The Outer Planets. The outer planets are made of gases. The outer planets are made of gases. The...
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The Outer PlanetsThe Outer Planets
The Outer PlanetsThe Outer Planets
The outer The outer planets are planets are made of made of gases.gases.
The outer The outer planets are planets are very large.very large.
Gas GiantsGas Giants Separated from the 1Separated from the 1stst
zone by the asteroid zone by the asteroid belt, the 2belt, the 2ndnd Zone Zone contains the gas giants.contains the gas giants.
Made of the lightweight Made of the lightweight elements Hydrogen, elements Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Helium, Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.Oxygen, and Nitrogen.
All are much larger than All are much larger than the Earth, with 15-300 the Earth, with 15-300 times the mass, and 4-times the mass, and 4-11 times the diameter.11 times the diameter.
Not believed to have Not believed to have solid surfaces.solid surfaces.
Have rings and many Have rings and many satellites.satellites.
Gas Giants Gas Giants AtmospheresAtmospheres
Since they have so much Since they have so much mass, their strong gravity mass, their strong gravity can keep even light gases can keep even light gases from escaping.from escaping.
Atmosphere tends to Atmosphere tends to resemble the sun (75% H, resemble the sun (75% H, 24% He, 1% other gases).24% He, 1% other gases).
No well defined surface. No well defined surface. Gases just get denser and Gases just get denser and denser as you go deeper. denser as you go deeper. Becomes liquid metallic Becomes liquid metallic hydrogen, which has hydrogen, which has properties of liquids and properties of liquids and metals. Exist only under metals. Exist only under high pressure. Causes high pressure. Causes Jupiter's magnetic field.Jupiter's magnetic field.
Gas Giants CoresGas Giants Cores Gas giants are Gas giants are
believed to have believed to have solid cores made solid cores made of rock,, ice, of rock,, ice, frozen carbon frozen carbon dioxide, and dioxide, and other other compounds.compounds.
Cores would be Cores would be several times the several times the size of the Earth.size of the Earth.
Jupiter, King of the Jupiter, King of the Roman GodsRoman Gods Named for Jove, the Named for Jove, the
King of the Roman King of the Roman Gods.Gods.
Roman name for the Roman name for the Greek god Zeus.Greek god Zeus.
Often the term Often the term Jovian is used to Jovian is used to describe things describe things pertaining to Jupiter. pertaining to Jupiter. Example: the Jovian Example: the Jovian moons. moons.
JupiterJupiter Believed to be a failed Believed to be a failed
star, lacking the mass star, lacking the mass to become a small to become a small star.star.
Most massive planet Most massive planet in solar system.in solar system.
Has over 60 satellites.Has over 60 satellites. Density is 1.33g/cmDensity is 1.33g/cm33.. Rotates every 10 Rotates every 10
hours.hours. Takes 12 years to Takes 12 years to
orbit the sun.orbit the sun. Gravity almost 2.5 Gravity almost 2.5
times that of the times that of the Earth.Earth.
Jupiter AtmosphereJupiter Atmosphere
Mainly hydrogen Mainly hydrogen with some helium.with some helium.
Very active Very active weather systems.weather systems.
Forms colorful Forms colorful bands and swirls.bands and swirls.
Has hurricanes Has hurricanes that last for 100’s that last for 100’s of years.of years.
Great Red SpotGreat Red Spot The red spot is a The red spot is a
huge storm that has huge storm that has been continuously been continuously going on Jupiter for going on Jupiter for over 400 years. over 400 years. Winds inside this Winds inside this storm reach speeds storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. of about 270 mph. With a diameter of With a diameter of 15,400 miles, this 15,400 miles, this storm is almost storm is almost twice the size of the twice the size of the entire Earth. entire Earth.
Jupiter's MoonsJupiter's Moons
Galileo discovered the Galileo discovered the four largest. Io, four largest. Io, Ganymede, and Callisto Ganymede, and Callisto are larger than our own are larger than our own moon.moon.
