A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman

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  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    and example have gone not a little to make of the grandson what he is.

    This book is intended to be the first of a serier, planned to embrace the severaldepartments of astrology, one after another, and I sincerely bid him God-speed in thesuccessful materialisation of his plans.

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    The mathematical basis of astrology7 is so precise and exact that even its greatestenemies cannot but be convinced of its scientific nature. The noble art of predictionsassumes a fair amount of knowledge in the mathematical part of astrology. It cannot bedenied, that such an ability, imposes a great strain on the limited mental acumen of theaverage astrologer, that his pretensions to make correct predictions are really baseless.

    It would be better to draw a dis-fcio8gtion, between mathematical astrology andastronomy. 9y the former, we mean, the relation of mathematics to astrology in so far asit s concerned with the correct determination of the longitudes of planets on the basis ofreliable ephemerides or almanacs, cusps of the various houses, the different kinds of9alas or +ources of strength and weakness of each planet and house, and such otherdetails which are ascer-tainable with the aid of mathematics so that a sound basis formaking correct predictions may be obtained. In other words, mathematical astrologydeals with nothing but correct casting of horoscopes. "nd we classify the methods ofcomputing the longitudes of planets independently, determining the periods of eclipsesand


    such other details as the measurement of the dimensions of the various celestial bodiesand their internal and external peculiarities, etc., under astronomy. The ancient 3indusalways regarded astrology and astronomy as synonymous so that a bad astronomer wasalso considered a bad astrologer. In fact the :ualifications laid down by great andillustrious writers like Varahamihira and 9haskaracharya are so rigorous, that, 've fear,that none of us to-day, would be deemed to be called an astrologer at all. 9haskarastresses on the need of a clear knowledge of spherical astronomy, for one, who wishes to

     be an astrologer and a comprehension of the doctrine of sph;ncal pro8ection and alliedtheories for locating the true positions of planets, etc. 9ut for our purpose, we shall

    maintain this distinction, we have called attention to above, in regard to mathematicalastrology and astronomy< and deem that a fair ac:uaintance with the principles ofmathematical astrology are absolutely essential for successful predictions.

     " noteworthy sign of this century seems to be a general awakening in the minds of theeducated classes to institute a scientific in:uiry into ancient sub8ects like astrology ai;dastronomy. It is, however, deplorable to note that, in their over-enthusiasm to benefitthe cause

    of the science, many of the modern nglish ducated 3indus of to-day are adopting anundesirable attitude towards 3indu astronomical calculations in re8ecting them

    altogether as incorrect or inconsistent and replacing them entirely by modern ones, as being :uite accurate and precise. The arguments advanced by them, in favour of such atheory, are generally unsound and cannot stand the test of actual demonstration. "re weto re8ect the 3indu astronomical calculations formulated and adopted by such

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    celebrated exponents of the celestial science as Varahamihira, 9haskara, +ripathi andothers, because they seem to clash with modern ones, whir accept the ancientastrological principles= " Varahamihira or a >alidasa, who has be:ueathed to us suchmaster-pieces as 9rihat (ataka and 2ttara >alamritha could not have been so ignortantor indifferent as to give room for such fallacies, inconsistencies and errors which we aretrying to find out in their writings. It would be the height of folly and absurdity to

    estimate their conclusions in matters of astronomy and astrology in the light of our owndevelopments or achievements in those branches of knowledge. &odern decisions andconclusions cannot be taken as criteria for 8udging the accuracy or otherwise of theancient 3indu "stronomers. The extreme accuracy aind

    precision to which we lay claim are often times :uestionable. It is true that nosatisfactory agreement could be found between the writings of any two people even, inancient books. 9ut what of it = !o all modern calculations tally with each other=6ertainly not. Take for instance the measurement of terrestrial latitudes. ach reference

     book, an authority in its own way, differs decidedly from the other. 9angalore is locatedon /1), /) ?5 and /) @5 $. Aat< which of these is correct = Therefore it is useless to

    re8ect the ancient methods of calculations completely, because they clash with ours andreplace them entirely by those of-modern times.

    &ost of the theories of to-day are simply tentative < they have not, as yet, beenestablished. The statements of some of the astronomers are really ludicrous and excitesympathy in the hearts of sober men for such perverted views. &odern calculationsalone cannot be accepted as correct or accurate *for astrological purposes and theancient ones re8ected. &oreover the ancient 3indu astronomers dreaded secularinterference in matters of astronomy for astrological purposes.

    The ancient &aharishis were past masteis of the first magnitude in almost all branchesof knowledge. That they discoveved many 

    phenomena by mere observation alone cannot be vouchsafed. The plane of observationemployed by them was certainly :uite different from that of the modern scientists. Theart of %oga is peculiar to them. $ot being satisfied with the nature of the phenomenarevealed by glasses and other material ob8ects, they dived deep into the unfathomabledepths of %oga by means of which they were able to see things in their reality, face toface. The first sutra in the Grahanirnaya Brakarana of the 9houtika +utras isC!arpanermthya VadahaC meaning that ob8ects at a distance, viewed through glasses,always present forms, which really do not represent their true state or nature. Thisclearly suggests, that to get at truth, so far as the celestial and distant ob8ects areconcerned, we must view them by something other than glasses, as there are many

    media between them and the earth, whose refracting and dispersing powers, we do notknow much about. Thus they had the gift of %oga, the fragments of which we see evenunto this day, which helped them to a great extent in their expeditions in unveiling themysteries surrounding the phenomenon of the celestial bodies.

    There may be still other causes for the existence of differences between modern andancient astronomical observations. Dor instance

    the e:uation of the +un5s centre according to the Indian tables is ) /E(5 whereasaccording to modern observations it is only /) i5. Is the first figure wrong because itdiffers from the second = It cannot be < for C the eccentricity of the solar orbit on which

    the e:uation 8ust mentioned depends was greater in former ages than it is. ;t thepresent time because, of the conse:uence of natural disturbances of planets.C 3inducalculations re:uire consideration of 3indu figures and tables and we have to consider

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    3indu methods alone in matters of 3indu "strology. Brof. Filson observes that C The+cience of astronomy at present exhibits many proofs of accurate observation anddeduc7tfnt highly creditable to the science of the 3indu "stronomers.C Take forinstance eclipses. The 3indu method yields as correct results as the modern method.

    The sciences of 3indu "stronomy and "strology have got into disrepute by theignorance of the fake and :uack astrologers and astronomers, whose mercenary naturemake them impervious and indifferent to the grave responsibilities that lie on theirheads, and such an attitude of these people is directly traceable to the lethargicmentality of many of our indolent #a8as and &ahara8as who, while spending immensesums on useless and


    chimerical purposes, are completely deaf towards rehabilitating such useful sciences asastrology and astronomy.

    The perfection of predictive astrblogy among the ancient 3indus was really marvellous<

    and to-day, we have lost that power. ven with sound mathematical basis, ourpredictions are generally vague and indefiniteHexcept for a few, made by the realexperts in this science. Is it because, our inductive faculty is marred by the too muchprecision we aim at, or are we on the wrong tract. "re we not wasting much of ourprecious time by entering into profitless discussions and controversies as regards housedivision,, ascribing rulerships to the so called newly discovered planets, finding therationale of the significations of the different houses of the odiac, etc. The greaterportion of our time must be devoted to the practical study of astrology. This re:uires amoderate knowledge of astrological calculations. Dor instance, in determining "yurdaya,&araka Grahas *death inflicting planets and the time of death, we should ascertain therelative sources of strength and weakness of the different planets. This re:uires a fair

    knowledge of +hadbalas. "nd with our present knowledge in the predictive art, we donot re:uire to be so precise as to find out .EEEEJ?C of an "rc. Fe had better

    maintain what can be termed C minute precision C, and then adopt C second precisionC,after we have attained proficiency in the art of predictions consistent with our presentprecision in calculations.

    9earing this in mind, if the reader goes through this volume, without any bias orprepossession, he will really find much useful information presented in :uite anintelligible manner. Throughout the book, in the examples worked out, fractions lessthan half a Ghati or 1EC of "rc have been re8ected. If the reader is patient enough he can

    consider the minutest divisions and maintain the degree of accuracy he wantsIn the determination of &adhya Aagm */Eth 9hava, the 3indus do not consider the+idereal Time of 9irth. Instead, the +un5s +ayana Aongitude at birth moment and theinterval between meridian-distance are taken and the !asamabhava Aongitudedetermined by considering the +idereal Time of the ascension of the #asimanas on thee:uator according to the prescribed rules. 9eside5s, the 9ho8ya and 9huktha portions ofa sign are found out by the application of rule of three assuming that e:ual arcs ascendat e:ual times. These two are considered, by some recent writers as fallacies or errors.9ut they are not fallacies at all astrologically because,

    perhaps the ancients thought, that it would not make much difference, whether the

    ascension of "rc was calculated arithmetically or by more refined modern methods forastrological purposes. They had their own reasons which remain inexplicable to assumeso many things, which look controvertible to-day. Fe have not the slightest 8ustifiable

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    ground to label them as incorrect and eulogise our own conclusions as eminentlycorrect. Fe have lost the power of %oga, we cannot see things face to face by physicalaids. "nd hence we can neither depreciate the one nor appreciate the other. ach has itsown faults and perfections and we 8nust as far as possible adopt the 3indu method ofcalculations for applying 3indu astrological principles.


    9"$G"A4#, th 4ctober /01.

    The 9ooks %ou Aove to #eadK 9y !r. 9. V. #"&"$

    /. " Text-9ook of 3indu "strology.H6ontains a

    clear exposition of all branches of astrology in a graduated formHIn Typescript.

    C" very useful and necessary book for the beginner and the advanced.CHBrof. 9.+uryanarain #ao, 9."., &.#.".+., etc.

    BriceL #s. /@, or +;. 1E or !ot. /E.

    . Graha and 9hava 9alas.H " uni:ue treatise for

    measuring strengths of planets and houses numericallyH"n excellent aid to Bredictive "strology. In typescript.

    Brice L #s. / or +h. or M @.

    1. "yurveda or the 3indu +ystem of &edicine.H

     "n 4utline of "yurveda for the laymen and the advanced < with annotations by !r. F. 9.6row, !.sc., of Aeeds 2niversity. Brinted on excellent paper.

    C $icely written and get-up is decent C

    Brof. (. 6. Ghose, &."., D.6.+. Brice L #e. /, +h. or cents. ?.

