani : unpleasant speech, Beau-ty, intelligence, commonsense, softness.

Ravi-Guru-Shulrra-Shani : miserliness, poetic nature,favoured by the ruler.

Chandra-Kuja.Budha-Guru : learned, deep thinking,intellectual power.

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Qhandra-Kuja-Budha.Shulra : q uarrelsom e, indolent,hatred of relatives.

Chandra-Kuja.Budha.Shani : courage, no parentalhappiness, evil mind.

Chandra-Kuja.Guru.Shulra : defective limb, respect-ed, intelligent, bad friends, happiness.

Chandra.Kuj a-Guru-Shani : deafn ess, cou rage, men talretardation, good intellect, generous nature.

Chandra-Kuja-Shulrra-Shani : bad character of wife,boastful speech; engaged in observing trees, snakes, eyes;wicked nature; agitated.

Chandra'Budha-Guru-Shulra : scholar, devoid of pa-rental happiness, no enemies, riches.

Qhandra-Budha.Gum.Shani : righteous, famous, min-lsterial councils.

Chandra.Budha.Shulrra-Shani : fond of other women.wicked natured wife, no relatives, hates people, intelligent.

Chandra.Gum-Shulra.Shani : no mother, skin dis-ease.

Kuja-Budha-Guru-Shulra : fond of women's quarrels,respected, good nature, riches.

Kuja-Budha-Guru-Shani : courage, scholarship, elo-quent, truthful, l ittle wealth.

Kuja-Budha-Shutrrra-Shani : hard body, insolent.Kuja-Guru-Shukra-Shani : wealth, bright, fond of

women, daring, fickle.

Budha-Guru-shukra-Shani : intellectual, fond ofshastras, passionate, faithful followers.

Ravi-Chandra-Kuja.Budha-Guru : sorrowful, separa-tion from wife, hot tempered body.

Ravi-Chandra.Kuja,'Budha-Shulra : fond of workingfor others, quarrels with friends and relatives, friendly withthe eunuchs.

Ravi.Chandra.Kuj a-Budha-Shani : Short life, im prison -ment, no happiness, no wife, pitiable.

Ravi-Chandra-Kuja-Guru.Shukra ; Blindness, manysorrows, rejected by parents, fond of music.

{' . J

Iil

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Ravi-Chandra.KuJa-Guru-Shani : Capable, steals oth-ers' wealth, causes hardship and worries to others, miser,fickle.

Ravi-Chandra-Kuja-Shutaa.Shani : devoid of self-re-spect, riches and prosperity, evil ways and behaviour; fondof other women.

Ravi-Chandra-Budha.Gum-Shutrrra : skilled in han-dling machinery, multi-splendoured life, minister, com-mander, famous.

Ravi.Chandra-Budha.Guru-Shanl : coward, rejectedby friends, mental aberration, skilled in deceiving, fero-cious. dines at others' tables.

Ravi-Chandra.Budha-Shutrra.Shani : suicidal tenden-cies, death wish; devoid of happiness, wealth, and children.

Ravi-Chandra-Guru-Shukra-Shani : good speaker, in-terested in magic, fickle, intelligent, fearless, fond ofwomen, many foes.

Ravi-Kuja-Budha-Guru-Shukra : passionate, com,mander, without sorrow, favoured by the ruler.

Ravl.Kuja-Budha-Guru-Shani : always dejected anddepended, sickly, bad clothing, poor.

Chandra-Kuja-Budha-Shukra-Shani : troubled bydeath or murder, imprisonment or disease; scholar, re-spected by others, poverty, and badly shaped body.

Chandra.Kuj a-Guru.Shulrra-Shani : s e rvan t, servan t'smind, stubborn, wicked manners and behaviour, great ail-ments, crooked, poor.

Ravi-Kuja-Guru-Shulrra-Shani : skilled in dealing withwater, machines, dhatus, mercury, and chemicals, in han-dling these becomes famous.

Ravi-Budha-Guru-Shulrra-Shani : strong in the knowl'edge of many shastras, respected by teachers and friends,righteous, compassionate.

Chandra.Kuja-Budha-Guru.Shulrra : gentle, healthy,good education, wealth, truthful, happy, helpful to friendsand relatives.

Chandra-Kuja.Budha.Guru.Shani : chronic ailments,poverty, always dejected and depressed, brings a bad nameto the relatives.

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Chandra.Kuja-Budha-Shulrra-Shani : many foes andfriends, fond of working for others, too pround and selfrespecting, odd nature.

Chandra.Budha-Gum-Shulaa-Shani : minister, equalto the rulers, arrny commander, respected by all.

Kuja-Budha-Gum-Shukra-Shani : good intentions,mental aberration, liked by the ruler, free from sorrow,indolent, poor.

We now give the results of the combination of six celes'tial bodies. We mention the planet omitted.

Without Shani : interested in education, riches andrighteousness, knowledge of many languages, patient.

Without Shulsa : charitable, does the work of others,fickle, loves solitude.

Without Guru : skin disease, rejected by relatives, fool-ishness, stubborn, loss of place, no children.

without Kqfa : minister, fortunate, patient, worried andsorrowful, without wife and money.

Without Chandra : interested in pilgrimages, nomoney, no children, fond of woods and mountains.

Without Budha : wicked, worries for others, consump-tion, lung trouble, hated bY others.

Without Ravi : pure, daring, liked by the ruler, ministe-rial counsels, has children and wealth.

When five or six planets are together, or when they havemutual afflicting aspects, the native is poor, devoid of hap-piness, stubbon, foolish.

Any one of the following combination in a sign can leadto sanyasa (renunciation of worldly life) :

l. Ravi, Chandra, Kuja, Curu, Shukra.

2. Ravi, Chandra, Kuja, Budha.

5. Ravi, Kuja, Budha, Shukra, Shani.

4. Ravi, Chandra, Kuja, Budha, Quru.

5. Ravi, Chandra, Budha, Shani.

6. Ravi, Chandra, Kqja, Shani.

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7, Kuja, Budha, Quru, Shani.8. Ravi, Kuja, Budha, Shani.9. Ravi, Kuja, Shukra, Shani.

lO. Ravi, Kuja, Curu, Shani.I l. Chandra, Kuja, Guru, Shani.12. Ravi, Chandra, Kuja, Quru, Shani.15. Ravi, Kuja, Guru, Shukra, Shani.14. Ravi, Kuja, Budha, Guru, Shani.15. Chandra, Kuja, Budha, Shukra, Shani.

AspectsThe favourable and unfavourable aspects between the

planets are determined by their positions from lagna, fromeach other, and from their fivefold relationship - Mitra(friendly), Adhi Mitra (more friendly), Sama (neutral), Shatru( in imica l ) , and Adh i Shat ru (more in imica l ) . For afavourable aspect we place F. in brackets, and for the otherUF in brackets. For conjunction we place C.

Sun-KuJa (C) : Fevers, contageous diseases. With an-other malefic aspect, there can be even death when itoperates. Other resutls are - very good character, patience,endurances, industry. (F) great power, enthusiasm, health.Soldiers, engineers, surgeons. courage, fearless talk, firmdetermination, good luck, enerry, plain and open and freetalk, self-earning. (U.F) The opposite given under F. Acci-dents, fever, wounds; unnecessary quarrels because ofheadstrong nature, lack of intelligence, or excitement, legaltroubles.

Sun-Budha : (c) services, unsteady money, soft spoken,fame, respect, favour of the ruler, great among the good,strength.

Sun-Girm : (C.F) health, pure mind, commonsense,marriage children ability to h,andle affairs successfully, car-rying out governmental activities, progress in profession,fame, financial advancement, enthusiasm and happiness. Ifthere is the association of Budha very great scholarship,genius. (U.F) not much financial help; showy and pompous,insolvency, gambling, legal troubles, quarrels with nearrelatives, paralysis, gout, heart complaint; gets deceived.

