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  • 1. Personality andConsumer Behavior

2. What Is Personality The inner psychological characteristics thatdetermine and reflect how a person responds to hisor her environment. Personality is a useful concept because it permit usto categorize consumers into different groups onthe basis of one or even several traits/Qualities. If each person were different in terms of allpersonality traits, it would be impossible to groupconsumers into segments, and that would be very difficult to marketers todevelop products and promotional campaigns fortargeted to particular segments. 3. The Nature of PersonalityPersonality reflects individual differences: No two individualsare exactly similar. however, many individuals may be similar in terms of a singlepersonality characteristic but not in terms of others. Like some have willing to acceptthe risk of buying new launch product on the other hand some are afraid to buy arecently introduced products.Personality is dependable and continuing: Marketers cannotchange consumers personalities to conform to their products, if they know whichpersonality characteristics influence specific consumer responses, they can justattempt to appeal to the relevant traits inherent in their target group of consumers.Personality can change:Under certain circumstance personalitieschange. Like an individuals personality may be altered by major life events, such asmarriage, the birth of a child, the death of a parent, or a change of job/profession.Personality is changed also as part of a gradual maturing process of body or age. 4. Theories of Personality Freudian theory Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart ofhuman motivationNeo-Freudian personality theorySocial relationships are essential to theformation and development of personality Trait theory Quantitative approach to personality as a set ofpsychological traits 5. 1. Freudian Theory This theory was built on the basis of unconscious needs or force, especially forsexual and other natural drives, are at the heart of human motivation andpersonality. Freud constructed his theory on the basis of patients recollections of earlychildhood experiences, analysis of their dreams, and the specific nature of theirmental and physical adjustment problems. Human personality consists of three interacting systems the id, the superego, andthe ego. Id Warehouse of ancient needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction(thirst, hunger etc)Superego The superego role is to see that the individual satisfies needs in a socially acceptable fashion or not. Ego It is Individuals conscious control that balances the unstructured demands of the id and the sociocultural control of the superego. 6. Freudian Theory and Product PersonalityConsumerresearchersusing Freudspersonality theory just to see consumerpurchases/or consumption situations as areflection and an extension of the consumersown personality. In other words, they consider the consumersappearance through clothing, jewellary, andso forth as these itemsreflecttheindividuals personality in terms of their payingcapacity and requirement of variety ofproduct. 7. 2. Neo-Freudian Personality TheoryThis theory believed that social relationships are basic to theformation and development of personality. Human beings aswants to achieve various rational goals, which he called styleof life. He also place much emphasis on the individualsefforts to overcome feelings of inferiority.According to proposed that individuals be classified into three personality groups:1. Complaint individuals are those who move toward others(they desire to be loved, wanted and appreciated)2. Aggressive individuals are those who move against others (they desire to do extremely well and win high regard)3. Detached individuals are those who move away from others (they desire independence, self- sufficiency, and individualism or freedom from responsibility) 8. 3. Trait Theory Trait theory concerned with the construction ofpersonality tests that allow them to pinpointindividual differences in terms of specific traits. A trait is defined as any unique, comparativelycontinuing way in which one individual differs fromanother.Some traits are consumer innovativeness (howinterested a person is to new experiences),consumer materialism(the degree of theconsumers attachment to mature possessions)and consumer ethnocentrism (the consumerslikelihood to accept or reject foreign madeproducts) 9. Trait TheoryPersonality traits that have been useful in determineconsumer innovators and noninnovatorsInnovativeness The degree to which Dogmatismconsumers areinterested to newSocial character products, new services,Variety-novelty seekingor new practices 10. Trait TheoryPersonality traits that have been useful in determineconsumer innovators and noninnovators Innovativeness A personality trait thatDogmatismreflects the degree ofSocial character strictness a persondisplays toward the Variety-novelty