    N. Varshaphal or "nnual #eading.H6ontains easy 

    methods for scientifically deciphering annual results H 9ased on Ta8aka. Typescript.

    Brice L #s. /E, or +h. E or M J.

     "pply to LH

    !r. 9. V. #aman,

    B. 4. 9TT"3"A+44#, 9"$G"A4#. *India.

     F4#>+ 9% 

    Brofessor 9. +uryanarain #ow, 9.".

    ditor, "strological &agaOine.

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    #s. "s.

    /. "strological +elf-Instructor.H?th di-

    tion, completely recast with exhaustive

    notes and glossorial index ... 1 E

    . nglish Translation of (ataka 6han-

    drika.Hth dition ... ... E

    1. nglish Translation of +arvarthachin-

    tamani. H+plendid work on Bredictive

     "strology in 1 parts ... ... / E

    N. nglish Translation of 9rihat (ataka

    elaborate notes.Hnd dition ... @ N

    . "n Introduction to the +tudy of "stro-

    logy.H?th dition ... ... / E

    J. #oyal 3oroscopes ... 1 E

    ?. 3orary "strology ... ... ...1E

    @. "strological &irror.Hnd dition ... / E

    0. (aiminisutras.Hnglish Translation ... E

    /E. Demale 3oroscopy or +tri8ataka ... / E

    //. Illustrative 3oroscopes ... ... N

    Illustrated 6atalogue free on application.

     "pply to LH

    The "strological &agaOine,

    B.4., 9TT"3"A+44#, 9"$G"A4#. *India.

    Important 9ooks for +ale

    #s. "s.

    /. (ashan (yotish !arpanH by (ashanmal

    >imatrai ... ... ... 1 N

    . 9rihat (ataka of VarahamihiraHnglish

    Translation and $otes by V. +ubrah-

    manya +astry ... ... ... @ P

    1. (ataka Bari8ataHII dition, nglish

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    Translation and $otes by V. +ubrah-

    manya +astry, in Vols. each Vol. ... ? *Q

    N. +ripathi Baddhati Hnglish Translation and

    $otes by V. +ubrahmanya +astry ... @C

    . %oga Bersonal 3ygieneHby +hri %ogendra /E E

    J. #hythmic xercises Hby %ogendra ... / E

    ?. +arwarthachintamaniH by Brof. 9. +urya-

    narain #ao, in 1 Vols. ... ... / E

    @. (aimini +utras Hby Brof. 9. +uryanarain #ao E

    0. Bre-natal "strologyHby D. 6. !utt ... / P E. "strological Brediction Hby B. (. 3arwoodN E

     "pply toLH

    9. $an8unda #ao,

    B. 4. 9TT"3"A+44#, 9"$G"A4# *India.Q


    &"$2"A 4D 3I$!2 "+T#4A4G% 

    * 64##6T 6"+TI$G 4D 34#4+64B+

    9y !r. 9. V. #"&"$

    63"BT# I.

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    /. The odiac. HIt is a broad band or belt in thi heavens extending 0 degrees on eitherside of the ecliptic, and known to the 3indus as 9hachakra or the 6ircle of Aight. It is acircle and as such it knows no beginning or end. In order to measure the distance, anarbitrary point is established, which is called the first point of "ries. The Oodiac revolvesonce in a day on its axis, from east to west.

    . The cliptic. HThe ecliptic is the +un5s path. This is known as apamandala or #avimarga in +anskrit. It passes exactly through the centre of the Oodiac longitudinally.

    1. The +igns of the odiac.H The ecliptic is divided into twelve e:ual compartments,the signs of the Oodiac, each being thirty degrees in

    extent. ach sign has its own peculiar :ualities attributed to it by the ancient&aharishis, after careful and profound observation and meditation. "s already observedabove, the commencement of the Oodiac is reckoned from the first point of "ries. achdegree is divided into sixty minutes and each minute is further subdivided into sixtyseconds, so that, the total

    extent of the Oodiac is /,JEE minutes or /0,JEE seconds.

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    N. The 6onstellations.H The ecliptic is marked by twenty-seven constellations or $ak-shatras, often called lunar mansions, because the &oon is brought into specialconnection m with them, as traversing twenty-seven constellations and making acomplete round of the ecliptic in a lunar month. ach constellation contains four padasor :uarters and each :uarter is e:ual to 1i) of the celestial arc *rekha. In other wordsthe whole Oodiac consists of /E@ padas so that each constellation measures /1) E5 of

    arc. The #asis and the $akshatras are both reckoned from the same point, viO., the Oerodegree of longitude of &esha *"ries, i.e., the initial point of &esha7 *+ee 6hap. II is thefirst point of "swini.

    . The Blanetary +ystem. HThe planetary system otherwise known as the solar system,

    7 +ee Varaha &ihira5s 9rihat (atakaHnglish translation by Brof. 9. +uryanarain #ao,9."., &.#.".+.

    headed by the most glorious +unH the8agat-chakshu Hconsists of seven importantplanets *including the +un himself. "ll the planets, save the central luminary, are held

     by the gravitation of the +un and they all revolve round him, the period of revolution

     varying with reference to each planet. "long with these are included #ahu and >ethuHconsidered as "prakashaka grahas or shadowy planets< and moreover their importancedoes not seem to have been stressed upon by writers on &athematical "strology, forthey partake of the characteristics of the signs which they occupy, whilst later writers on(udicial "strology, invaftably recognise their influences in the analysis of a horoscope.

    +aturn is the most distant planet from the earth< (upiter, &ars, the +un, Venus, &ercury and the &oon, come next in the order of their distance.7

    J. #otation and #evolution.H These planetary orbs, which the ancients recognised ashaving powerful influences on the terrestrial phenomena, perform the double function

    of not only rotating on their own axis *9rahmana from west to east, but also revolvinground the +fin *9hagana. The latter is comprehended in the astronomicalnomenclature as the orbital

    7 +ee +uryasiddhanta.

    revolution of the earth and the planets, which for the sake of simplicity, we havepreferred to call as revolution.

    ?. Velocities of Blanets.H ach planet has its own rate of motion or velocity dependingupon its nearness to or distance from the earth. Dor instance, the &oon is our nearestplanet and conse:uently she has a very swift motion. +he travels round the Oodiac once

    in 1E lunar days < whereas, +aturn who is the most distant from us, has got the slowestmotion and accordingly performs one revolution round the ecliptic once in thirty years.The planets do not maintain a uniform rate of movement, for various causes. Thefollowing are the approximate periods taken by each planet to make a circuit round theOodiac.

    The +un moves at the rate of roughly one degree a day or 1J( days for one completerevolution. The &oon takes ? days ? hours and odd for a similar circuit. &ars takes /@months for one revolution. &ercury fe:uires a similar period as the +un but hiscloseness to the +un makes &ercury rather unsteady with the result that he often takes? days to pass through one sign. (upiter re:uires roughly twelve years for a circuit.

     Venus has more or less the same velocity as the +un. "nd +aturn moves for thirtymonths in a sign. #ahu and >ethu take

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    /@ months each in a sign or /@ years for a complete revolution. "ll the planets havesavya or direct motion, while #ahu arid >ethu have "pasavya gathi, i.e., they move fromeast to west.

    T3 VA46ITI+ 4D BA"$T+.

    !egree &inute +econd Bara Baratpara Tatpara

    The above information is culled out from an ancient astronomical work and the reader isreferred to more advanced works on "stronomy for fuller and more detailedinformation.

    @. #etrogression and "cceleration.H

     Fhen the distance of any one planet from the +un exceeds a particular limit, it becomesretrograde, i.e., when the planet goes from perihelion *the point in a planet5s orbitnearest to the +un to aphelion *the part of a planet5s orbit most distant from the +un asit recedes from the +un, it gradually loses the power of 7 the +un5s gravitation and

    conse:uently,to gain it, it retrogrades < and when the planet comes from aphelion to perihelion, nearerand nearer to the +un the gravitation of the +un grows more and more powerful, so thatthe velocity of the planet is accelerated, i.e., the state of "thichara is entered into. "ll theplanets are sub8ect to retrogression and acceleration excepting the +un and the &oon,let alone the "prakashaka grahas. 3ence we find that there is no uniformity in the

     velocities of planets, that they are different at different parts of the orbits and that theplanetary orbits are elliptical. The vakra, athichara, etc., are caused, according to +urya+iddhanta, by the invisible forces +eegrochcha, &andochcha' and Batha.

    The importance of vakra, etc., of planets, so far as it is necessary for astrological

    purposes will be dealt with in its proper place. Those who wish to soar into the higherregions of astronomy will do well to study such celebrated works as +urya +iddhanta,Banchasiddhantika, etc., of illustrious authors of yore, in whose luminous expositions ofthis celestial science, the in:uiring mind is sure to find much more than what is soughtfor.

    63"BT# II.

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    /. &esha

    . Vrishabha

    1. &ithuna

    N. >ataka

    . +imha

    J. s >anya?. Thula

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    @. Vrischika

    0. !hanus

    /E. &akara

    //. >umbha

    /. &eena

    their xtent.H

    Its ItsS

    +ymbol. xtent.

     % E) 1E)

    1E JE

    n JE 0E

    ffi 0E /E

    +I /E /E

    7 /E /@E

    7 /@E /E

    m /E NE

     V NE ?E

    ?E 1EE

    Its nglish e:uivalent.













  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    U 1 11E R 11E 1JE

    /E. $akshatras and their xtent.H

    $o. #asi. $akshatra. Bada. +pace on the

    *+ign *6onstella- *uarter ecliptic from

    tion E) "ries

    /. "ries /. "swini N /1) E5

    . 9harani N J NE

     " &"$2"A 4D 3I$!2 "+T#4A4G% 

    64$+TAA"TI4$+ "$! T3I# RT$T 0

    $o. #asi. $akshatra. Bada. +pace on the

    *+ign *6onstella- *uarter ecliptic from tion E) "ries

    /E. 6apricornus 2ttarashada 1 /E) 5 E5

    . +ravana N 01 E

    1. !hanishta 1EE E

    //. ":uarius !hanishta 1EJ NE

    N. +atabhisha N 1E E

    . Boorva- 1 11E E


    /. Bisces. Boorva- / 111 E


    J. 2ttara- N 1NJ NE


    ?. #evathi N 1JE E

    The above table may be interpreted thus. It will be seen that there are ? constellationscomprising the / signs. Dor instance, take "ries. %ou will find that N :uarters of "swini*/1) E5, N of 9harani */1) E5 and / of *1) E5 >rithikaHon the whole 0 :uartersconstitute it. "gain, the remaining 1 of >rithika */E), the N of #ohini */1) E5 and *J)NE5 of &rigasira make up Taurus and so on. Fhat use this table will be of, the reader

     will realise after he has gone through some more pages. Dor the present suffice it to sa8rthat he must be :uite familiar with it in order

    to understand the information set forth in the subse:uent chapters.