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Ravi-Shulrra : mental and emotional nature; warm-hearted, affectionate, cheerful, artistic pu rsuits; sometim esbad for marriage - resentment, quarrelsome; no large fam-ily; not c,:nducive to worldly attainments

Ravi-Chandra : (F) happiness, tranquility, popularity;not a vigorous or ambitious life; camfortable home, harmo-nious nature, congenial interests; attached to the family;interest in politics. (C) No breadth of outlook, no adaptabil-ity; self willed; stubborn. Tends to live to himself. (UF)selfwilled, imperious, mental conflict between two courses,or between the native and his parents; trouble with theopposite sex, incompatability; unpopular; sensitive, emo'tional; stands alone.

Ravi - Shani : (F) acquires properLy, able to handleaffairs, disciplined, discrimination. Forced to conform withcircumstances, sense of limitation. Pains taking thought;constructive, heavy responsibilities. Hard work, patience.Industrious and successful children. (C) self-made person.Interested only in worldly affairs. (UF) lives by hard work;worries about the eldest child; can deny offsprings. Debility,catarrah, tubercular, accident by falling, skin or dentaltrouble.

Sun-Uranus : (F) leadership, strong and independentwill; position of authority; popular, breadth of vision andstability of purpose; not tactful; powerful orator; good na-ture; love of power, publicity. (C) Rebellious, perverse, ob-stinate; scientific or literary career. Great talent; (UF) toomuch individualistic; extreme self'will, perverse judgement,variety, wrong-headedness, inorbid sensitiveness, stub-born, fickle. Nervous complaints; inflated fancies; nohumour.

Sun-Neptune (F) : visionary and yet practical; interestedin matters connected with water and sea. Successful in anywork that calls for vision and foresight. Suicidal tendencies.(C) love of music, mysticism, occult, astrology; deep studyof a chosen subject, fame and success; can be accused ofimmorality. (UF) Dasily played upon because of his vanity orsympathies; wants to do something unusual; deceived eas-ily; victim of scandals. Sympathetic, kindly; officious; badfor the father; worries through children.

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Chandra-Budha: (F) Success, good literary work, happi-ness from relatives, unity of brain and common sense;shrewd, careful; understanding, kind disposition. Mind issound, logical, judicious, honest, good for writing, lectur-ing, communicating ideas and information; good with do-mestic matters, land, house, furniture; architect, builder.Popularity; plain speech; healthy habits; clever, entertainingand helpful wife.

(C) Penetrating understanding; resourceful mind andimagination; sensitive, eccentric. (UF) Acute intellect, com-bative, sharp tongue; creates misunderstanding and of-fence; reformist tendencies. Bad for publications, strongabilities; sympathetic; sensitive. tlighly strung, restless,.ex-citable; nervous debility.

Chandra-Shukra : Happy life, fortunate marriage. Inter-est in fine arts. (UF) disputes in family life, ill health, indiges-tlon, contacts with bad women, sorrow through affections.Incompatibility between wife and husband; or marriage maynot occur; troubles between the couple arise from financialquarter. Suffers through associates; bad for money; sincereand active affections. (c) love of luxury; refinement, love ofart; excellent for family life of men, not so much of women;early life not happy.

Chandra-Kuja. This is dealt separately and at length.

Chandra-Guru : (F) good nature, friendly, sympathetic,helpful; good for sport, religious, drama, journalism, films,travels. Benefits through wife; good health, riches. (C) sym-pathy, protectiveness, success; restless; loves change andtravelling; good practical abilities. (UF) restless, combative;superstitious or atheistic; misfortune regarding foreigncountries or foreigners; not balanced in handling money orbusiness affairs - avarice, or carelessness or indifference.lmprudent; revolts against conventions; allows things toslide to his disadvantage; liver gets affected; enforced resi-dence abroad.

Chandra-Shani : (F) Capable df serious and responsiblework; a very good power of organising and controlling,maintains personal dignity; matter-of-fact, practical outlookon life. Serious sense of duty and obligations; democrate

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attitudes; attached to the mother if she is alive. Less chii-dren or they behave on heavy responsibility; business life;good for houses and lands, and worldly success; healthy.(c) Hard-working and self-denying; hard, critical, selfseekingtemperament; practical intellect, narrowminded; self-confi-dence; competent. (Un) inefficient; bad organiser, con-fused; careless, imprudent; astute only in details; de-pressed, discontented; lacks self-reliance; fears and fore-bodings; cannot discharge his duties and obligations fully;easily misunderstood, endures harshness; unhappy rela'tions with mother. Social or age differences between hus-band and wife - unsatisfactory marriage, feeds children.Comes into contact with violence, Ill health.

Chandra-Uranus : (F) firmness and datermination; in-terest in the occult; rigidly performs duties; endures andsacrifices a good deal for an ideal or an obligation; _!elpfrom friends. (C) high emotional tension, tragic in his affec-tion; perverse; gr€at determination; rarely follows the con-ventional; strange interests; deaf to reason, judgementparalysed; seeks the marvellous; individualistic; (UF) goodtalent; deeply absorbed in a special pursuit; self will; per-verse; nervous tension; sorrow or disaster through friend-ships or alliances; great mental and physical activity.

Chandra - Neptune : (F) emotional, sensitive; desires todo something great or unusual; wealth and comforts;helped by others; good for hire-purchase leather, rubber;great aspirations. (C) restless, unsatisfied, kind, sympa-thetic; love of seclusion; gloomy, sarcastic, resentment,cynicism; love of astrology; unreliable behaviour; not goodfor a happy married life. (UF) easy going; complications withthe other sex, evokes scandals; discontent; lends to in-trigue, to run after shoot outs and get rich methods; discipli-narian; parasitical.

IVIOON.VEI\US BELATIONS

Some scholars aver the opposition of the Moon-Venusin a chart affects married life adversely. Others havecriticised this view. We, for our Part, endorse the first con-tention. Before we give our arguments in support of thisconclusion, let us see what our great authorities have said

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on the Moon-Venus relationship. tlere we may rememberthat as per Satyakirti's formula the Moon is the enemy ofVenus while the latter is neutral to the Moon, and thatYavaneshwara treats them as mutual enemies.

We start by summarising the views of Kalyanavarrna.The coqjunction of the Moon and Venus makes one delight-ed in flowers and perfumes and white clothes, skilled inperforming his duties and obligations, favoured by rela-t ives, and an expert in sel l ing and buying (5.15.11). Thenative has a sense of perfection, is refined, and loves luxu-

ry. Males having this conjunction have an excellent familylife. In the case of women, the husband may be cruel andtreacherous, or foolish and unsuccessful. The conjunctionls better for men.

The conjunction of these two in L,agna brings the nativeinto contact with loose women. In the 4th, there is happi-ness through women. In the 7th there are many love affairs(S. 5l .38-40). The conjunction as such makes one sinful,says Jataka Pafilata (JP 8.5).

The placement of the Moon and Venus and their owner-ships greatly modify the effects. Moreover the aspects weaccept are those falling on houses 7, 5, 9' 4' A' 3 and lOfrom the Moon or Venus. The Bhavas (houses) accepted arethose of the equal house system where the rising degree isthe first polnt, not the midPoint.

A favourable aspect between the Moon and Venus isvery good for family life specially in a male chart. Theaspect on the 7th from the Moon on Venus is,generallyundesirable. It brings sorrow through the feelings and emo-tions. Only those who out of conviction become ascetics,can escape such a consequence of this aspect. Such per-sons will have no ties of any kind. ln other cases we noticean incompatibility between the husband and the wife; orthe influence of the wife or partner acts adversely. In somecases marriage is denied or thwarted by money or by loveaffairs. In a few cases, the partner is viewed as a deity andthen disastrous results follow. The conjunction of these twodoes not appear to differ much from their opposition,though there are excePtions.

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The first chart is that of a lady who eloped with a family

MoonMerc. (R)

VenusSun

Rahu

CHART No. 1

Sai.

Ascdt.Mars (R)Jup. (R)

Kafrr

friend and got separated from her husband after begettingtwo sons. Here the conjunction has also the Sun and Mer-cury and receives the aspects of Saturn (lord of 6 and 7)and Mars (lord of 4 and 9). Incidentally Mars and Jupiter(lord of 5 and B) are together in L,agna. The two conjunc-tions influenced adversely. As we will note later the con-junction or the placement of the Moon in Pisces makes onestri-jitah. Since this is a woman's chart, she is conquered bythe male. Note also Rahu in the 7th.