seekingunfamiliar product andinformation that isdifferent to his or her ownestablished beliefs 11. Trait TheoryPersonality traits that have been useful in determine consumerinnovators and noninnovators Innovativeness Ranges on a variety for inner- Dogmatism directedness to other-directednessSocial character Inner-directednessVariety-novelty seeking rely on own values when evaluating productsOther-directedness look to others when evaluating products 12. Trait TheoryPersonality traits that have been useful in determine consumerinnovators and noninnovators Measures a consumers degree of variety seeking Examples include: Exploratory Purchase Behavior( e.g.switching brands to experience new,Innovativenessdifferent, and possibly better alternatives) DogmatismUse Innovativeness( e.g. without securinginformation about a new or differentalternative and directly considering the Social characteroption)Variety-novelty seeking Vicarious Exploration ( e.g. securing information about a new or differentalternative and then consider the option) 13. Cognitive Personality Factors Need for cognition (NC)Consumer who are high in NC are more likely to be responsive tothe part of an ad that is rich in product-related information orexplanation; consumers who are relatively low in NC are more likely to be attracted to the background or peripheral aspects of an ad,such as an attractive model or well known celebrity.Visualizers versus verbalizers Consumers who preference visual information and products that stress the visual graphicsand images.Verbalizers prefer visual information written orverbal information 14. Consumer Ethnocentrism Consumer who are highly ethnocentric arelikely to feel that it is inappropriate or wrongto purchase foreign-made products becauseof the resulting economic impact on thedomestic economy, whereas Nonethnocentric consumerstend toevaluate foreign-made products- it seemsthat more objectively-for their extrinsiccharacteristics (e.g. how good are they?) 15. This ad isdesigned to appeal to consumer ethno- centrism. 16. Brand Personality Personality-like traits associated with brandsExamples Nike and athlete BMW is performance driven Levis 501 jeans are reliable and roughBrand personality which is strong and favorable willstrengthen a brand but not necessarily demand abest price 17. A Brand Personality FrameworkThat framework reflects, extensive consumer research designed to pinpoint thestructure and nature of a brands personality. The framework suggests that thereare five defining dimensions of a brands personality and 15 facets of personalitythat flow from the five dimensions. If we review these brand personalitydimensions and facets, it appears that this framework ends to hold the brandpersonalities follow by many consumer product. 18. Marketersoften use auntruelocation to help withpersonality. 19. The Personality-like Associations of Colors Americas favored color IBM holds the title to blue Associated with club soda Men seek products packaged in blueBLUE Commands Houses painted blue are avoided respect, authority Low-calorie, skim milk care, newness, Eyes register it faster Coffee in yellow can perceived as weak temporary, heatYELLOW Stops traffic Sells a houseSecure, natural, Good work environment Associated with vegetables and chewing gumrelaxed or easy- Canada Dry ginger sales increased when itGREEN going, living changed sugar-free package from red to greenthingsand white 20. Human, exciting, Makes food smell better hot, passionate, Coffee in a red can perceived as rich RED strong Women have a preference for bluish red Men have a preference for yellowish red Coca-Cola owns red Powerful,Draws attention quicklyORANGE affordable, informal Informal and Coffee in a dark-brown can was tooBROWN relaxed, masculine, strong nature Men seek products packaged in brownSuggests reduced calories Goodness, purity,chastity, Pure and wholesome foodWHITEcleanliness,Clean, bath products, femininedelicacy,refinement,Sophistication, Powerful clothingBLACK formalitypower, authority, High-tech electronicsmysterySILVER, Regal, wealthy, Suggests premium price Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall GOLD stately 21. Self and Self-Image A self-images, or perceptions of self, are veryclosely associated with personality in thatindividuals tend to buy products and services andsupport retailers whose images or personalitiesrelate in some meaningful way to their own self-images. In real meaning, consumers seek to representthemselves in their brand choices-they have atendency to approach products with images thatcould enhance their self concept and avoid thoseproducts that do not. 22. This productappeals to a mans self-image. 23. The Marketing ConceptIssues Related toSelf and Self-Image One or multiple A single consumer will act selvesdifferently in different Makeup of the self- situations or with different image people We have a variety of social Extended self roles Altering the self- Marketers can target image products to a parti