    $ote. HIn the characteristics of the signs and 7planets which I am giving below, suchinformation as has a direct bearing upon and involved in the mathematical calculations,has been included. "ll other details necessary for predictions, which can be gatheredfrom any astrological 5work has been scrupulously omitted.

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    //. &ovable +igns. H"ries, 6ancer, Aibra and 6apricorn.

    /. Dixed +igns. HTaurus, Aeo, +corpio and ":uarius.

    /1. 6ommon +igns. H Gemini, Virgo, +agittarius and Bisces.

    /N. 4dd +igns.H"ries, Gemini, Aeo, Aibra, +agittarius and ":uarius.

    /. ven +igns. HTaurus, 6ancer, Virgo, +corpio, 6apricorn and Bisces.

    /J. +igns of Aong "scension.H 6ancer, Aeo, Virgo, Aibra, +corpio and +agittarius.

    /?. +igns of +hort "scension.H 6apri-cornus, ":uarius, Bisces, "ries, Taurus andGemini.

    /@. +irodaya +igns. H*#ising by 3ead Gemini, Aeo, Virgo, Aibra, +corpio and ":uarius.

    /0. Brustodaya +igns. H*#ising by hinder part "ries, Taurus, 6ancer, +agittarius and6apricorn.

    The +irodaya signs excepting Gemini are powerful during the day. The Brustodaya signsincluding Gemini are powerful during the night. The former are also called the$octurnal signs and the latter the !iurnal signs. Bisces forms a combination of the twoand is called 2bhayodaya #asi.

    E. uadrants.H >endrasH/, N, ? and /E.

    /. Trines. HTrikonasH/, and 0.

    . +ucceedent 3ouses. HBanaparasH, , @ and //.

    1. 6adent 3ouses. H"poklimasH1, J, 0 and / *0th being a trikona must be omitted.N. 4opachayas.H1, J, /E and //.

    . Blanetary 4wnerships.H "ries and +corpio are ruled by &ars< Taurus and Aibra by Venus< Gemini and Virgo by &ercury< 6ancer by the &oon< Aeo by the +un< +agittariusand Bisces by (upiter and 6apricorn and ":uarius by +aturn.

    . xaltations. HThe +un has his deep exaltation in the /Eth degree of "ries < &oon 1rdof Taurus< &ars @th of 6apricorn < &ercury /th of Virgo< (upiter th of 6ancer< Venus?th of Bisces and +aturn Eth of Aibra.

    J. !ebilitations. HThe ?th house or the /@Eth degree from the place of exaltation is theplace of debilitation or fall. The +un is debilitated in the /Eth degree of Aibra, the &oon1rd of +corpio and so on.

    ?. Good and vil Blanets.H (upiter, Venus, Dull &oon and well associated &ercury aregood planets and $ew &oon, badly associated &ercury, the +un, +aturn and &ars areevil planets. Drom the /Eth bright half of the Aunar month the &oon is full. 3e is weakfrom the /Eth of the dark half.

    @. +exes. H(upiter, &ars and the +un are malesL Venus and the &oon are femalesL and&ercury and +aturn are eunuchs.

    0. &oola Thrikonas. H +un5s &oola Thrikona is Aeo*E)-E)< &oonHTaurus *N)-1E)<&ercuryHVirgo */J)-E)< (upiterH+agittarius *E)-/1)< &arsH"ries *E)-/@)< VenusHAibra *E)-/E) and +aturnH":uarius *E)-E).

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    1E. Blanetary #elations. H9y friendship we mean that the rays of the one planet will beintensified by those of the other, declared as his friend, while the same rays will becounteracted by a planet who is an enemy.

    Driendship will be both permanent *$ai-sargika and temporary *Tatkalika. *+de my CBotencies of Blanets and 9havasC for Tatkalika friendship.

    BA"$T"#% #A"TI4$+ B#&"$$T D#I$!+3IB.


    The practical applicability of characteristics of planets and

    some of these signs will be

     " &"$2"A 4D 3I$!2 "+T#4A4G% 

    made perfectly clear in chapters dealing with the calculation of +hadbalas, "yurdaya,etc.

    1/. >arakas. Hach planet is supposed to be the karaka of certain events in life. &anyfunction as producing, rather promoting the incidents ascribed to them.

    1. 9havas. HThese correspond roughly to the C 3ouses C of Festern "strology. Themost powerful point in a 9hava is its &adhya 9haga or mid-point whereas the first pointis the most powerful in a C Festern 3ouse.C Thefre are twelve 9havas and each controlsrather signifies certain important events and incidents.




    */ Thanubhava

    * !hanabhava

    *1 9hratru


    *N +ukha


    * Butra 9hava

    *J +atru 9hava

    *? >alatra


    *@ "yurbhava

    !harma 9hava

    3ouse. Dirst 3ouse

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    +econd 3ouse

    Third 3ouse

    Dourth 3ouse


    3ouse +ixth 3ouse

    +eventh 3ouse


    3ouse $inth 3ouse


     build, body, appearance.

    family, source of death, property, vision.















     wife or


    death, tact.



    god, guru, father, travels, piety.

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    9hava. 3ouse. +ignification.

    W/E >arma Tenth occupation,

    9hava 3ouse karma,

    philosophical knowledge.

    *// Aabha leventh gains.

    9hava 3ouse

    */ Vraya Twelfth loss,

    9hava 3ouse moksha.

    11. The "strological &easure. H The

     various sources of strength and weakness of the planets and 9havas are estimated bycertain units or measures. They are #upas, Virupas and Brarupas. JE prarupas are e:ualto / Virupa and JE Virupas make / #upa.

     "+T#4$4&I6"A T#&I$4A4G% 

    1N. The "xis and Boles of the arth.H

    The axis of the earth is that diameter about which it revolves from west to east with auniform motion. The poles of the earth are its points where its axis meets its surface andthey are the $orth Bole and the +outh Bole.

    1. The arth5s :uator *Vishavarekha

    This is an imaginary line running round the earth half way between the two poles. Thee:uator divides the earth into a northern and a southern hemisphere.

    1J. The Aatitude *"kshamsa.HThe

    latitude of a place is its distance $orth or +outh of the e:uator, measured as an angle, onits own terrestrial meridian. It is reckoned in degrees, minutes and seconds from E) to0EXQ, northwards or southwards according as the place lies in the northern or southernhemisphere.

    1?. The Aongitude *#ekhamsa.HThe

    longitude of a place is its distance ast or Fest of the meridian of Greenwich *288ainaccording to the 3indus measured as an angle. It is expressed as so many degrees,minutes and seconds, ast or Fest of Greenwich according to where the place lies. It isalso reckoned in time at the rate of N hours for 1JE) or N minutes for every degree.

    1@. The 6elestial :uator *$adivritta.H

    This is a great circle of the celestial sphere marked out by the indefinite extension of theplane of the terrestrial e:uator.

    10. The 6elestial Aatitude *>shepa.H This is the angular distance of a heavenly body

    from the ecliptic.

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    NE. The !eclination *>ranti.HThis is the angular distance of a heavenly body from thecelestial e:uator. It is positive or negative according as the celestial ob8ect is situated inthe northern or southern hemisphere.

    63"BT# III.

    T3 "%"$"&+" 

    N/. The :uinoctial Boints.H The celestial e:uator and the ecliptic intersect each otherin two points< because, twice a year the +un crosses the e:uator. 4n these two days theduration of day and night will be e:ual all the world over. These two points are known asthe e:uinoctial points or the Vernal :uinox and the "utumnal :uinox.

    N. Brecession of the :uinoxes.HIt has

     been observed and proved mathematically, that each year at the time when the +unreaches his e:uinoctial point of "ries E) when throughout the earth, the day and night

    are e:ual in length, the position of the earth in reference to some fixed star is nearlyE(C of space farther west than the earth was at the same e:uinoctial moment of theprevious year. It is not merely the earth or the solar system, but the entire Oodiac that issub8ected to this westward motion. This slight incrementHretrograde motion of thee:uinoxesHis known as the Brecession of the :uinoxes,

    N1. &ovable and Dixed odiacs.H Fe haVe seen from the above that the Vernal :uinox

    slips backwards from its original positionH recognised as the star #evatiHby the3indus. The Oodiac which reckons the first degree of "ries from the e:uinoctial point

     which has a precession every year is the &ovable odiac Hwhilst, in the case of the

    Dixed odiac, the first degree of "ries begins from a particular star in the #evati groupof stars which is fixed. The movable Oodiac is also termed as the odiac of +igns whilethe fixed Oodiac is known as the odiac of 6onstellations, as its signs are almost identical

     with the constellations bearing the same names.

    NN. The +ayana and the $irayana +ystems. The system of astronomy which recognisesthe movable Oodiac belongs to the +ayana school while that which considers the fixedOodiac is termed as the $irayana system. The +ayana is the one employed by westernastrologers for predictive purposes while the 3indu astrologers use the fixed Oodiac.

    N. The "yanamsa7 HThe distance between the 3indu Dirst Boint and the Vernal:uinox, measured at an epoch, is known as the "yanamsa7

    NJ. Varahamihira5s 4bservations.H ven Varahamihira, one of the most celebrated ofanpient writers in India, perpetuates and carries on the teachings of his far more ancientpredecessors in marking the distinction between the

    two Oodiacs and referring all the astrological observations to the fixed Oodiac. 3e states,that in his time, the summer solistice coincided with the first degree of 6ancer, and the

     winter solistice with the first degree of 6apricorn, whereas at one time the summersolistice coincided with the middle of the "slesha.