Before we proceed further it is safer to note what ourauthorities say about the placement of the Moon in varioussigns and about the aspects of Venus on this. In Aries theM o o n m a k e s o n e p a s s i o n a t e a n d u n s t a b l e , s a y sKalyanavarma (23.1) and Varaha suPports this (8.J. 16.1).In Taurus the native is pramada Priyah - loved by women(8.J. 16.2) and he is passionate. In Gemini one tends to bea homo-sexual - Klibair ratah (BJ 16'5). In Cancer one iseasily controlled by women; and in Leo one tends to hatewomen (16.4, 5; 5 23,30); and the aspect of Venus on theMoon in Leo makes one controlled by women (S 25'55). InLibra the native is stri'iitah-conquerred by women (8.J.

16.7). The Moon in Scorpio gives loose morals (B'J. 16'B; S25.51); and the aspect of Venus on this Moon deprives thewealth because of women (S 25.56). In Capricorn one gets

fond of elderly women-iaranganasu niratah (8.J. l6.lO). InAquarius one has loose morals (S 25.72)' and the aspect of

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PLANETARY ASPECTS 371

Venus on this Moon intensif ies this (B.J ' 17.3). ln Pisces thenative is strij itah-conquerred by woman (B.J' 16.12)' Allthese results are not to be taken as they are. They get

modified by the ownership and placement of the Moon andVenus, and by the aspects operating on them.

The second chart shows the conjunction in the I lth as'

Ketu

CHART No. 2

MoonUranusVenus

Mars R Jup. R

Sat. RRahu

Nep.Ascdt.

Merc. RSun

pected by retrograde Mars from the 5th. This lady's life is

one of frustration because she is said to be possessed.

Houses 3, 5, I and 1l are afflicted. The lord of the 7th is

afflicted by Mars and Saturn. Mars-Jupiter complex is an

added factor.

The third chart has the conjunction in the 7th along with

Jup. 8.7

aaL z.z4Venus 3.17Moon 1 1 .3

Merc . 11 .36Uranus 21

CHART No. 3Bom on 17.5.1939

Mars 4.19

Ascdt.Rahu14.40

Satum and Mercury. The 7thwith debilitated Saturn. This

lord Mars is in mutual asPectconjunction did not give the

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native an excellent family life because of Saturn, Mars andUranus. His wife was an epileptic whom he deserted.

In the fourth chart the Moon as the lord of the 7th is with

Rahu 3Uranus 3

Mars29.12

CHART No.4Bom on 26,8.1949Ascdt.

Jup. (R)n ?

Sun 11Satum't 5.33

Ketu

Merc. oVenus 16Moon 17Nep. 20

Venus besides Mercury. The 7th is aspected by debilitatedJupiter and also the conjunction which again is aspected byMars. Mars aspecting Jupiter is another abetting factor. Shewas married in the sub-period of Jupiter and was separatedin the next sub-period of Jupiter. The Sth chart shows his

Jup. 3.2Uranus29.35

CHART No.SBom on 4.10.1953

Ascdt.10.40Ketu

Rahu 7.3(

\4oon 1.3;/ e n . 1 8 . 3

Mars'18.46

Satum4.31

Merc .5 .32

Sun 17.2Nep.29.s3

conjunction in the 2nd along with Mars. She was separated,not divorced, and she is hoping justifiably for a union.

Now consider the opposition aspect of these two bod-ies. The sixth chart shows an exact opposition of Moon andVenus. Besides this, Mars opposing Jupiter is aspecting

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PI.ANETARY ASPECTS 373

Ascdt.9.40 Jup.23 .17Uranus

(R) 26

Sun 5.42/enus 10.2Cierc.22.37

CHART No. 6Bom on 18.2.1954

Ketu

lahu 0.16 Moon 9

Mars22tlep. (R) 2Sat. (R)

16.8

Venus (lord of 2 and 7). The 7th has retrograde and debili-tated Saturn aspecting the 4th house, its lord being theMoon. She has been having very unhapPy relations with herhusband.

The seventh chart is interesting. The 7th lord Venus is

Moon 17

CHART No. 7Bom on 7.12.1954

Ascdt.Merc. 1l

V€nus 16Nep. 20

Sa| .15 .33

with Saturn opposing the Moon in the 5th. The 7th lord is inBudha's'house. She divorced her husband on the groundthat he was impotent.

We give one or two examples to show that even asquare between the Moon and Venus is not always benefi-cial. The eighth chart is that of a Brahmin girl (from an orth-family) marrying a goldsmith. The 7th lord Venus is withMercury, Jupiter, Ketu and Uranus opposed to Mars andRahu. The 4th lord Moon is in the 12th. The lOth aspect ofVenus is like that of Saturn, and the 4th aspect of the Moon

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374 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTInIC ITINDU ASTBOLOOY

Moon14.28

Ascdt.29.45 Sun

Merc. 3.31Jup. 7.46

Venus 12.0ttanus 22.27Ketu 22.11

CHART No. 8Bom on 28.5.1954

Vlars 15.9Rahu22 .11

Sat. (R)10.37

Nep. (R)0.28

ls like that of Mars. The better is Mars-Jupiter opposition.Dven the conjunction of Jupiter and Venus cannot be ahappy one for marriage. Mars also aspects the Moon andthe 4th house. The ninth chart has Mars conjunct Venus in

)up. 17,52 Uranus(R) 23

Venus 1 5Mars16.37

CHART No. 9Born on 12.1.1953

Rahu 19

Sun 29Merc. 15 Moon 18

Sat. 3.36Nep. 0.40

Ascdt.

the 4th from the debilitated Moon. Venus (lord of 2) hasexchanged signs with the 6th lord Saturn who opposesJupiter (lord of 7 and 4). She was married in June l97O andwas deserted one year later by her husband. Venus in the4th from the Moon does not appear to be a blessing for ahappy married life.

There are many such instances. The research-orientedastrologers have to examine Moon-Venus relationships andreformulate modified versions of earlier opinions. The worstappears to be the opposition. Next comes the square foFlowed by the conjunction.

All the longitudes are given as Per Lahiri's ephemeris.

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PLANETARY ASPECTS 375

Saturn and the Moon

It is time we wake up from some of the ideas aboutSaturn and the Moon which people accept blindly withoutexamining the rationale. The Moon is accepted to be theenemy of Saturn, though the latter is neutral to the former.The Moon is exalted in the hosue of Saturn's friend and isdebilitated in the sign owned by Saturn's enemy. Thisplaces the Moon in a piquant situation. She is friendly toMercury who is the enemy of Mars and Jupiter; and she hasas her friend the Sun who is the enemy of both Venus andSaturn. Then the relation between the Moon and Saturnturns out to be enigmatical.

According to Saravali the conjunction of the Moon andSaturn makes one fond of elderly women, an owner bfconveyance, an expert in scriptures, devoid of wealth andeasily controlled by others (15.12). This conjunction inl,agna makes one vile, a servant, sinful, miserly and devoidof self'respect (51.42).In the other angles this conjunctionis favourable (51.43-45). Brihajjataka has a poor opinionabout this conjunction (14.2). According to Vaidyanatha,the native having this conjunction will have a bad wife,abuse his parents, and wi l l be without wealth (J.P. 8.5).These authorities do not look upon the relation betweenthese two quite favourably. Dven their mutual aspects donot fare better. The aspect of Saturn on the Moon in thevar ious s igns exc lud ing L ib ra and Sag i t ta r ius g ivesunfavourable or malefic results, as per Saravali Q3.7, 14,29, 36, 43, 57 , 7 1, 77 , Bs).

Keeping these observations in mind let us consider therelation between these two. As per Satyakirti, the Moon isthe enemy of Saturn; and Yavaneshwara agrees with thisview. Since Saturn is a full benefic for the signs ruled byVenus, the aspect of Saturn for these Lagnas can befavourable. The nature of the Moon's aspect is variable as itdepends on his ownership with reference to a given l,agnaand with reference to his being 72 to 84 degrees away fromthe Sun on either side.