Europa has a icy crust Europa has a icy crust and is believed to have and is believed to have liquid water oceans below liquid water oceans below the frozen surface.the frozen surface.
Io has many active Io has many active volcanoes.volcanoes.
Has 63 moons, most of Has 63 moons, most of any planet in our solar any planet in our solar system.system. Ganymede is the
largest moon in our solar system.
Missions to Missions to JupiterJupiter http://http://
Shoemaker Levy Shoemaker Levy 99 In July 1994, Comet In July 1994, Comet
Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with Jupiter with with Jupiter with spectacular results (left). spectacular results (left). The effects were clearly The effects were clearly visible even with amateur visible even with amateur telescopes. The debris telescopes. The debris from the collision was from the collision was visible for nearly a year visible for nearly a year afterward with HST. afterward with HST.
Captured by Jupiter's Captured by Jupiter's strong gravity, the comet strong gravity, the comet was torn into over 20 was torn into over 20 fragments that struck fragments that struck Jupiter, each with a force Jupiter, each with a force of millions of megatons of of millions of megatons of energy.energy.
This has renewed NASA’s This has renewed NASA’s interest in tracking objects interest in tracking objects that might get close to that might get close to Earth one day.Earth one day.
Jupiter FactsJupiter Facts Diameter: 11 earth'sDiameter: 11 earth's Distance: 5 AuDistance: 5 Au Atmosphere: mainly hydrogen with some Atmosphere: mainly hydrogen with some
heliumhelium Features: active weather with storms that Features: active weather with storms that
last for 100s of years (GRS)last for 100s of years (GRS) Largest planetLargest planet Over 60 moons, most in our solar systemOver 60 moons, most in our solar system Life: none as we know it. Cold, no known Life: none as we know it. Cold, no known
Saturn the GodSaturn the God Saturn was the Roman Saturn was the Roman
God of the Harvest and of God of the Harvest and of Time.Time.
Father of Jupiter, Father of Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto.Neptune, and Pluto.
The Roman name for the The Roman name for the Greek god Cronos.Greek god Cronos.
Saturnalia was the mid-Saturnalia was the mid-winter festival in Saturn's winter festival in Saturn's honor. It lasted seven honor. It lasted seven days, and there was days, and there was much merrymaking. much merrymaking. Public business was Public business was suspended and schools suspended and schools were closed. Parents were closed. Parents gave presents to their gave presents to their children.children.
Saturn FactsSaturn Facts 22ndnd largest planet in largest planet in
solar system.solar system. A “day” on Saturn is a A “day” on Saturn is a
little over 10 hours little over 10 hours long!long!
It takes 29 years to It takes 29 years to orbit the sun.orbit the sun.
Almost 10 times larger Almost 10 times larger than Earth.than Earth.
Most visible rings of Most visible rings of any planet.any planet.
Density is 0.69 g/cmDensity is 0.69 g/cm33.. If a large enough If a large enough
ocean could be found, ocean could be found, Saturn would float in Saturn would float in it!it!
Similar to Jupiter’s, Similar to Jupiter’s, mostly hydrogen mostly hydrogen with some helium.with some helium.
Storms not as large Storms not as large or as long lived as or as long lived as Jupiter's.Jupiter's.
Clouds are thicker, Clouds are thicker, blocking views to blocking views to lower layers. lower layers. Explains the lack of Explains the lack of banding compared banding compared to Jupiter.to Jupiter.
Saturn’s MoonsSaturn’s Moons Has over 40 moons, 15 or so that are large Has over 40 moons, 15 or so that are large
enough to be called major moons.enough to be called major moons.
TitanTitan Titan has an Titan has an
atmosphere made atmosphere made of about 99% of about 99% nitrogen and 1% nitrogen and 1% methane.methane.
Has a pressure of Has a pressure of 1.6 atmospheres.1.6 atmospheres.
Completely covered Completely covered by thick clouds that by thick clouds that are similar to smog are similar to smog on Earth.on Earth.
The second largest The second largest moon, it is larger moon, it is larger than Pluto and than Pluto and Mercury.Mercury.