    N?. xact date of 6oincidence not known. The exact period when both the Oodiacs

    coincided in the first point is not definitely known and accordingly the "yanamsaHtheprecessional distanceHvaries from /0) to 1) . The star which marked the first pointseems to liave somehow disappeared though some believe that it is //5 east of the star

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    Bisces. " number of dates is given as the year of the coincidence, viO., 1J/ ".!., N0@ ".!., 10N ".!., 10? ".!., 0 ".!., etc.< which to accept, and which to re8ect, has been amatter of considerable doubt. $o definite proof is available in favour of any one of thedates given above. $o amount of mere speculation would be of any use, especially insuch matters. +ome attribute these differences to the supposed errors in 3induobservations, Fhatever they may be, it is not our purpose here to enter into any sort of

    discussion which would be purely of academical interest apd absolutely outside ourlimits. "s such without worrying the reader with the technicalities

    involved in the discussion a most vital :uestion like that of the Brecession of the:uinoxes we shall directly enter into siting below, a simple method for ascertaining the

     "yanamsa, which will serve the purpose of any scientific astrologer and which wouldenable the reader to thoroughly understand and follow the principles described in thefollowing pages.

    N@. 2se of "yanamsa. HThe Indian adepts in the celestial science, realising, that thedegrees of the fixed Oodiac have a permanent relation with the starHpoints, and that themovable Oodiac does not give us a definite position both for observation and experimentand to arrive at logical conclusions, have been advocating the $irayana positions ofplanets for all predictive purposes, which should be arrived at after the necessarycalculations are made according to +ayana and then the "yanamsa subtracted from suchpositions. Dor astrological purposes, it would be :uite sufficient, if we know how7 todetermine the "yanamsa for any particular year. +ince the ob8ect of this book is not toenter into any discussion about the superiority of this or that system, or the 8ustificationof adopting any particular value as the "yanamsa, but to clearly describe and expoundprinciples necessary for correct computation of a horoscope mathematically, accordingto the prescribed rules and

    determine the various sources of strength and weakness of planets and discover other

    details that E are within the reach of mathematical astrology and thus clear the way formaking correct predictions, we do not, propose to lay any further stress on this :uestionof "yanamsa.

    The Aongitudes of the 3ouses *9hava +phutas, #asimanas *4bli:ue "scensions andother important calculations are all computed for +ayana #asis. Drom these the

     "yanamsa is subtracted and thus the $irayana 9havas, etc., are obtained. In other words, every one of the 3indu astrological calculations which is at first based upon the+ayana #asis, isYeven-tually sub8ected to $irayana reduction. "ll these indicate theabsolute necessity for "yanamsa.

    N0. !etermination of *"pproximate "yanamsa. H*/ +ubtract 10? from the year of birth*".!.

    * &ultiply the remainder by E(C and reduce the product into degrees, minutes andseconds.

    xample Z.H!etermine the "yanamsa for /0/ ".!. /0/H10?[ // x E;[?J,C?J,C[/) /E5 C.

    xample . HDind the "yanamsa for /0/@ ".!.

    /0/@H10?[ /,/ REiC[?J,?C[/) /5 ?C.

    The slipping back of the movable Oodiac in a year is so small that for odd days, we canconveniently neglect it. 9ut the "yanamsa for the moment can be determined byconsidering the precession for the odd days also.

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    63"BT# IV.


    E. Geographic and Geocentric Aatitudes.

    The latitudes of places marked in any ordinary atlas are the geographical latitudes.

    9ecause they are calculated on the supposition that the earth is a perfect sphere, whileon the other hand, the flattened ends at the two poles, make it a spheriod, so that, thelatitude measured from the true centre of the spheriod, is the geocentric latitude. Dorastrological purposes, it would be hardly worthwhile making any distinction whatever

     between the geocentric and geographic latitude of a place. Dor instance, the geographiclatitude of 9angalore is /) ?5 and its geocentric /) 5. Fe can adopt the former alonefor astrological calculations.

    /. #asimanas. H#asimanas mean the rising periods of the twelve signs of the Oodiac. Itis impossible to find out the actual Aagna *"scendant in a horoscope or the different9havas *3ouses or the sunrise and sunset in any place without a knowledge of the

    #asimanas, which vary from "kshamsa *latitude 7o "kshamsa. It must be noted thatthe #asimana is always given +ayana *with precession, that is

    to say, the time of obli:ue ascension is computed for the signs of the movable Oodiac.Drom this is subtracted the "yanamsa and the appropriate time of obli:ue ascensionand thus is gPt the $irayana #asimana. If the division of the Oodiac into / signs betaken to commence from the e:uinoctial point, their rising periods for any particularplace will not vary from year to year.

    . 6harakhandas. HThe duration of the signs of the Oodiac varies in the differentdegrees of latitude which can be ascertained by the 6harakhandas *ascensionaldifferences of the particular latitude. +ay, for instance, two men are born at the sametime, one in 9angalore and 7the other in 9erlin. Their latitudes are different. The risingperiods of the signs in 9angalore must be :uite different from those in 9erlin, Thesunrise and sunset in both the places cannot be the same. Therefore the rising periods inthe different latitudes must be definitely known before casting a horoscope.

    These 6harakhandas, *ascensional differences referred to above, in Indian siderealtime, the unit of which is an "su *which is the e:uivalent of four seconds in nglishsidereal time are, in accordance with certain definite rules, added to or subtractedfrom, the time of the #ight "scension *!hruva of the various +ayana #asis, in order toget their

    4bli:ue "scension *6hara. +ince the 6hara *period of obli:ue ascension and the!hruva *period of right ascension are identically the sam\ for the Vishavarekha*e:uinoctial latitude the ascensional difference is Oero *shunya for all the placessituated on the e:uator. The ascensional difference is the same, in respect of the samesign, for places situated in the same latitude. To be more clear, the rising periods on the-e:uator where the 6harakhanda is OeroHbeing known, it is possible to calculate the#asimanas for any latitude, provided, its 6harakhandas are also known.

    1. #ising Beriods on the :uator.HThe

    rising periods of the Oodiacal signs reckoned from +ayana &esha are thus distributed on

    the e:uator *E) latitude. - "+2+.

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     "ries Virgo /J?N Aibra Bisces

    Taurus Aeo /? +corpio ":uarius

    -Gemini 6ancer /01/ +agittarius 6apricorn

    *J "+2+ [ / Vighatika [ N +econds.

    JE Vighatikas [ / Ghatika [ N &inutes.

    The above means that it takes for "ries, Virgo, Aibra and Bisces, /J?N "+2+ or N Gh. 10 Vig. to rise at the eastern horiOon on the e:uator and so on.

    N. !etermination of #asimanas.H Drom or to the rising periods on the e:uator, the

    6harakhandas of the re:uired place from "ries to Gemini and from 6apricorn to Biscesare subtractive7 and from 6ancer to Virgo and from Aibra to +agittarius are additive.;That is, in the case of from "ries to Gemini and from 6apricorn to Bisces, subtract the6harakhandas and from 6ancer to Virgo and from Aibra to +agittarius add the

    6harakhandas of the re:uired place and the rising periods of signs there, are obtained.These must be applied to any one of four triads as given above, into which the Oodiacalsigns are dividedHcommencing always from the +ayana &esha, i.e., the first 1E) fromthe e:uinoctial point.

    The following examples will clear the meaning.

    xample 1. HDind the #asimanas at /1) $. Aat. whose 6harakhandas are /J, /1E and1 "+2+ respectively.

    ;v Times Times of 

    #ising khanda5s of obli 0 ue obli:ue c< 6Trio periods . , E ascension ascension

    [Ygns. at E o Aat onu atl1E $ at /1 o $

    E./ 2 (]dl. -8; ctA (.( /Q . ell. i( (A

    *in "+2+. \75 Aat. Aat.

    *in "+2+ *in Ghatis

    7 In $orth Aatitudes.

     " &"$2"A 4D 3I$!2 "+T#4A4G% +igns.

    @. +corpio

    0. +agittarius ..

    /E. 6apricorn...

    //. ":uarius ...

    /. Bisces


    /,JEE JE E

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    xample N.H Dind the #asimanas at /) 15 7 $. Aat. whose 6harakhandas are 0/, ?1?and 1E? respectively.


    /. "ries

    . Taurus ...

    1. Gemini ...

    N. 6ancer

    . Aeo

    J. Virgo

    ?. Aibra

    @. +corpio ...

    0. +agittarius

    /E. 6apricorn

    //. ":uarius ...

    /. Bisces


    /, JEE JE E

    / The 6harakhandas for ) are considered.

    !2#"TI4$ 4D +IG$+ I$ +42T3 A"TIT2!+ 0

    *+ee Table I for 6harakhandas for latitudes /) JE).

    . !uration of +igns in +outh Aatitudes.

    The additive and subtractive 6harakhandas of $orth Aatitudes, become subtractive andadditive respectively, in case of +outh Aatitudes. Dor e.g. add /J to /,J?N instead ofsubtracting, and the duration of "ries on /1) +. latitude is obtained. It is to be noted that

    signs of short ascension in $. Aatitudes are signs of long ascension in +. latitudes.

    63"BT# V.

    +2$#I+ "$! +2$+T

    J. "pparent Time of #ising and +etting of the +un. HThe exact moment when the +unfirst appears at the eastern horiOon of a place is the time of sunrise there. +ince the +unhas a definite diameter, the interval between the moment of the appearance of the.firstray at the horiOon, and the moment at which the +un is 8ust clear off the horiOon, is some or J minutes. If this is so, which represents the exact moment of sunrise = It has beenacknowledged that it is the moment at which the centre of the solar disc rises at the

    eastern horiOon, that marks the sunrise at the particular place. It must also be noted thaton account of the refraction of the solar rays, due to the various strata enveloping theearth, the +un is not really at the horiOon where he appears to be so but is really below

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    the horiOon by about a few minutes of arc *#ekha. 9ut we can take the apparent time asalmost correct and need not worry ourselves

     with the so called delicate correct time of rising.


    ?. "pparent $oon. HThis is marked when the centre of the +un is exactly on the

    meridian of the place. The apparent noon is almost the same for all places.

    @. "bas and #atri. H"has is the duration of the day, i.e., the duration of time, fromsunrise to sunset, and #atri, is the duration of time, from sunset to sunrise. 4n thee:uator, the "has and #atri are always 1E ghatis or / hours each, while in otherlatitudes, the sum of "has and #atri will be N hours, whereas the interval betweensunrise and sunset and vice versa, varies, this variation depending upon the declinationof the +un and the latitude of the place7

    The duration of #atri in a place expressed in arc corresponds to the +un5s nocturnal arc

    and that of the day to his diurnal arc. If we knew either of these arcs, we could find outsunrise and sunset.

    In dealing with the :uestion of the Brecession of the :uinoxes, we have called attentionto the fact that on the days when the +un occupies the e:uinoctial points, i.e., twice a

     year, he is visible for / hours at all places and invisible for a similar period. 4n thesetwo days the declination *kranti of the +un is Oero.