The aspects between the serious Satum and the emo-tional Moon need careful study. A good aspect can be the

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sextile or trine - Moon being in houses 3, ll, 5 and 9 fromSaturn, when both are benefics by ownership or placementor both. Then the native will have serious and responsibleoutlook and activity. He can be a good organiser as theemotional inability is kept under restraint by Saturn. Thepractical outlook is deepened and one becomes almost adisciplinarian. Yet the native is given to moods of depres-sion. He may lose his mother early in life, and the mother-fixation persists in his life. If the fifth house and/or Jupiteris involved, the problems concerning the children will en-gage his serious attention; and any slackness in this respectcan cause serious worries. This we find from Mrs. Qandhi'schart where Saturn and the Moon are in mutual opposition.In Dr. B.V. RAMAN'S chart the conjunction of the twoaspected by Jupiter subjected him to the loss of a verypromising son, and also to the early demise of his mother.

The favourable aspects between the two are good forany practical or constructive work which requires conscien-tious attention to detail. The native may inherit a goingconcern or revive it successfully through a hard struggle.Family traditions, activities, or concerns are developed well.

If these two aspect each other adversely - the tenthaspect of Saturn, or the Moon aspecting Saturn from Scor-pio and the like - the native may become aimless andincapable of doing any responsible work. He is given tomoods of depression and resentment, as he lacks self con-fidence. The emotional life is subject to set-backs. Lifecannot be smooth and he will have to endure much suffer-ing. Either he loses his mother or the mother becomesunbearable. Marriage may be denied, or the married lifelacks harmony and peace. Accidents, assault, or bad healthcan be predicted.

In many instances the conjunction of the Moon withSaturn appears to indicate good results. flere we get ahard-working individual who is self-abnegating and yet self-seek-ing. The native wants everything in order and in a perfect

condition. He is competent and self-confident in his chosenfield. Any malefic influence on this conjunction makes oneconceited and narrow minded.

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PI-ANETAfrY ASPECTS 377

Let us take a few charts by way of illustration. But weshould remember that one swallow does not make a sup-per. A large-scale survey is needed. Still we present a fewexamples. The Noble Laureate S. Chandrasekhar has retro-grade Saturn ( I I ) with the Moon (9) and Rahu (22) in theSth Aries aspected by Mars (25) from Virgo and by the Sun(2) and Jupiter (2) from the I lth. The result is well known.In another case Saturn (15.20), Moon (2O) and Neptune(25.44) are in the 5th in Virgo while the lord of that houseis in the 5rd. This exchange involving two unsteady bodiesand Saturn made him mentally retarded. yet another hadSaturn (26) and the Moon (28) in the 9th for Aries Lagnawhile the lord of the 9th was in Cancer (29). He rose fromhumble beginnings to become a successful industriallst.Chart No. 1O is that of a lady. Saturn is conjunct Moon and

Ketu

Mars 8.3'lUranus 17

CHART No. 10Born on

13.12.1922

Nep. 25

Verc. '1.22Venus (R)

1 . 5Sun 27.14

Jup. 17.3

Ascdt. 9.53Moon 18.46Shani 25.23Rahu 2.33

Rahu. The eighth lord afflicts them from the sixth. She is avictim of cancer of the private parts. Note Saturn afflictingthe 7th house and also retrograde Venus.

Chart No. I I has Saturn, Moon and Neptune in the gthafflicted by Mars from lagna. Though the 7th lord is wellplaced but afflicted Venus is in a Martian sign. She investeda good deal of her money for her husband's business. He isafter another woman. Should she divorce him ? If yes, sheloses all her investment. Her husband has retrograde Jupi-ter in the 9th from Gemini lagna afflicted from the Jrd bySaturn who afflicts also Venus in the l2th. The otherwoman had Aries rising with the Sun, Mercury and Venus,

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Ascdt.22.26Mars7.29

Ketu

CHART No. 11Born on 16.1.1955

Jup. (R)1 .37

Uranus(R) 2.27

Sun 2.2Merc.15.26

Rahu12.16

Venus't5.34

Moon 4.5€Nep. 4.54

Sat.26.19

with retrograde Saturn in the 5th and Mars in the 12th'Saturn afflicts the 7th, l lth and 2nd houses, while Marsafflicts 7th. The complication is complete.

Chart No. l2 shows Mars along with Saturn, Moon and

Uranus(R) 2.8

Moon 10. iMars 2.4fRahu 12.(Sat . 28.3

CHART No. 12Born on 1.9.1945

Ven. 8.38Merc. 29

Sun 5

Ketu

ASCOI.

1 9 . 1 9Jup . 8 .17Nep. 2.0

Rahu. Mars is the lord of the 8th and Saturn of the 6th. In(he very first sub-period of the major period of Saturn hedied in a truck accident (Feb. 1974). Another with Saturn(28) and the Moon (12) in the 2nd was afflicted by debili-tated llars (lB) and Rahu (2) from the Bth. The 5th has theunstable Mercury and the fifth lord is debilitated. This is amental case.

Chart No. 15 shows the 7th lord aspected by Saturnfrom the l2th; and this Saturn is afflicted by Mars who is

opposed to Jupiter. She was married in November 1979

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PI,ANETARY ASPECTS 379

Merc, 5Venus 1 7Ke tu ' 19

Mars 17

/oon 4.3€Sun 25

CHART No. 13Born on 8.3.1959

Uranus(R) 1e

Ascdt. 3

Sat. 5 Jup. I Nep. 13 Rahu

and her husband died of jaundice in December l9B5 in themajor period of Saturn as soon as the sub-period of Ketustarted. This Ketu carries the affliction of Mars throughJupiter in whose sign he is placed.

Let us have brief look at the opposition of these twobodies. Chart No. 14 has the conjucntion of Mars and

Jup . 1 1 .8Moon18.37

Rahu 19

CHART No. 14Bom on &'12.1951

Ketu

Merc. I Sun 20.46 Venus5.30

Ascdt.Kuja 14

Sa t . 19 .50Nep. 28

Saturn in Lagna opposed to Jupiter and the Moon. Thoughthe 8th is aspected by Venus, the axis of one and seven gother married at the age of sixteen and made her a widow attwenty. Both these took place in the major period of Ketuwho is in the house of the Sun; and this Sun is afflicted bySaturn. Another had Taurus rising with Saturn ( l9) opposedto the Moon (23l.The 7th lord Mars (19) with Mercury (20),Rahu (l l) and the Sun (4) afflicts the Moon. She became awidow in the sub-period of Ketu in Sun.

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Chart No. l5 has Satum conjunct Mars in the Srd, the

Ascdt.25 .15

Uranus(R) 10.s4

Moon26.9 CHABT No. 15

Bom on28.1 1.1 949

Jup. 6.26

Mars24.22Sat.

25.24

Venus29.7

Sun 12.54Merc.16.38

Nep.23.26Ketu23.24

third lord being afflicted by Mars. The Moon is opposed to

Satum-Mars. In Saturn-Venus he shot his own sister dead.fle was released later. The third hosue location is signifi-cant. In chart No. l6 the 7th has the aspect of Mercury (lord

\roon 8.23

vlars 8.51

CHART No. 16Bom on 7.12.1954

Jup. (R)o . J

Uranus 4

Rahu12.30

Ascdt.Merc.'t0.58

Sun 2.17

Sat. 22.36r'enus (R)

21.27Nep. 0.40

of 8 and I l) in the house of Mars (lord of I and 6). The

Moon in the 6th is opposed to Saturn and to the 7th lord'

She divorced her husband because he was impotent' ln

Navamsa also the Moon is afflicted by Saturn. Another had

the same opposition but the Lagna is Libra with Saturn

and Venus. The 7th lord is in the Sth. He is unmarried'

depressed, and unhappy in his profession - Moon is the

lord of the loth and the loth is afflicted by saturn. Another

had Moon (25) and retrograde Jupiter (9) in the l2th

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PIANETARY ASPECTS

11,

381

opposed to Satum (27\ and the Sun (12). He was mentallyretarded. The seventeenth chart has Saturn-Moon opposi-tion involving the 2nd and the Bth house. The Moon is withMars, while Saturn is with Jupiter. The 8th lord is in the l2th

Moon 15Mars24.18

Ketu

CHART No. 17Born on 8.11.1960 Rahu

20.33Uranus 2

Jup. 9.3Sat.

