United Nations Millennium Development Goals: the story so far

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What are the achievements on the 15 year promise? : not yet, as there is a lot that is yet to be done and the priority is to urgently redefine our goals for the post 2015 agenda, taking cue from the UNDP-CII Consultation by Prof Anoop Swarup on the 23rd of Jan 2013

Transcript of United Nations Millennium Development Goals: the story so far

  • 1.Millennium Development Goals&The India Connect: Madhya PradeshByDr Anoop Swarup

2. BACKGROUND The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were officiallyestablished following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of theUnited Nations Millennium Declaration. All 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achievethese goals by the year 2015.It concerns all of us :http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3p2VLTowAA Talk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 3. IDEA The aim of the MDGs is to encourage development by improving social and economic conditions in theworlds poorest countries. They derive from earlier international development targets, and wereofficially established following the Millennium Summit in 2000, where all world leaders in attendanceadopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration The MDGs originated from the Millennium Declaration produced by the United Nations. TheDeclaration asserts that every individual has the right to dignity, freedom, equality, a basic standard ofliving that includes freedom from hunger and violence, and encourages tolerance and solidarity. The MDGs were made to operationalize these ideas by setting targets and indicators for povertyreduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration on a set fifteen-year timeline. Talk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 4. ORIGINS & FUNDS The Millennium Summit Declaration came about from not just the UN but also theOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD), the World Bank,andtheInternational Monetary Fund. The setting came about through a series of UN led conferences in the 1990sfocusing on issues such as children, nutrition, human rights, women and others. The OECD criticizedmajor donors for reducing their levels of Official Development Assistance (ODA). With the onset of the UNs 50th anniversary, then UN Secretary General Kofi Annan saw the need toaddress the range of development issues. This led to his report titled, We the Peoples: The Role of theUnited Nations in the 21st Century which led to the Millennium Declaration. By this time, the OECD hadalready formed its International Development Goals (IDGs) and it was combined with the UNs efforts inthe World Banks 2001 meeting to form the MDGs. The MDG focus on three major areas: of valorizing human capital, improving infrastructure, andincreasing social, economic and political rights, with the majority of the focus going towards increasingbasic standards of living.Talk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 5. OBJECTIVES The objectives chosen within the human capital focus include improving nutrition, healthcare (includingreducing levels of child mortality, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, and increasingreproductive health), and education. For infrastructure, the objectives include improving infrastructure through increasing access to safedrinking water, energy and modern information/communication technology; amplifying farm outputsthrough sustainable practices; improving transportation infrastructure; and preserving the environment. For the social, economic and political rights focus, the objectives include empowering women, reducingviolence, increasing political voice, ensuring equal access to public services, and increasing security ofproperty rights. The goals chosen were intended to increase an individuals human capabilities and"advance the means to a productive life. The MDGs emphasize that individual policies needed to achievethese goals should be tailored to individual countrys needs; therefore most policy suggestions aregeneral. The MDGs also emphasize the role of developed countries in aiding developing countries, as outlined inGoal Eight. Goal Eight sets objectives and targets for developed countries to achieve a "global partnershipfor development" by supporting fair trade, debt relief for developing nations, increasing aid and access toaffordable essential medicines, and encouraging technology transfer.Talk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 6. GOALSThe MDGs were developed out of the eight chapters of the Millennium Declaration, signed inSeptember 2000. There are eight goals with 21 targets, and a series of measurable indicators foreach target.Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerA short video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuvl9vOZedETarget 1A: Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a dayProportion of population below $1 per day (PPP values)Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty]Share of poorest quintile in national consumption Target 1B: Achieve Decent Employment for Women, Men, and Young People GDP Growth per Employed Person Employment Rate Proportion of employed population below $1 per day (PPP values) Proportion of family-based workers in employed population Target 1C: Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumptionTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 7. Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Estimates suggest the MDG target to halve the proportion of people living in "extreme poverty" was met in 2010, five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Although poverty has fallen in every region since 1990, however, it is populous countries such as China and India that are driving the global picture of progress.Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2012/oct/31/millennium-development-goals-key-datasetsTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 8. Goal 1 Poverty India State Wise Ratios Source : Millennium Development Goals , States of India Report 2010 ( Special Edition) Central Statistics Office , Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation , Government of IndiaTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 9. Goal 1 Poverty MP StateSource : An analysis of questions raised in the Madhya Pradesh Assembly on issues related to MDGsMadhya Pradesh Proceedings Analysis 2009.pdfTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 10. GOALSGoal 2: Achieve universal primary education Target 2A: By 2015, all children can complete a full course of primary schooling, girls and boys Enrollment in primary education Completion of primary education everyone will get into schoolGoal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at alllevels by 2015 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament For girls in some regions, education remains elusive Poverty is a major barrier to education, especially among older girls In every developing region except the CIS, men outnumber women in paid employment Women are largely relegated to more vulnerable forms of employment Women are over-represented in informal employment, with its lack of benefits and security Top-level jobs still go to men to an overwhelming degree Women are slowly rising to political power, but mainly when boosted by quotas and other specialmeasuresTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 11. Goal 2 Achieve Universal Primary Education Recentlyeducationfor allglobal monitoring report said the MDG target to ensure all children complete a full course ofprimaryschoolby2015 is likely to be missed by a wide margin. The number of out-of-school children has fallen to about 60 million, from 108 million in 1990, yet progress has slowed since 2004.Source : http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2012/oct/31/millennium-development-goals-key-datasetsTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 12. Goal 2 Universal Primary Education India State Wise Ratios Source : Millennium Development Goals , States of India Report 2010 ( Special Edition) Central Statistics Office , Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation , Government of IndiaTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 13. Goal 2 Universal Primary Education MP StateSource : An analysis of questions raised in the Madhya Pradesh Assembly on issues related to MDGsMadhya Pradesh Proceedings Analysis 2009.pdfTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 14. Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women Eliminating gender disparity in schools is the only officialtarget for this sweeping MDG. This year, the UN saidgirls had reached parity with boys in primary school enrolment. The gender equality goal also measures the share of women inpaid employment in the non-agricultural sector and theproportion of seats held by women in national parliament, butthese are indicators to be tracked rather than specific, time-bound targets to be met.Source : http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-Talk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013matters/2012/oct/31/millennium-development-goals-key-datasets 15. Goal 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women MP StateSource : An analysis of questions raised in the Madhya Pradesh Assembly on issues related to MDGsMadhya Pradesh Proceedings Analysis 2009.pdfTalk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 2013 16. GOALSGoal 4: Reduce child mortality rates Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Infant (under 1) mortality rate Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measlesGoal 5: Improve maternal health Target 5A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio Maternal mortality ratio Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel Target 5B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health Contraceptive prevalence rate Adolescent birth rate Antenatal care coverage Unmet need for family planning Talk at CII by Dr. Anoop Swarup : 23 Jan 201