    !uring his northerly course, when he will ha.ve a north declination, the duration of daysis longer than that of nights, i.e7, he is visible for longer periods in north latitudes, whilethe

    reverse holds good for south latitudes. !uring his southerly course, when he will have asouth declination, the duration of days is longer than that f of nights in south latitudes,and the reverse holds good for north latitudes.

    0. 3indu &ethod of !etermination of +unrise and of +unset HDirst of all note thelatitude of the place for which sunrise and sunset are to be determined and then itschara-khandas. Dind out the position of $irayana +un7 at approximate sunrise on thatday. This can be done from any local reliable almanac. *+ee 6hapter VII for determininglongitudes of planets.

    To this add "yanamsa and the +ayana #avi at sunrise is obtainedL or the position of the

    +ayana +un can be obtained by means of any modern ephemeris in which the positionsof planets are to be found for Greenwich &ean $oon. 9y converting the approximatetime *local of sunrise to Greenwich mean time, the position of +ayana +uryaHforsunrise can be found out. *+ee 6hapter VI for 6onversion of Time. Then find out the9hu8a *distance from the nearest e:uinoctial point as follows LH

    If the +ayana longitude of the +un be less than 0E) *i.e., the first three signs at

    5 The solar date marked in the 3indu almanacs may be roughly taken as representing+un5s $irayana longitude at sunrise on the particular day.

    itself represents the +un5s 9hu8a< if it is more than 0E) and less than /@E), subtract itfrom /@E) and the result is 9hu8a< if it is more than /@E) and less than ?E) *i.e., morethan J signs and less than 0 signs subtract /@E) from the +un5s sayana longitude, theresult represents 9hu8a < and if the sayana longitude of the +un is more than ?E) and

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    less than 1JE) *more than 0 signs and less than / signs subtract it from 1JE) and theresult is 9hu8a of the +un. If the +un5s sayana longitude isH9hu8a is

    */ between E) 0E) +un5s sayana long itself.

    * ^ 0E /@E /@E)-+un5s sayana long. *17 ^ /@E ?E +un5s sayana longH/@E) *N ^ ?E1JE 1JE)-+un5s sayana long.

    The 6harakhandas given in three numbers are called the "di *first, &adhya *middleand "nthya *last 6harakhandas. The "dichara-khanda itself will be the first khanda <this plus the madhya, the second khanda < and the sum of the three *6harakhandas, thethird khanda. $ow divide the 9hu8a *if it is more than 1E) by 1E. The :uotientrepresents the khanda. >eep the remainder as it is and then apply the rule LH

     "s 1E degrees L the remainder L L the 6harakhanda *&adhya, if 9hu8a is more than 1E)and less than JE) and "nthya if it is more than JE) and less than 0E) 7 the re:uired:uantity. 1

    This re:uired :uantity must be added to the e:uivalent of the khanda represented bythe :uotient obtained by dividing the 9hu8a by 1E. The result is chara.

    If the 9hu8a is less than 1E) then apply the rule LH

     "s 1E degrees L the degree *represented by 9hu8a L U

    the "dicharakhanda the re:uired :uantity. Then the re:uired :uantity itself will bechara.

    If the +ayana +un is in 2ttara *north Gola *hemisphere, i.e., from "ries to Virgo, addchara to / ghatis *J hours. If he is in the +outhern Gola *from Aibra to Bisces subtract

    this from / ghatis. The result is !inardha *half diurnal duration. Twice this is thelength of day. This deducted from JE ghatis *N hours gives the length of night. 6onvert!inardha into hours, etc., and add and subtract this figure to and from / noon. Theapparent time of sunset and of sunrise respectively of the place are bbtained.

    xample .HDind the length of day and of night and the apparent time of sunrise and ofsunset at a place on /1) $. Aat. and h. /E m. E s. . Aong, on /Jth 4ctober */0/@


    *Dirst *&iddle *Aast

     "di. &adhya "nthya

    6harakhandas... /J /1E and 1 *In "+2+


    ? /.? and @.@ *In vighatis

    *? * *0

    I. II. III.

    Z. >handas [ ? N0 and @

    $irayana +un at


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    sunrise *J".&. [ ... /?@) Ntf EC

     "yanamsa [ ... / / ?

    Z. +ayana+un [ ... EE) 15 ?C

    [ EE) N5 [ Aibra E) N5.

    +ince the +ayana longitude of the +un is between /@E)H?E), apply #ule 1 to find outthe 9hu8a.

    #ule 1.H +un5s +ayana long.H/@E)[9hu8a.

    EE) N5 H /@E) [ E) N5 +ince in the above 9hu8a, viO., E) N5 is less than

    1E), apply the following rule to get 6haraH "s 1E degrees the degrees represented by9hu8a C-"dicharakhanda the re:uired :uantity [ x.

    1E 7 E) N5 LL ?[the re:uired :uantity[ x.

    E) N5 Z. x [ \ -

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    ?J) 5 1E

     "s 1E L /J)

    7C7 7 77 1E



    and remainder /J) 5. x.

    the re:uired :uantity 

     vighatis[ /J vighatis. /? *>handa II[7/?1 Vig. 7 6hara.

    /J Vig.

    Gh. /UVig. /?1Gh. /-? 7 !inardha.

    Z. Gh. N-/N[length of day.

    ._ Gh. 1-NJ[7length of night. / noonH N h. E m. N@ s.? h. 0 m. / s. *".&. sunrise

    *"pparent time [Y ? h. 0 m. ".&. / noon ` N h. E m. N@ s. [7 N h. E m. N@ s. *B.&.

    sunset *"pparent time

    I have given above the 3indu method of finding out the apparent time of sunrise and ofsunset. +ome say, that this method is riddled with certain errors. I have spokensufficiently about the supposed errors that have crept into 3indu calculations in theIntroduction to this book. I shall also give below, the modern method of the calculation

    of sunrise and of sunset and the reader can adopt whichever he prefers. I shall apply thismethod to the examples worked out for the 3indu method so that the results in both thecases may be compared. Those who want to adopt the 3indu method may do soL andthose who are in a position to work out problems in trigonometry may employ themodern method.

    JE. &odern &ethod of !etermination of "pparent Time of +unrise and of +uttset.-7Dirst convert the local approximate time of sunset *or sunrise into Greenwich &eanTime *see next 6hapter for which ascertain +un5s declination from the phemeris. $otedown the latitude of the place and apply the following formula.

    Aog. Tan. !ec. of +un N- Aog. Tan. Aat. of place [ Aog. +in. "scensional !ifference.

    +ubtract ascensional difference from 0E) if !ec, is +outh and add "sc. difference to 0E)if !ec. is $orth.

    *The reverse holds good for places in south latitudes.

    7 There is a slight difference between the results obtained according to 3indu andmodern methods which may be safely overlooked for astrological purpo777.

    6onvert the resulting degrees into hours, minutes, etc., at /)[ / hour. The result is localapparent time of setting. This subtracted from / hours 7. gives local apparent time of


  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    xample ?.HDind the apparent time of sunrise and of sunset at a place on /1) $. Aat.and h. /E m. E s.

    . Aong, on /Jth 4ctober /0/@.

     "pproximate time of sunset[J B.&.

    This converted to G.&.T. 3. &. +.

    *Greenwich &ean Time [ / N0 NE *B.&.

    The difference between Greenwich &ean $oon and G. &. T. is only N0 m. NE seconds.Therefore, we may take the declination of the +un at G. &. $. on /Jth 4ctober. Thedeclination may be determined for / h. N0 m. NE s. or /-,E B.&. by considering +un5smotion *in dec. in N hours and thus his proportional motion for E m.

    !ecn. on 4ctober /Jth at *G.&.$. [ @) N/5 +.

    Z. Aog. Tan. @) N/5 ` Aog. Tan. /1)[ Aog. +in. "sc.

    !iff.7 [ 0./@10 ` 0.1J1N [ @.N?1 [ +in. ) *roughly

    .7. Aog. +in. "sc. !ifference [ Aog. +in. ) .7. "sc. difference[)

    7.5 !eclination is +outh L subtract this from 0E) Z.0E)H)[@@)

    @@) 45[h. m. *p.&.[Aocal apparent time of setting.

    Z. / h. H h. m.[Jh. @m. [ J h. @m. *".&. [ Aocal apparent time of rising.

    7+even figure logarthmic tables may be consulted for greater accuracy.

    xample @. HDind the apparent time of sunrise and of sunset on ?th (anuary /01 at aplace whose latitude is 1J) $. and Aong. 0E) .

     "pproximate time of sunset[J B.&.

    This converted into G.&.T.[ / noon.

    +ince G.&.T. corresponding to J B.&. has become the same as Greenwich &ean $oon, we may take the declination of the +un at G.&.T. on ?th (anuary.

    5. +un5s !eclination at / noon *G.&.T. or at the sunset at the re:uired place[) 1E5 +.

    -5. Aog. Tan. ) 1E5 ` Aog. Tan. 1J)[ Aog. +in. "sc. !iff.

    [ 0.J/?N-0.@J/1[ /0.N?@ [ 0.N?@ [ Aog. +in. /?) 1/ f .5 Aog, +in. "sc.!ifference[Aog. +in. /?) 1/5

    .5. "sc. !ifference[l?) 1/5 V !ec. is +. subtract this from 0E)

    Z. 0E)H/?) 1/5[?) 05 ?)05[Nh. N0m. Js. [ Aocal apparent time of 

    setting [ Nh. N0m. Js. *B.&. .&h.-Nh. N0m. Js.[?h. /Em. Ns.[Aocal

    apparent time of rising. *".&.

    J/. :uation of Time. HThis is the difference between &ean Time and "pparent Time- Fe obtain by the above methods the apparent time of sunrise. Dor this must be appliedthe e:uation of time in order to get the mean time, i.e.

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    :uation of Time[&ean Time H "pparent Time at

    any moment. *vice versa if ".T. is Q &.T.

    The e:uation of time at a moment is positive or negative according as the apparent timeis less or greater than &ean Time.