?o.24

Ascdt.4.20

Venus27.28

)un.22.21Merc. (R)

21 .32Nep. 16

with the Sun and is retrograde. He developed an obstruc-tion in the left kidney. More charts have to be examinedcarefully by the students and serious scholars of AstrologSl.

MARS

Mars is very significant planet. There are, unfortunately,only two fully benefic planets. Of the others two have vary-ing natures. One is the Moon, a satellite, growing and wan-ing. The other is Mercury who appears to be like the Moon.One is tempted to consider Mercury as a satellite. This is acontroversial subject. Let us return to Mars.

Uttara Kalamrita states (4. l5) that Mars is strong even inan enemy's house. This may explain why his exaltation isplaced in the house of Satum. L.ater it is said that whileSatum is fully malefic, Mars and Rahu are only three-fourthsmalefic (4.17). The author considers Ketu also to be fullymalefic. This is incorrect. Rahu has to be clubbed withSaturn, and Ketu with Mars. though we take Ketu to be abenefic.

Uttara Kalamrita gives (5.5O - 34) a comprehensive listof items which can be predicted from an observation ofMars. Strength and valour, battle, hostilities, anger, fire,controversy, bile, wounds, ill-health, obstacles, blood, cop-

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382 TEXT BOOK OF SCIDNTTnIC I{TNDU ASTROLOOY

per, scandal, army, brothers, land, serpent, fickleness ofthe mind - these are some of Mars' Karakatwas.

Shudraka's play Mrichchha Katika (9.55) has a veryinteresting verse appropriate in this contest ;

erqnraf+c'Cw s$uRq {ewt: rrdrsqqq{' ffi qr}gfidFen: rrJust as Mars is inimical to Jupiter, so Shakara is rising

before Charudatta (Jupiter) like an ominous comet. This is

closer to Yavaneshwara's statement, that Jupiter's only en-

emy is Mars and that Mars' only friends are Mercury and

Venus.

The exaltation point of Mars falls in Capricorn 28o which

is in Dhanishta and which is Deneb Aloyesi. It is exactly

sextile L'esath (in Jyeshta) and to Beten Kaitos (in Revati)'

These are incidentally the Candanta Nakshatras.

Mars rules over accidents, blood, inflammatory ail-

ments, male genitals, piles, nasal complaints, pains, quar-

rels, daring activities, energy, death, muscular system, red

corpuscles, gonad and adrenal glands, B.?., eye, spleen and

bones.

Mars also causes a drawback or Dosha with reference to

marriage and progeny. Some authorities give exceptions to

Kuja Dosha. We list some of these exceptions :

(i) Mars in the 4th identical with his own sign or with his

exaltation and debilitation sign;

(ii) In movable signs identical with houses L,2, 4,8 and

t 2 ;(iii) In the 5th with Jupiter or Moon or Mercury in l'agna;

(iv) In the 5th aspected by Jupiter, Moon or Mercury;

(v ) In house 1 ,5 ,8 , lO and 12 wh i le Saturn is in 7 ;

(vi) In Aries, Scorpio or Capricorn and has his own or

exalted Navamsa;

(vii) Mars in Cancer or Leo.

Many other exceptions are given in the texts' For rea-

sons explained elsewhere we do not accept these excep-

tions.

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PLANETARY ASPECTS 383

Let us look at the aspects to and from Mars. These have

to be interpreted in terms of their ownerships, placements

and aspects in the given chart. We accept semi-square (45o,

5l5o), sext i le (60", 5OO"), square (9Oo, 27Oo), t r ine ( l20o,

24O") and opposition (l8Oo). At times we may have to

consider aspects at L55", 2250, l50o, 21O" also' We in-

clude in our study Uranus and Neptune. Whether an asPect

is benefic or otherwise has to be determined in the light of

the ownership and placement of the planets. Cenerally the

association of Mars and Jupiter has been found to be an

unhappy one as far as children are concerned'

A favourable aspect between the Sun and Mars works in

two directions. There is great energy exhibited in the areas

governed by both. It is more intellectual than practical" On

ihe physical side, the body is indifferent while the mind is

active. one takes a quick decision and is alert in practical

affairs. The native is never lazy and dull. tle is always self-

conscious and critical with an analytic mind. But he is also

secretive, being the ruler of Scorpio' As such he is capable

of enduring severe pain and sufferings. He faces severe

s t rugg |es ' l ' i t . champion inggoodcauses .St i l | th iscombi -nation involves accidents, though the native escapes them

narrowlY.

The conjunction of the Sun and Mars indiates great

physical danger or disease' Otherwise il offers the same

iesutts as those of benefic aspects. When there is an inter-

changeofhouses ,weare inc l inedto t rea t themalsoas theyare in their own signs. Thus the Sun in Scorpio 2Oo and

Mars in Leo I 70 are in a chart and the native had a life of

hardship and struggle in the early part; and later prosperity

follorved with bad health. The bones were badly affected.

Still these two bodies do appear to have serious conse-

quences and there are narrow escapes from accidents' This

ii because the Sun is exalted in the positive house of Mars'

An unfavourable aspect between the Sun and Mars indi'

catesPhysicalr isks, i rr i tabi l i ty,exci tabi l i ty 'aggressivena-ture, and self,centredness. A balanced outlook is not pos-

sible. The native frequently enters into unwanted and un-

necessary quarrels and mi"uttderstandings' This aspect is

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384 TDXT BOOK Of SCTENTIflTC TIINDU ASTBOLOOY

good for a logician eager to controvert the positions of<ither thinkers. Politics, military and strenuous games willbe to his liking. lle has to live with strain and suffer acci-dents. Sometimes this aspect affects the heart to someextent and also limits the number of children.

In Chart No. lB, Mars is with the Sun, Mercury, Venus

Moon 6 Ascdt.Ketu

CHART No. 18Bom on 7.8.1955

Venus 14J u p . 1 8S u n 2 t

Merc.22

Rahu 2.0 Nep. 2.31Sat. 21

and Jupiter. This entire group is afflicted by Saturn's aspectfrom the 5th. The Sun, Mercury and Mars together do affectthe heart. Here the Sth house also is involved. Mars rulesthe 6th and Jupiter owns two kendras. The mitral valve wasbadly affected. In another chart Mars 40 in the 8th hosue issquare to the Sun 8" in the llth. The native had plenty ofnarrow escapes from accidents.

The favourable aspects between the Moon and Mars areboth good and bad. Their conjunction does not find favourwith our standard authorities. The aspects give courage anddaring and also active intellectual powers directed towardspractical affairs. Still the native wants to make the best ofthe present. Negatively the benefic aspect makes the nativerough and rude.

The conjunction of the Moon with Mars gives courageand a spirit of adventure. The native is given to moods andhe moves between extremes in any walk of life. In a badhouse the results are otherwise. The malefic aspects bringill-health. Still one can survive. The native is quarrelsomeand aggressive under emotional excitement. tle may be

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PIANETABY ASPECTS 385

given to vices even. fle is obstinate, self-willed and blowshot and cold. The partner's health is never sound.

Chart No. 19 shows Mars and the Moon in the 8th

Moon14.28Mars24.18

Ketu

CHART No. 19Born on 8.11.1960 uranus

2.10Rahu20.15

Jup. 9.30Sat. 20.44

Ascdt.4.20

Venus27.50

vep.15 .5(Merc. (R)

21.29Sun 22.2(

aspected by Satum. They have a trine with the planets inthe l2th house owned by Venus. The native suffers from anobstruction in the left kidney. Chart No. 2O shows Mars

Sun 15.30Jup .15 .20Vonus 28.4R6hu 20.20

Sat. 23.9

CHART No. 20Bom on 30.5.1965 Uranus

17.24Mars23.42

Ascdt. 25 Ketu Nep. (R)24.41

square to the Moon in the 6th and opposed to Saturn in the5rd. The Moon again is with Venus, Jupiter and the Sun. Thenative suffers from various ailments. The trine of Mars toIagna was of not much help to her. Note that Rahu has alsojoined this group. Except for Mercury the others are in closeconjunction in the house of disease.

