TRACK AND FIELD SPRINTING
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TRACK AND FIELD SPRINTING
TRACK AND FIELDSPRINTINGDrive phase or (the start)
What is sprinting Sprinting, in athletics (track and field), is a footrace over's a short distance with an all-out or nearly all-out burst of speed. SPRINT EVENTS FORINDOOROUTDOOR60 meters 200 meters400 meters55m hurdles60m hurdles
100m200m 400m4x100m relay110 hurdles for men100 hurdles for women
Phases of the sprinting Drive phase or (the start)Acceleration phaseTransition phaseMaximum VelocitySpeed Maintenance
Acceleration phase in terms of the drive phase The objective of this phase is to leave the blocks and to prepare for the first stride.
Points for an effective drive phaseDrive the back leg forward keeping the heel low until the shin is approx 45 to the ground and then drive the foot down hitting the ground just behind the body's centre of mass
Over the next 7-8 strides (approx. 10 metres) angle the shin of the front leg, before it is driven down, will increase by 6-7 stride so that by the 7-8 stride the shin is vertical to the ground.
Over the first 7-8 strides the whole body angle will increase from 45 to approx. 30 degrees - approx
Points for an effective drive phaseEyes focused on the track to keep low to allow the build up of speedForward lean of the whole body with a straight line through the head, spine and extended rear legShoulders held back and relaxed, square in the lane at all timesArms move with a smooth forward backward action - not across the body - drive back with elbows - hands move from approx. shoulder height to hips
Points for an effective drive phase (cont)Elbows maintained at 90 degrees fully extended rear leg pushing off the track with the toes - drive the leg forward with a high knee action with the knee pointing forward On the ball of foot/toes at all times - feet pointing forward straight down the laneThe drive is maintained for first 20-30 metres (approx.16-17 strides) at the end of which the body is tall with a slight forward lean
Biomechanics of the legs Leaving the BlocksThe aim of starting biomechanics is the development of maximum horizontal velocity and this is achieved by placing the body in the best biomechanical position to apply force.
The biomechanical conceptsPushing behind centre of mass causes forward rotation around centre of mass.Forward rotation created by push off leg and the rear arm.Forward rotation counterbalance by free swing led and front arm.Lower heel recovery during drive phase reduces time to recover leg. This is achieved by the piston action with the leg and also by sweeping the toe across the ground