    J. &ethod of the !etermination of :uation of Time to get, &ean Time from "pparentTime. HDrom any ephemeris find the +idereal Time and the longitude *sayana of the+un for the G. &. $. or the G. &. T. corresponding to the approximate time of sunrise orsunset at the re:uired place, on the re:uired date. Dind the +idereal Time at which thisparticular degree *of +un5s sayana longitude referred to above is on the cusp of thetenth-house of Greenwich or any place. This will, give the #ight ascension expressed intime of the +un < or we shall call this, for the sake of convenience, the +un Time. Takethe difference between the +idereal Time and the +un Time, and this represents the:uation of Time.7

    If the +un Time is less than the +idereal Time, the :uation of Time must be subtracted

    from the "pparent Time *of sunrise or of sunset in order to obtain the Aocal &ean Timeof rising or of setting. If the +idereal Time is less than +un Time, add the :uation ofTime for obtaining the Aocal &ean Time.

    xample 0. HDind the :uation of Time on /Jth 7 It will do if the :uation of Time isfound out for G.&.$.

    4ctober /0/, as applied to apparent time at sunrise,, at 9angalore.

     "pproximate time of sunrise [ J ".&. [ /h. N0m. NEs. *".&. G.&.T.

    +ayana Aongitude of +un at G.&.$.

    4n 4ctober /, was [ /) N5 NJC Aibra

    4n 4ctober /Jth. [ ) N5 /0C

    +un5s +ayana Aong, at N0 m.

    NEs. ".&. *G.&.T. on /Jth

    4ctober [ ) /?5 JC

     Fhen ) Aibra is on the 6usp

    of the tenth-house +idereal 3, &. +.

    Time [ /1 / E

     Fhen 1) Aibra is on the cusp

    of the tenth-house +idereal 3. &. +.

    Time [ /1 J

    Z.Fhen ) /?5 JC Aibra is on

    the cusp of the tenth-housethe +idereal Time [ /1 @

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    3. &. +.

    Z.+un Time [ /1 @

    +idereal Time at *G.&.T. /1 1J /E

    Z. :uation of Time at [ HE /1 m. N s.

    sunrise in the above given place, on 4ctober /J, i.e.7

    at /-E ".&. *G.&.T. 4ctober Ifi.wasK H/Nm

     "pproximate time of sunrise[J ".&.[ / midnight *G.&.T.

    +ayana Aongitude of +un at G.&.$.

    on ?th (anuary [ /) E5 1JC 6apricorn

    7 +ayana Aongitude of +un

    at G.&.T. [ /) 05 /C

     Fhen /) 6apricorn is on the cusp 3. &. +.

    of the tenth-house, +idereal Time [/0 @ Fhen /J) 6apricorn is on the cusp

    of the tenth-house, +idereal Time [/0 0 J

    Z. Fhen /) 05 /5H+idereal time [/0 ? /1

    .5. +un Time [/0 ? /1

    +idereal Time *G.&.T [/0 E N@ 7 :uation of Time at sunrise in

    the above given place on ?th

    (anuary, i.e., at / ".&. *G.&.T.

    ?th (anuary was N- E

    3- J m.

    This must be added to the "pparent Time of sunrise in order to get the &ean Time ofsunrise. Fe add this because +un Time is greater than +idereal Time.

    J1. &ean Time of +unrise and of +unset.

     "dd or subtract the :uation of Time to or from the apparent time *of sunrise or ofsunset, the respective &ean Time is obtained. The :uation of Time is positive, *i.e.,must be added to the apparent time if the +un Time *+ee "rticle is greater than+idereal Time and it is negative, *i.e., must be subtracted from the apparent time if the+un Time is less than +idereal Time.

    xample //. HDind the &ean Time of sunrise on 4ctober /Jth, /0/@ ".!. at a place on/1) $. Aat. and h. /E m. and E s. . Aong.

    3. &. ;The apparent time of sunrise was J @ ".&.*x. ? The :uation of Time *as applied

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    to apparent time at sunrise wasHE /N *Table III .5. the &ean Time of sunrise on

    4ctober /Jth was N ".&.

    xample /. HDind the &ean Time of sunrise on ?th (anuary /01 at a place on 1J) $.Aat. and J hours . Aong.

    3. &.

    The apparent time of sunrise was ? /E ".&. *x. @ The :uation of Time *as applied

    to apparent time of sunrise

     was `EJ *Table III

    .5. the &ean Time of sunrise

    there on ?th (anuary was ? /J ".&.

    JN. asy &ethod for Dinding the &ean Time of +unrise and of +unset,H I haveelaborately discussed in the above pages, the method of calculating the "pparent Timeof sunrise and of sunset for any place on any day, with suitable examples according to

     both the 3indu and &odern systems and the determination of :uation of Time *asapplied to the apparent time of sunrise or of sunset in order to obtain the &ean Time*of local sunrise or of sunset I leave it to the discretion of the reader to choose themethod he best prefers.

    Those who are not familiar with the method of consulting the trigonometrical andAogarthmic Tables, a knowledge of which is essential for applying modern methods arere:uested to adopt the following rulesLH

    /. 6alculate the "pparent Time of sunrise

    and of sunset according to the 3indu method *as given in "rticle 0.

    . Then instead of working out the

    problem for ascertaining the :uation of Time, the reader may conveniently find out the:uation of Time by referring to Table III, given at the end of the book.

    1. Then apply this :uation of Time to

    get the &ean Time of sunrise and of sunset by adopting the rules contained in "rticle


    63"BT# VI.

    &"+2# "$! 64$V#+I4$ 4D TI&

    J. 3indu 6hronology. HThe division of time is peculiar to the 3indus. It begins with aTatpara and ends in a >alpa *e:ual to N,1E,EEE,EEE +idereal years. The 3indu day*an apparent solar day begins from sunrise and ends with the next sunrise. The divisionof time is thusH

    JE Tatparas [7 / Bara

    JE Baras [ / Vilipta

    JE Viliptas [[ / Aiptha

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    JE Aipthas [ / Vighati

    JE Vighatis [ / Ghati

    JE Ghatis [ / !ay.

    I shall also introduce to the reader the three kinds of days now in vogue, though it is not

     worthwhile wasting any time over remembering them.

    *a +idereal !ay.HThis is e:ual to 1 h. and J m, of &ean +olar Time. This is known as$akshatra !ina among the 3indus and this is the time the fixed stars take to comeround the Bole once.

    *b "pparent +olar !ay.HThis is known as the +avana !ina. This is longer than the+idereal day by about four minutes.

    *c &ean +olar !ay.HThis is reckoned by 

    considering the average length of all

    the days in a year.

    Two kinds of months are generally in vogue among the 3indus, viO., 6handramana and+ouramana. The 6handramana is based upon the movements of the &oon in thecelestial circle. The +olar month is the time, the +un takes to move in one sign. Themonth varies in duration according to the number of days the +un takes to move in asign. Fhen the +un enters into the new sign during the course of the lunation, themonth is intercalary *"dhika &asa and is baptised by the name of that which precedesor succeeds it with some prefix to distinguish it from the regular month.

    The 3indus have a +olar rather +idereal year, which is their astronomical year, and aAunar year which is their civil year.

    The lengths of the various years are as follows according to modern calculations LH

    !. 3. &. +.

    The Tropical year ... 1J N@ NJ

    The +idereal year ... 1J J00

    The "nomalistic year ... 1J J /1 N@

    JJ. Aocal &ean Time. HThe local mean time of birth is very essential for the calculationof the horoscope. Fhen the +un is crossing the meridian of any place, it is tfvelve o5clock or midday at that place according to C Aocal TimeC. It is noon of local time on any day

     when the +un reaches its highest point in the day. It is to be specially noted that the timeshown by clocks and watches at any particular day is hardly the correct local mean time.+uch times are sub8ect to rectification by observing the course of events in one5s life.Great care should be taken to see that watches and clocks, from which birth-times arerecorded are accurate. Therefore, the first thing is to ascertain the correct local meantime of birth. The local mean time of a place depends upon its longitude, evidentlyterrestrial. In all 3indu astrological calculations the meridian of 288ain was being taken

     when reckoning time or longitude, but now Greenwich is taken as the centre for such

    purposes. The local time of a place *A.&.T. say N degrees east of Greenwich, will be /Jminutes later than Greenwich &ean Time *G.&.T. In other words, if it is / noon at

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    Greenwich, it will be / h. Nm. *B.&. in a place /) . to it, IliJ ".&. in a place /) F. toit and so on.

    To reduce longitude into time, simply divide the number of degrees, minutes, etc., by 

    / and the :uotient will be the time. Dor instance, the longitude of 9angalore is ??) 15ast of Greenwich. !ividing this by / we get h. v /E m. E s. The place being ast of

    Greenwich, it will be h. /Em. Es. *B.&. at 9angalore H *otherwise termed as A.&.T. when it is / noon at Greenwich or @h. /Em. Es. *B.&. when it is 1 B.&. at Greenwichand so on.

    The local mean time can be obtained by adding to or subtracting from the Greenwich&ean Time, four minutes to every degree of longitude, according as the place is ast or

     Fest of Greenwich.

    The A.&.T. always sychronises with the G.&.T.

    ` if the place is ast of Greenwich. H if the place is Fest of Greenwich.

    xample /1.H Fhat is the A.&.T. of a place at Aong. ?@) Fest when it is / noon atGreenwich =

    A.&.T.[ /noon- ffo; / noonUh.Km.

    [Jh. N@m. *".&.

    * H because place is Fest of Greenwich.

    J?. +tandard Time.H It is usual to choose for each country, or for each part of a largecountry, a standard time for use over the whole country. This standard time, as a rule, isthe local time of some most important town in the

    country. If the birth is recorded in A.&.T. well and good< otherwise, the +tandard Timeof the country must be converted into the Aocal &ean Time. The time when +tandard;fimes were introduced into different countries must be ascertained *+ee Table IV. InIndia +tandard Time was introduced on /-?-/0E and it is about h. and 1E m. past *inadvance of Greenwich &ean Time. 9efore this, probably the +un !ial Time was inexistence, in which case, this can be converted into A.&.T. by applying the :uation ofTime *as applied to sun dial time. Dor births that have occurred after /-?-/0E, if thetime is recorded in +tandard Time, it must be c:pverted into A.&.T. Generally ourclocks show +tandard Time. Dor instance, 9angalore is h. /E m. E s. ast ofGreenwich < when it is noon at Greenwich the A.&.T. at 9angalore is h. /E m. Es.

    *B.&. whilst the clock at this time shows h. 1E m. B.&. *+tandard Time.

    A.&.T. [ +tandard Time N- !ifference between local

    and standard longitudes *expressed in time

    ` if local longitude is Q +td. Aong.