The benefic aspects between Mercury and Mars givegreat constructive and intellectual Powers. They indicate

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real estate business, engineering works and anything re-lated to land, houses, furniture, traffic and locomotion. Thenative can forestall the intentions and aims of his oppo-nents. It is good also for politicians, commanders, finan-ciers and argumentative writers. Children may be denied.

The conjunction of these two appears to be quite good

even though Mercury is the natural enemy of Mars and Marsis his neutral. Controversial and quarrelsome, the nativecan have a nervous breakdown if it is an unhappy sign orhouse. It makes one an eloquent, but disputative speaker.It is good for lawyers and advocates of the live sciences likeAstrology and PsYchologY.

The malefic aspects between Mercury and Mars affect

the mind adversely. The mental activities are so acute as to

cause a mental or physical breakdown. One may be a

hypocrite or a thief even. Impertinence, rudeness and self-

conceit may be prominent' The native's children createproblems.

The benefic results of the conjunction apPear in the

chart No.2l. L,ords of lO, 5' 4 and 9 are together, though

lahu 2.49

Sat.1 0 . 1 1Moon26.38

Ascdt.8 . 1 6

CHART No. 21Bom on 8.8.1912

Nep. 1.41Sun 23

Uranus(R) 8 .16

Merc. 13.5SVenus 2.10Mars 21.23

Jup .12 .59

only Mars and Mercury are in close conjunction in square to

.lupiter. This great man's work justifies the results of the

conjunction.

In Chart No.22 Mars is in sextile to Mercury, the lord of

the 5rd (lungs) and the l2th. tle lost heavily in business and

died of aheart attack. Note that the Sun is with the Mercury'

ril,{

1|{,"!r:

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PLAIIETARY ASPECTS 387

Ketu

Jup. 13.45Sat. 14.58

Uranus(R) 25

CHART No. 22Born on 24.1.1941

Ascdt.22.18

Sun1 1 . 3 6Merc.z J . q o

Moon10 .48Venus20.49

Mars20.36

Nep. (R)

Rahu11.52

The aspects between Venus and Mars are frowned upon

by some authorities as indicating immorality and rudeness

oi roughness. But this is not always the case' There are

person; with these asPects having happy domestic lives

tasea on deeP attachment. There is also a love of music or

dance and exploration or investigative look' Venus in

sextile to Mars is highly desirable.

The benefic aspects between these make the feelings

cordial and affectionate. The emotions prevail on the na-

tive. This is true of males. In the case of women, one finds

great inhibition and a love of freedom.

The conjucntion of these two gives greater sensitive-

ness and syrnpathy, along with a sensuousness' The native

is fond of fun and a life of enjoyment, along with an ab-

,sence of delicacY.

The malefic aspects between these two deny happiness

either because he is not treated well by others, or because

he is too sensitive. Adjustment to the environment be-

comes difficult. The relations with wife, mother or sisters

get strained. The native is never content having emotional

problems. A temporary or even a permanent separation

irom the partner is also likely. A man with such aspects is

autocratic and rude. If a woman has these adverse aspects,

the husband may be immoral or unhealthy'

Chart No. 25 is that of Mrs. Rukmini Arundale' Mars in

the l lth is with Jupiter, denying children' He has a sextile

with the lord of Lagna placed in the 9th aspected by the

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388 TEXT BOOT( Of SCTENTInIC ITINDU ASTNOLOOY

Ketu 6.6Jup. 7.20Mars 9.15

Ascd t . 15

Sun 16.46

CHART No. 23Bom on 29.2.19(X

Moon20.26

Venus13.44

sat.22.26vlerc.26.22

Moon. KalakshetramatAdyarisa monument. In chart No. 24,

Rahu

scqt. z t .qsat (R)'17 .41

UranusrP\ lq 27

CHART No. 24Bom on

25.10.1944Moon12.30

Jup.25.40

Venus't0.22

Sun 9.14,lerc. 11.tMars 15.7Ketu 29.4

Nep.1 1.56

Mars as lord of 6 and I I has exchanged houses with Venus,lord of 5 and 12. This Mars has a trine with Saturn andUranus and a square with the Moon. He was accordinglydivorced in 1984 for obvious reasons.

The benefic aspects between Mars and Jupiter givegreat enthusiasm and happiness after a struggle. It is goodfor sport, travels, religion, research in science, accountsand religion. The native has pride and a sense of self-respect. One will miss wealth narrowly and still have all thathe wants.

The conjunction of Jupiter and Mars makes one ambi-tious and greedy. The major period or sub-period of one ofthese also will be disastrous. His financial activities are fullof ups and downs.

' : , i t

,.$,f i"t

; l

;I$,lj

ri{

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PIr'4NETARY ASPECTS 389

The malefic aspects between Mars and Jupiter showmuch intemperance. The native works as and when helikes. Any contact between these two gives children whomay not act as one wants them to do. They may develophidden or open hostility. The native suffers on account ofhis children.

In Chart No. 25, Mars has an exact opposition to Jupiter

Moon IAscdt.2.30

Ketu

Mars (R)22.14

CHART No.25Bom on 20.9.1956

uranus12.43Venus19.28

J u p . 1 2 . 1

Sat. (R)

Rahu 7.41Nep. 3.52

Sun 3.36Merc. (R)

15.16

who is in the 5th house. She was denied children til l now.The denial is present in Chart 7 where there is a conjunc-tion of these two. In Chart No. 26 we have an exact conjunc-

Merc.4.30

Sun 20

Sat. 2.41Ura. 4.46Mars 23

)uo.23.2O

Venus4.20

Ketu 20CHART No.26

Bom on 4.3.1942

Rahu

Ascdt.Moon18.33

Nep. (R)5.4

tion of Mars and Jupiter in the 8th. The Yogakaraka Saturnis also in the 8th. She committed suicide by hanging. Wefeel that the aspects between Mars and Jupiter are generallyominous.

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r-qt?

390 TEXT BOOK Of SCIENTIEIC HINDU ASTROLOOY

The so-called benefic aspects between Mars and Saturndo indicate a life of hardship. There is great courage. Thenative does not pay enough attention to his personal safe[yor happiness. The native has practical powers and leads adisciplined and restricted life.

The conjunction of Mars and Saturn is highly critical anddangerous. Creat physical suffering and skin troubles andaccidents are indicated. The malefic aspects between theseare still worse. One may suffer outwardly or mentally. He istoo selfish and may face physical violence. Burns, wounds,stabs, accidents, inflammatory fevers are likely.

Chart No.27 is that of a male afflicted by leprosy. There

Venus0 . 1 9

Uranus(R) 16.10

Sat. (R)12.1

Moon 28Rahu

CHART No. 27Born on

26t27.1.1945

Ascdt.Aa.s 22.50Merc. 23(etu 25.15

Jup. (R)4.3

Nep. (R)1 3 . 1 5

ls the opposition of Saturnthe Moon opposed to MarsChart No. 28 the opposition

to Mars. Mercury in Lagna andenabled him to get it cured. Inof Saturn and Mars gave rise to

. 1

{

i$

I.{

Uranus(R) 22.s

Moon29.55

CHART No. 28Born on 2.10.1934

Ascdt.22.42KetuMars27.14

Rahu 14.5Sat. (R)

25.4Nep.20.10

Jup. 5.4Merc. 8.3!

Venus2,42

Sun 15.1

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PLANETARY ASPECTS 3 9 1

leucoderma. In Chart No. 29 their conjunction resulted inthe native getting poisoned. The conjunction is in the 6thhouse.

3un 27.5{Merc. 18

Rahu 1 '1.35

Mars 22.46Sat. (R)

28.5 CHART No. 29Born on 12.7.1877

Venus15.41Moon16.30

Ketu

Jup. (R)3.55 Ascdt.

Mars and Uranus are curious fellows. They are bothexplosive and violent. Their benefic asPects to each othergive great energy and willpower, the ability to face hard-ships and the power to undertake difficult tasks. This maygive rise to great physical strain and tension. This mayaffect the heart or it may make the native struggle againstpoverty. Accidents are likely.

The conjunction of Mars and Uranus gives great cour-age, persevering nature and will-power; and these may beso strained as to result in a nervous breakdown. The nativemay become moody or violent, rough and rude.

The malefic aspects between Mars and Uranus makesone an eccentric. His energies are ill-directed. He fails tomake good use of his talents and abilities. Married life

can bear the rocks. The native hates restrictions and limita'tions, and turns rebellious and impatient. tl is morals aresuspect. He is prone to accidents. ll is life is always indanger.

In Chart No. 5O Mars is in the 6th having a sextile to theSun and Neptune and a trine with Uranus. Saturn and Venusare also in the 6th. tle had a loose sex life and was a victim

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392 TEXT EOOK OF SCIENTInIC IIINDU ASTROLOOY

Rahu 4Mars 2

Venus 20Saturn 21

Moon 23

CHART No. 30Born on 22.7.1913

Nep. 3Sun 5

Merc. (R)25

Uranus(R) 13

Ascdt.Jup. (R)

1 8Ketu

of venereal disease. In Chart No. 51,in the 9th opposed to Saturn and

Mars is wilh Neptunehaving a trine with

Uranus(R) 14.48 Ketu

Moon12.54

Sat. (R)23.18

CHART No. 31Born on

26.1 0.1 936 Mars25.16

Nep. 25.9

Ascdt.3.42

lahu 2.42

Venus10.40

Jup. 29.3(Sun 9.36

Merc.25.11

Uranus. Venus also is afflicted as is the 7th house. His wifecommitted suicide.

The benefic aspects between Mars and Neptune makeone honest and straightforward. He notices and denounceshypocrisy and insincerity. The emotions are strange and aredirected properly. Maritime things and affairs benefit thenative.

The conjunction of these two gives encouraging resultsin the field of the fine arts. The native has high asPirations.He seeks to go deeper into any Problem. Still he may begiven to disappointmets because of a betrayal. There canbe still-born children if the 5th house is involved.

{

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PI.ANETARY ASPECTS 393

The malefic aspects between Mars and Neptune are notat all good. One is given to high emotionalism.

His abilities are not commensurate with his aspirations.This rsults in deep disappointment and mental depression,along with irrational fears and complexes. The native islikely to be brought into contact with objectionable charac-ters. Mental worry, food poisoning, bad water, animals andbrutal persons are the sources of the native's troubles andailments.

Chart No. 52 is that of Harshad Mehta. Mars as lord of5 and 8 is in sextile to Neptune and exalted Saturn. tlis

tup. 21.32Merc.22.43Ketu

CHART No. 32Bom on 29.7.1954

Ura. 0.54Moon 3.1Sun 12 .1 t

Venus24.46

Mars (R)2.22Rahu21.34

Nep 0 .15S a t . 9 . 1 5

Ascdt.7,56

aspirations are fully explained. Chart No. 55 is that of ahighly successful irrigation engineer. Mars and Neptune areconjunct in the 9th.

Ura. (R)26.s0

Rahu

CHART No. 33Bom on 1.12.1932

Sat. 7.56

irars 14.55Nep.17.28Jup. 28.8Ketu 19.36

Ascdt.1 q q A

Moon29.26

Suna< 4n

Merc. (R)24.0

Venus12.',1O

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394 TEXT BOOK OF SCIENTInIC ITINDU ASTROLOQY

Of course, the results of these aspects can fructify fullyonly when the proper Dasas operate.

Budha-Shulrra : (F) charming manners, speech andwritings; loves comforts and luxury; sensitive; refinement;good spirits; helps in writings and speaking (c) not good forchildren (F) riches, literary fame, acquaintance with thewise. (UF) worries, disgrace, liable to be deceived.

Budha - Guru : (F) good nature, generous, mild temper;active and acute mind; industrious, inteltigent; vague reli-gious ideas easily satisfied, easy going; artistic or intellec-tual pleasures; quiet, retiring attitude; (c) quiet, uneventfullife; original and investigative; charitable; selfwilled andstubborn. Not good for exact thinking or detailed work. (UF)active mind; absent'minded; sceptical or superstitious;careless and imprudent in small things, exaggerates orscorns the facts; not good for astrology; subjected to decep-tion, duplicity. In matters related to money - banking, givingor taking loans, standing surety, publishing and travellinghe is deceived by the mistakes or dishonesty of his col-leagues or his subordinates. [,oss through the bankruptcy ofothers. Danger of fraud, libel, slander, liver disorder; poi-soning of the nervous system.

Budha-Shani : (F) deep thought, too practical, goodpowers of organisation and arrangement - politician, armyofficer. Serious outlook. (c) Either stupidity or methodicalmind; good for any work that needs trouble, caution; easilygiven to depression; suicidal tendency. A good teacher,chequered career; slow progress; self willed, obstinate. (UF)Tendency to plot unnecessarily; hardness of manner; nar-row-minded; sense of discipline; conservative politics; un-congenial responsibilities; childlessness or sickly children;mental depression; stiff manner, bluntness; faces fear inlife.

Budha-Uranus : (F) original talent, capable mind; workswell if he is fond of it; not good for common affairs; good forastrology; eloquence; mental dexterity; strong memory; (c)good for astrology; strong will-power and intellect; sensitive,secretive, proud; leads his own life; (UF) obstacles to suc-cess; brusque; tactless; strange beliefs; great abilities used

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PIIINETARY ASPECTS 395

improperly to cause trouble to himself; conceited, selfwilled; target for adverse criticism.

Budha-Neptune (F) fertile and creative imaginative; loveof the arts; dislikes rough and harsh conditions,. delicatenervous system; whimsical writings; joumalist, actor, film-artist. Schemes successfully, anticipates the foes' actions -good for military officers and financiers. Practical; proceeds ina gentle and subtle manner; seeks a position of authority bymanoeuvres; kind, idealistic; (c) gentle, idealistic and credu-lous or a criminal,. clairvoyance; subject to delusions andgreat impulses; love of music, and of aquatic pursuits; (UF)astute and cunning deep, scheming not for a bad purpose -only to forestall the activities of others. This may lead to averyactive or to a retired tife. Easily discouraged; lacks self c<in-fidence; resentful anger.

Shukra-Guru : (F) graceful expression or behaviour; rest-less and capricious feelings; interest in literature and the arts;popularity; good health; long life; (c) amorous or sternbehaviour, popularity of a matinee idol, or popular with wom-en; Indolent; (UF) vain and ideal, or reckless and revolution-ary, or conceited; excess of feelings. Love or finance will beaffected badly by foreigners, travels or law.

Shukra-Shani : (F) spiritual activity; absence of normalpleasures; material hardships; not passionate; idealistic;(c) dominated by a sense of duty; (UF) sacrifices happinessto duty, an ideal, or a material ambition - soldiers, sailors;exacting, selfish; fidelity; hardness of heart; but devotedand loyal to a few; given to forebodings; hard life; depres-sion, moodiness, and sol i tude. Mother is snobbish andworldly. Marital life is not quite happy. Marriage may bedenied or delayed. ll l health of wife.

Shukra-Uranus : (F) love of music; literature, anddrama; love of humour; may work in metals; eccentric,sentimental; popular; comfortable conditions; romantic; (c)emotional tension; longs for peace and perfection; self-willed, wayward; lacks commonsense; (UF) highly touchyand not able to adjust; rigid outlook and views; feelings rulethe will; will get distorted. Unfortunate associates bringdangers to his love and business; wife is not congenial,.

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exacting or eccentric; lratic separation or death of wife ornear relation; Nervous instability.

Shulra-Neptune : (F) Iove of music; sympathy; artisticand poetical; imryactical; great spiritual Progress; tends tobe lazy; drawn to liquor, tobacco, drugs, marine affairs;easy fortune, love of luxury; Imprudent; lacks energ)r. (c)

kind hearted. highly temperamental, sensitive; interest inart or mysticism. Affections cannot be properly expressed.Sorrow and loneliness; nervous weakness, delicate condi-tion; disdained attachments or anxiety for or from the part-ner; (UF) discontent, restless search for an ideal; high idealsand inability to realise them; unable to adjust to the envi-ronment; sensitive; tends to sit on the fence, happiness inmarriage gets into troubles; instability, disillusionment;health is affected.