    H if local longitude is X ^

    J@. The +tandard 3oroscope.H In order

    to,illustrate the various principles described inthis book, we shall consider the nativity of a

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    female born on /Jth 4ctober /0/@ ",!, < at h.


    E " &"$2"A 4D 3I$!2 "+T#4A4G% 

    Em. B.&. *Indian +tandard Time at a place on /1) $. Aat. and ??) 15 . Aong. This

    horoscope will henceforth be termed as the +tan;-ird 3oroscope.

    xample /N. HDind the Aocal &ean Time, of birth in the +tandard 3oroscope, the+tandard Aong, being @) 1E5 . of Greenwich. * h. 1E m. Dast of G.&.T.

    +tandard Aongitude [ @) 1E5 Aocal Aongitude [ ??) 15

    !ifference between +t. Aong.

    and Aocal Aong. [ N) 5 NE 5[ I0 m . NEs. in time.

     V Aocal Aongitude is X +tandard Aongitude, this time must be subtracted from the

    +tandard Tin;e.

    Z. A.&.T.[h.Em.-/0m.NEs. [ h.4m. Es. *p.&.Q [ B.&.

    .7. A.&.T. of 9irth[ B.&.

    J0. +uryodayadi (ananakala Ghatikaha.H

    It is customary among the 3indus to mention the time of birth as C +uryodayadi(ananakala Ghatikaha C f i.e., the number of ghatis passed from sunrise up to themoment of birth. Dirst ascertain the local mean time of birth and of sunrise and thenapply the following rule. *N seconds[l vighati< N minutes [ / ghati< / hour[ 8 ghatis.

    *9irth Time H +unrise R N[+uryodayadi (ananakala Ghatikaha.

    +2#%4!"%"!I ("$"$">"A" G3"TI>"3" /

    xample /. HDind the +uryodayadi (ananakala Ghatikaha in the +tandard 3oroscope =+unrise *A.&.T. [ -N ".&. on /Jth 4ctober. 9irth Time *A.&.T. [ B.&. .5. * B.&. H h. N m. x N [ Gh.E-/. .7. +uryodayadi (ananakala Ghatikaha. *$umber of ghatispassed from sunrise up to birth ... [ Gh. E-/

    xample /J.H &iss $. 9orn on 1--/01 at -N ".&. *A.&.T. Aat. /1) $. and ?) E5 .Aong. Dind

    +uryodayadi (ananakala Ghatikaha. +unrise *A.&.T. [ h. N m. *".&. 9irth Time*A.&.T. [ h. N m. *".&.

    Z. h. N m. *".&.H h. N m. *".&. x i[Gh. E-?

    [ Gh. E-@.

    +urvodayadi (ananakala Ghatikaha[Vighatis @ only.

    63"BT# VII

    G#"3" +B32T"+ *BA"$T"#% A4$GIT2!+

    ?E. 3indu "lmanac. HIt re:uires a considerable amount of familiarity with theadvanced portions of astronomical principles, in order to find out the longitudes of

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    planets independently, i.e., without reference to any almanac. "s such I have reserveddiscretion to expound those principles in a separate book, and for the present, simplydescribe the method commonly adopted by all astrological stu3ents and adepts. "nyreliable almanac will serve our purpose. There are still a few standard Banchangas*almanacs which can be trusted for astrological purposes.

    ?/. &ethod of &aking Graha +phutas.H

    If the panchanga is available for the place of birth then no trouble of conversion of timeis involved< otherwise, birth time must be converted into local time of the place, for

     which the almanac is calculated, in order to find out the planetary positions.

    Dind out the date of the birth in the almanac and note down all the details given for

    that day. If no planets are marked on the day of birth, then trace back and find out theposition of the planet on the date, nearest to that of birth. It will be found that theplanet5s position will have been marked in $akshatras *6onstellations and Badas*uarters, with time of entry in ghatis into the particular Bada. Dind out the time at

     which the same planet enters the next :uarter of the constellation. &ark the interval inghatis between the entry of the planet into these two :uarters. &ark also the interval

     between the first entry and the birth time and proceed as followsLH

    Dormula *a Dor all Blanets.

    The interval between the first entry and birth

    , . x 1/

    The interval between the two entries

    [The number of degrees traversed in that particular :uarter.Dormula *b Dor the &oon.

    The interval between entry into the /st degree of the sign and birth

    H5H5 x 1E)

    Time taken for traversing the sign

     "dd this to the number of degrees the planet has passed, up to the first entry. Its$irayana longitude is obtained.

    xample /?. HDind the $irayana Aongitudes of planets m the +tandard 3oroscope =

    The "lmanac for /0/@ gives the following informationL /17/E-/0/@. +un enters nd of6hitta at /-N Ghatis. /?-/E-/0/@. ^ 1rd ^ at /-/E ^

     " &"$2"A 4D 3I$!2 "+T#4A4G% 

    Therefore the period taken by the +un to pass through one pada or 1 ( degrees of thecelestial arc is L H

    Gh. Vig. /1;(i 4ctober @ J *+ubtract the time of entry from

    JE, the duration of a day. /Nth ^ JE E /th ^ JE E /Jth ^ JE E /?th ^ / /E

    Total Gh. EE /J or /,E/J vighatis.

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    Time elapsed from the entry of the +un into the nd of 6hitta *which is nearest to the birth up to the moment of birth L H


    /1th 4ctober @ /Nth ^ JE /th ^ JE /Jth ^ E




    E / *9irth Time

    Total Gh. /N@ / or @,0E/ vighatis.

     "pplying formula *a L H


    H 0E not C

    - @ 0

    This distance, the +un has passed in the second pada or :uarter of 6hitta. Fe know thatthe last three :uarters of 2ttara, the four of 3asta and the first two of 6hitta constitute>anya *Virgo. 2p to the second of 6hitta, the number of :uarters passed in Virgo is L H




    1 N /

    H @ Badas or


    x @ [ J) NE5.

    This added to the number of degrees passed in the second of 6hitta, viO., ) @5 0C gives

    his true $irayana Aongitude as 0) @5 0C or 0) @5 in Virgo[/?0) @5 from the first degreeof "ries.

    T3 &44$

    Gh. Vig.

    /N-/E-/0/@ L !uration of +ravana[0 / .7. !hanista lasts for E 10 *+ubtracting

    0-/ from JE /-/E-/0/@ !o ? /N

    !uration of !hanista ? 1

    /-/E-/0/@ +atabhisha lasts for NJ *+ubtracting

    ?-/N from JE /J-/E-/0/@ !o do N /0

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    !uration of +atabhisha ?


    Boorvabhadra lasts for N/ *+ubtracting

    N-/0 from JE /?-/E-/0/@ !o E N@

    .7. !uration of Boorvabhadra J 0

     ":uarius is made up ofL last two :uarters of !hanista plus +atabhisha plus first 1 ofBoorvabhadra.

    [ N*?-1 ` *?-N-/*J-0

    [ Gh. /@-1.

    i.e., The &oon takes Gh. /@-1 to travel through the sign of ":uarius H

    The interval between the &oon5s entry into the first degree of ":uarius and birth time isfound as followsLH

    N *?-1 ` *1N [ Gh. /-?N [ /-?

     "pplying Dormula *b

    x 1E ) [ / ) @Q C in

    &oan5s $irayana Bosition is /) @5 C in ":uarius, i.e n 1/) @5 C [ 1/) @5 from thefirst degree of "ries.

    ?. $irayana Aongitudes of Blanets. H

    The Aongitudes of other planets, similarly found out, are reproduced below for readyreference.

    Graha *Blanet +phashta *Aongitude

    +un , /?0) @5

    &oon5 1/ @

    &ars 0 N0

    &ercury /@E 11

    (upiter @1 1

     Venus / ?E N

    +aturn /N /

    #ahu 11 1

    >ethu 1 1

    63"BT# VIII.

    A"G$" +B32T" *T3 "+6$!"$T

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    ?1. Aagna or "scendantala, i.e., the time re:uired to pass through the 9hogyamsas, thusL Dormula *a

    Beriod of rising sign where the +ayana +un is x 9hogyamsas

    1E) [ 9hogya7 Time.

    $ow from the Ishta >ala *the time for which the Aagna is to be found subtract the9hogya time and from the remainder subtract the periods of rising of the nextsuccessive signs as long as you can. Then at last you will find the sign, the rising periodof which being greater than the remainder, you will not be able to subtract and which is

    conse:uently called the "shuddha sign and its rising period the "shuddha rising. It isevident that the "shuddha sign is of course on the horiOon at the given time. Thedegrees of the "shuddha sign which are above the horiObn, are the passed degrees andhence called the 9hukthaHare thus found.H

    Dormula *b

    1E) The remainder

    H R of given time.

    #ising period of the "shuddha sign

    [ Bassed degre8fe of the

     "shuddha sign.

     "dd to these passed degrees thus determined, the preceding signs reckoned from thefirst point of "ries and from the total subtract, the "yanamsa. The remainder representsthe Aagna from the +tellar "ries.

    xample /@. HDind the Aagna in the +tandard 3oroscope. $irayana+un ... /?@) N05 EC

     "yanamsa ... / / ?

    Ishta >ala, i.e., +uryodayadi (ananakala Ghatikaha Gh. E /

    $irayana Aong, of the +un /?@) N05 EC

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


     "yanamsa ... /) /5 ?C

    +ayana Aong, of the +un EE) N5 ?C

    i.e., the +ayana +un is in Aibra E) 5 .7. 9hukthamsas [ E) 5 in Aibra.

    .5. 9hogyamsas [ 0) 5 ^

    ..9hogyaTime[ x 0) 5[Gh.

    i.e., the +un has to traverse in Aibra for Gh. l-N/-8fc

    +corpio ... -E/

    +agittarius ... -1Ef 

    6apricorn ... -/1

    Gh. /?-N Gh. Vig.

    Ishta >ala [ E /

    Ghatis passed till the end of 

    6apricorn [ /? N

    9huktha period in the "shuddha

    sign, viO., ":uarius. Gh. 1E

     " &"$2"A 4D 3I$!2 "+T#4A4G% 

    The 9hukthamsas corresponding to the above 9huktha


     "pplying 1E

    Dormula*J[ x Gh.-1E [[/J) /5 @C

     V Gh. N-1?i *":uarius.

    Z. The +ayana Aagna [ /J) /5 @C

    Aess "yanamsa / / ?

    The true Aagna

    N ?5 /C or N) ?5 The Aagna of +tandard 3oroscope is N) ?5, &akara

    or 6apricornus or 6onverting this into degrees, 0N) ?5 from the first

    point of +tellar "ries.

    $ow adding /@E) to this, viO., the 2daya Aagna, the "sta Aagna *!escendant isobtained.

    ?J. #asi >undali. HThis is the odiacal !iagram representing a picture of the heavens atthe time of birth. The diagram given below is the one generally in vogue in +outh India.

    63"BT# IR.

  • 8/19/2019 A Manual of Hindu Astrology b v Raman


    !"+"&" 93"V" +B32T" *T$T3 342+ 4# T3 &I!-3"V$

    ??. The !asama 9hava.HThis is also known as the &adhya Aagna. It is on the correctdetermination of this that rests the entire fabric of the horoscope. In fact, all the other9havas *3ouses are very easily arrived at, after the longitude of the !asama 9hava has

     been definitely ascertained. In the astronomical language, the &adhya Aagna may bedescribed, as the culminating point of the ecliptic on the meridian. "strologicallyspeaking, the !asama 9hava plays a very important part in the profession, rather themeans of livelihood of a personH otherwise known as >arma.

    ?@. #asi 6hakra.H" broad distinction must be maintained between the #asi 6hakra *see "rt. ?J and the 9hava 6hakra *see "rt. @/ so that the reader does not mistake the onefor the other. The #asi 6hakra is simply a figure of the Dixed odiac with the limits andoccu-pa8fits of its / signs as well as Aagna clearly marked. ach sign is 8ust one-twelfthpart of the Oodiac made up of 1E ecliptic degrees.

    .?0. rroneous 6onception of 9hava 6hakra. HThe conception prevalent amongst someastrologers, that after the Aagna +phuta has bPcn made, the other 9havas can be easily

    determined, by assuming, that the influence of Aagna extends /) on either side andthen commence the succeeding and the preceding 9havas, is erroneous, whollyunscientific and e:ually misleadingL for, by doing so, we will be ignoring completely theimportance of the variation of the influence with regard to each degree and minute ofterrestrial latitude and longitude, let alone other things of more serious importance. Inother words, the #asi 6hakra is passed off for the 9hava 6hakra and accordingly thepredictions made.

    The reader is now aware of the definition of the #asi 6hakra and from what follows onthe definition of the 9hava 6hakra, he will realise the blunder, one would commit, if hetook the former for the latter and the conse:uences that would inevitably follow.

    @E. 9haskara5s !efinition.H 9haskara-charya, describes a 9hava 6hakra thus. C Thepoint where the ecliptic cuts the horiOon in the ast is known as the #ising Aagna, andthe point where the ecliptic cuts the horiOon in t

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    the +un when the birth occurs before sunrise, i.e., when the +un is still below the easternhoriOonL

    +imilarly the Baschad $atha also includes two cases, viO.,

    */ the distance between the &eridian and

    the +un if the birth happens within sunset and

    * the distance between the &eridian and

    the +un after he has set. $atha when subtracted from 1E ghatis gives 2nnatha.

    3ere it must be noted that &eridian refers to apparent noon and the +un refers to the birth time.

     "fter clearly understanding the meaning and significance of the words $atha and2nnatha, ascertain, if the birth has fallen in Bragnatha or Baschadnatha L In Bragnatha,

    *a If the birth has occurred after sunrise, deduct the birth time from !inardha *half-diurnal duration.

    *b If it has occurred before sunrise add

    !inardha to the ghatis elapsed from the birth time up to sunrise.

    The result in both the cases is Bragnatha, i.e.8 Bragnatha is indicated by the time elapsed between birth-moment and local apparent noon. In Baschadnatha,

    *a If the birth has taken place in the afternoon and before sunset, deduct !inardhafrom the birth time *in ghatis.

    *b If the birth has occurred after sunset, add !inardha to the interval between sunsetand birth moment< the duration of paschadnatha is obtained. E

    The above observations may be summarised thus LH

    #ule /. HFhen 9irth is between &idnight and &idday.

    *a !inardha H +uryodayadi (ananakala Ghatikaha [ Bragnatha Beriod.

    *J !inardha N- interval between birth and sunrise [ Bragnatha Beriod.

    #ule .HFhen 9irth is between &idday and &idnight.

    *a +uryodayadi (ananakala GhatikahaH!inardha [

    Baschadnatha Beriod.

    *b !inardha ` interval between sunset and birth [ 7 Baschadnatha Beriod.

    #ule.1.H 1E Ghatis H $atha [ 2nnatha.

    xample /0. HDind the nature of the $atha and its duration in the +tandard 3oroscope.

    It comes under C birth between midday and midnight C and #ule *a can be applied to

    it as the birth has occurred after midday and before sunset.

    !inardha *3alf diurnal duration [ Gh. /N vig. N 9irth Time [ Gh. E vig. /.

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    .7. Gh. E vig. / H Gh. /N vig. N [ Gh. vig. 11. .C. $ature of $atha [ Baschad. Itsduration [ Gh. -117.

    $atha is simply the interval between the &ean Time of "pparent $oon and &ean Timeof 9irth. In this case the interval is, A.&.T. of 9irth * B.&.H &.T. of "pparent $oon*//-NJ ".&. [ h. /Nm. [ Gh. -1. The difference of vighatis is due to the differencein the time of sunrise between 3indu and modern methods, which may be safelyre8ected for astrological purposes.

    xample E. HFhat is the 2nnatha period in a case in

    Phich pragnatha [ /? Ghatis. "pplying #ule 1, we get

    Gh. 1E H Gh. /? [ Gh. /1 [ Beriod of 2nnatha.

    Drom the position of the +ayana +un and reckoning the rising periods on the e:uator,,find out the arc *in the reverse order that corresponds to the $atha period. "dd this to

    or subtract from +ayana #avi according as the $atha is Baschad or Brag. The resultdiminished by "yanamsa, gives $irayana &adhya Aagna.

    xample /. H!educe $irayana &adhya Aagna in the +tandard 3oroscope.

    Baschadnatha [ Gh. -11 *x. /0 +ayana +un [ EE) N5 The rising period of E) N5

    E) N5 Aibra at the e:uator [H 8;- x Gh 5 N 510[Gh. 1-0i\

    or)1-/E #eckoning in the reverse direction, we find that

    Gh. 1 vig. /E are passed in;Aibra. In Virgo have passed, $atha H Gh. 1 vig. /E

    or Gh. vig. 11 H Gh. 1 vig. /E [ Gh. -1. .5. "rc corresponding to Gh. vig. 1 Virgo*on the

    :2at ) r [ Gh.7NvigK10 R1E ) [ / ) 5 1N 7 r

    [ / 1

    .7. The distance between the +un and the meridian is Aibra ... E) N5

     Virgo ... /) 5 1C

    &eridian distance 1) NJ5 1C+ince the $atha is Baschad, add this to +ayana +un. +ayana+un ... EE) N5

    &eridian distance ... 1 NJ 1C

    +ayana &adhya Aagna 1J) /E5 iC

    Aess "yanamsa ... / / NJ

    .5. $irayana &adhya Aagna /N) N5 N0C

    [ /N) 5

    Z. The &id-heaven or &adhya Aagna [ /N) 5

    [ +corpio N

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    In other words, this is the Aongitude of the 9hava &adhya or the middle point of theTenth-house7

    63"BT# R.

    93"V" +B32T" *A4$GIT2!+ 4D 342++

    @1. 9hava or 3ouse. H"ccording to the 3indus a 9hava means one-third of the arc ofthe ecliptic intercepted between any two ad8acent angles, viO., the 2daya Aagna *astern3oriOon, the Batala Aagna *The Aower meridian, the "sta Aagna *Festern 3oriOon,and the &adhya Aagna *2pper &eridian.

    @N. 9hava &adhyas. HThe points of trisection of the ecliptic arcs referred to above arethe 9hava &adhyas or the mid-points of the 9havas.

    @. >endra 9havas. HThese are the four angular houses in a horoscope, viO., the 2dayaAagna, the Bathala Aagna, the "sta Aagna and the &adhya Aagna, *"rticle @1 and theyare considered very important astrologically.

    @J. !etermination of >endra 9havas.H

    The preceding two chapters deal exhaustively with the method of determining the "scendant and the &id-heavenHtwo of the >endra 9havas. The "sta Aagna*!escendant or

     Festern 3oriOon and the Bathala or #asa;hala Aagna *Aower &eridian aredetermined thusLH

    #ule /. H2daya Aagna *"scendant or ast 3oriOon ` /@E) [ "sta Aagna *!escendant or Fest W(oriOon.

    #ule .H&adhya Aagna N- /@E) [ #asathala Aagna. *2pper &eridian ` /@E) [ *Aower&eridian.

    xample . H!etermine the Aongitudes of the "sta Aagna and Bathala Aagna in the+tandard 3oroscope =

    2daya Aagna [ 0N) ?5 &adhya Aagna [ /N *"pplying #ule l

    Z. 0N) ?5` /@E) [ //N) ?5 *xpunge 1JE) *"pplying #ule

    Z. /N) 5N /@E) [ 1N) 5 *xpunge 1JE)

    .5. "sta Aagna [ //N) ?5

    Bathala Aagna [ 1N) 5

    @?. $on-"ngular 3ouses. HThese are the houses between the angular ones. Dor instanceangular houses are the I *astern 3oriOonHIV *Aower &eridianHVII *Festern3oriOonH and R *2pper &eridian. The rest, viO., II, III, V, VI, VIII, IR, RI and RII arethe $on-angular houses otherwise known as the Banapara 9havas *+ucceedent 3ouses,and the "poklima 9havas *6adent 3ousesHsee "rticles and 1. The &adhyas ofthese bhavas are the points of trisection referred to above *"rticles @1 and @N.

    @@. !etermination of 9hava &adhyas of $8m-angular 3ouses. HThere are four angles ina 9hava 6hakra. Dirst ascertainHrather determine the ecliptic arcs between these fourangles.

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     " &"$2"A 4D 3I$!2 "+T#4A4G% 

    *d the arc between the astern 3oriOon and the Aower &eridian< *b between theAower &eridian and the Festern 3oriOon< *c betrZeen the Festern 3oriOon and the2pper &eridian < *d and between the 2pper &eridian and the astern 3oriOon.

    Batala Aagna

    *Aower &eridian


    2daya Aagna *astern 3oriOon

    ' f a Aagna i Festern 3oriOon


    &adhya Aagna *2pper &eridian

     ", 9, 6, !. [ "ngular 3ouses. a, J, c