Guru-Shani : (F) constructive powers; materialistic suc-cess, earnest, cheerful, optimist; interest in politics, munici-pality, administrative, art, commerce, able to take longviews and works to realise them; generous and judicious,

travels; (c) gloomy; hard life; struqgie or danger; attemptsdifficult activities, arduous; singleness of purpose; reli-gious, eccentric in the use of money; iealous; (UF) melan-choly, disappointment; dislikes settled conditions; dissatis-fied; hard work needing struggle and hardship and self-

denial, military career. Achieves partially or late; limitedabilities; position of limited scope, executive post, subordi-nate officer, private secretary, customs official.

Guru-Uranus : (F) originality, leadership; forceful, un-

conventional; destructive and also constructive, self willed,

determined, positive outlook; love of personal liberty, val-

ues individuality; warm and sentimental sympathies; sacri-

fices for a cause; (c) restless, resentful; dislikes restrictions.

Argumentative, reformative tendency; (UF) restless; ?

seeker, a critic of accepted ideas; rationalistic or dogmati-

cally traditional and superstitious; too outspoken, rough-

ness of speech; a malcontent.

Guru-Neptune (F) hospitable; emotional satisfaction;

love of art and music, metaphysics, psychic enquiry; ideal-

istic; other-worldly; loves social service; receives help from

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PI,ANETABY ASPECTS 397

others; (c) interest in psychology, religion, idealism; hu-mane, (UF) revolutionary tendencies; liable to suffer fromthe plots of rakes and foolish and misguided persons; worryabout law and religion. Accidents from gas or fumes.

Jupiter - Venus Relations

Jupiter is said to be neutral to Venus while the latter isdeclared to be the foe of the former. And yet the UttaraI{alamrita states : In their mutual periods and sub-periodsthey confer kingship or ministerial position, wealth andhappiness with wife and children, if they are well placedand well associated. The native will perform rituals, mar-riages and auspicious functions. If they are related as lordsof 6 and 8, or 2 and 12, or if they are assocaited with thelords of these hosues, or if they own these houses, and ifassociated with malefics, one gets separated from wife andchildren, and suffers all kinds of misfortune.

As per Saravall the conjunction of Venus and Jupiterenables one to earn by teaching. The native is righteousand is a standard authority for others. tle is wise and intel-ligent and has a nobel wife (15.2O). The aspect of Venus onJupiter is said to be beneficial (Chap 27); and so are theaspects of Jupiter on Venus in any sign (Chap 28). Thecon junc t ion in any ang le i s benef ic ia l (51 .75-78) .Varahamihira speaks highly of this conjunction (8.J. 14.41.Jataka ParlJata states that this conjunction makes thenative energetic and highly intelligent besides keeping himin the good books of the rulers (J.P. 8.5). How are we toreconcile these views with their natural relationship? My-thologr too makes one the preceptor of the gods and theother the teacher of the demons. Jupiter is philosophical,religious, and spiritual. Venus is after pleasures and hegoverns sex and luxuries. Do they have anything in com-mon ?

The planets Jupiter and Venus apparently govem ex-treme opposites. But between the opposites there is somecommon ground. Venus as Bhargava is the son of the sageBhrigu. This Bhrigu has given us the great TaittirlyaItpanishad. With such a noble descent the sage Bhrigutaught us a doctrine of the five koshas or sheaths, the last

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two being Vijnana and Ananda. It appears that the planetVenus is an indicator of all the five sheaths - food (Anna),life-breath (Prana), mind (Manas), thought or knowledge(Vijnana) and bliss or beatitude (Ananda). With this in mindlet us consider the results of the conjunction of Venus andJupiter, and also the effects of their aspects on each other.Our interpretation is subject to the modifications broughtabout by the ownership of the signs and the placements ofthese two in a given chart.

A benefic aspect between them brings to the surface theconflicting tendencies of these planets. The native cannotbe tranquil or balanced. Whatever may be in his mind, hewill talk and behave gracefully and politely. In some casesthe behaviour is rough and rude while the expression isrefined. The native is restless and impulsive, and the nativecannot be fully happy in the domestic or married life. Onebecomes popular and maintains tolerably good health.

lf the relation between these planets is vitiated by theirownership and placement, the native is governed by vanity,recklessness, and libidinous tendencies. Or one is con-ceited and ostentatious. Self-esteem appears in a high de-gree. The native is governed more by feelings and emo-tions, than by the intellect. He loves change and travel andcan become a subject of some criticism. Strangers, travels'or law can bring about serious problems concerning love offinances or both.

The conjunction of these two shows both good and badeffects. The native has a keen insight, an analytic or criticalmind, and pleasing manners. Some may have love affairs,or they are highly passionate. This passionate nature may attimes be transferred into certain hardness or sternness. Thenative may become popular with the other sex. Rajaneeshdoes not have the conjunction; but his retrograde Jupiter in

Leo aspects Mars, Venus, Mercury, Moon and Venus situ-ated in Sagittarius, the 7th house being Scorpio.

Some illustrations are necessary to enable the readers

to accept or to question our interpretation. The 54th chart

is that of a person whose salary was withheld for full tenyears. He has the conjunction in the l2th house; and'his

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PII{NETARY ASPECTS 399

Merc. 10bun zbMars 26

Ketu

JUp.19.43Venus4.40

Uranus 9

CHART No. 34

Ascdt.Sa t . 28 .53Nep. (R)

1 3

Rahu 12 Moon 3

wife died very early in his life. Love and finance are bothruined. ln chart No. 55 the conjunction has the added

KetuAscdt. 7.4

Moon16.40

Uranus(R) 13

CHART No. 35Born on

22.10.1921

Nep. 23

Mars 28.7

Sun 6.7Merc. (R)

22.35

Jup. 13Venus 10.26

Sat. 9.2Rahu 14. '10

presence of Saturn and the three are very close. Thepresence of the 8th and the 9th lord in the 4th made thenative amass much wealth il legally. He came to power withgrave caste prejudices. Note the affliction to the 5rd house(lower mind) from Mars and Uranus, and to the lord of thatsign who is debilitated, just like the 5th lord. A young doctorhad Jupiter (1L.23), Venus (2O.4O) and retrograde Mercury(1 .4 ) in the Sth .

Next is 56th chart. The 7th is afflicted by Saturn andMars and also by the ruler of the 5rd. He committed suicidein the sub-period of Jupiter in Mercury (Dec 8l). The twohouses and the togetherness of Jupiter and Venus clearlypoint to disappointment or frustration in love.

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Ketu Ascdt.

CHART No. 36Born on 31.8.1957

Ura.'15.57

Sun14.43Mars

Moon ISat.14.43

N e p . 7 . 1 2Rahu19.30

Merc. (R)1 .4

Jup. 1 1.23Venus 20.40

A Cemini native with Jupiter (5.25) and Venus (12.52)in the 2nd had Saturn in the l2th afflicting these, whileMars from the lOth afflicted the Moon in the 5th; and thenative was legally separated from the partner. The 57thchaft has afflicted 7th house, opposition of Mars in the Bth

Ascdt.

tun lb.zJup.9.27

y'enus 13.4Merc. 0.30

Uranus1 8

Rahu

CHART No. 37Born on 10.5.1952

Ketu 4

Moon 28Mars (R)

't4.1 1

Sat. (R)15.48

Nep. (R)26

to Jupiter and the coniunction of Jupiter and Venus.Love and finance were disturbed and she left her hus-band at the age of 53. Ylars dosha was truly aggravated byJupiter and by the exchange of houses by Mars andVenus. Another case is that of a lady with Taurus risingand the 7 th hav ing Jup i te r (11) , Venus (11) and Ketu ( l ) .

She was deserted by her husband after she had threechildren.

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PLANETARY ASPECTS 4()1

The 58th chart is that of a lady who was married in April1985 and who was divorced in October of the same year.

l(etr

[email protected] CHART No.38

Bom on16.'t0.1956

Uranus13.18

Jr-p.n.Vglr.rs8.11

Ascdt.10.18

Sat.7.17Rahu 6.1 9

Nep.6.38

MeIC,12.17SrJl

n.27

The 7th lord Venus is in the lOth with Jupiter and afflictedby Mars and Saturn. These two afflict the 7th hosue also. Ascorpio native with Mars (5), Jupiter (6) and Venus (2O) hada very unhappy