The Huygens probe The Huygens probe actually parachuted actually parachuted into the atmosphere into the atmosphere of Titan on 14 of Titan on 14 January 2005.January 2005.
It took pictures and It took pictures and collected data all collected data all the way to the the way to the surface. It survived surface. It survived the landing and sent the landing and sent back pictures of the back pictures of the surface it landed on.surface it landed on.
Saturn’s Saturn’s RingsRings
Very spectacular. Not Very spectacular. Not at all solid.at all solid.
Made of tiny bits of ice, Made of tiny bits of ice, dust, and rock. A few dust, and rock. A few are up to a kilometer are up to a kilometer across.across.
Only about a kilometer Only about a kilometer thick.thick.
The Cassini space The Cassini space probe actually passed probe actually passed through the outer ring through the outer ring as it slowed down to as it slowed down to enter orbit.enter orbit.
Saturn FactsSaturn Facts Diameter: 9 times larger than EarthDiameter: 9 times larger than Earth Distance: 10 AuDistance: 10 Au Atmosphere: 96% Hydrogen 4% HeliumAtmosphere: 96% Hydrogen 4% Helium Features: Has short storms, brilliant rings Features: Has short storms, brilliant rings
orbit it that are made up of bits of ice, orbit it that are made up of bits of ice, dust, and rockdust, and rock
22ndnd largest planet largest planet Life: no life likely, although Titan and Life: no life likely, although Titan and
Enceladus have possibilities.Enceladus have possibilities.
Uranus the GodUranus the God
URANUS:URANUS: Great Great primeval God of primeval God of the Sky. Born of the Sky. Born of GAIAGAIA, the Earth, , the Earth, he covered the he covered the world in the form world in the form of a vast bronze of a vast bronze dome and ruled dome and ruled over everything. over everything.
Uranus FactsUranus Facts
Diameter is like 4 Diameter is like 4 Earth’s.Earth’s.
Mass is 14.5 Mass is 14.5 Earth’s.Earth’s.
Takes 84 years to Takes 84 years to revolve around the revolve around the sun.sun.
Day is a little over Day is a little over 17 hours long.17 hours long.
Has more than 20 Has more than 20 moons.moons.
Uranus AxisUranus Axis Uranus is considered Uranus is considered
unusual because the unusual because the planet is tipped on its planet is tipped on its side. The poles actually side. The poles actually point towards the Sun. point towards the Sun.
its magnetic field is its magnetic field is tilted 60 degrees from tilted 60 degrees from the axis of rotation. the axis of rotation.
It is believed that It is believed that Uranus was struck by a Uranus was struck by a large object that large object that knocked Uranus on its knocked Uranus on its side.side.
Uranus SeasonsUranus Seasons
Uranus AtmosphereUranus Atmosphere
First, there is First, there is absolutely no detail absolutely no detail in the cloud cover. in the cloud cover. Only when pushed Only when pushed to the maximum to the maximum level of color level of color enhancement and enhancement and contrast on contrast on computers do computers do scientists start to scientists start to see small swirls in see small swirls in the atmosphere. the atmosphere.
Uranus MoonsUranus Moons 5 large and many 5 large and many
small moons.small moons. Titania is the biggest Titania is the biggest
moon of Uranus. It is moon of Uranus. It is about half the size of about half the size of our moon. Titania is our moon. Titania is covered by many covered by many small craters, a few small craters, a few huge impact basins huge impact basins ice cliffs, and fault ice cliffs, and fault lines. lines.
Ariel: The brightest Ariel: The brightest moon of Uranus. moon of Uranus. Youngest surface of Youngest surface of Uranus' moons, the Uranus' moons, the least cratered. Has least cratered. Has long valleys and long valleys and canyons. canyons.
UranusUranus Diameter:4 Earth’sDiameter:4 Earth’s Distance:19 AUDistance:19 AU Atmosphere:82% Hydrogen 15% HeliumAtmosphere:82% Hydrogen 15% Helium Features: extreme seasons because axis Features: extreme seasons because axis
is tipped on its side and no detail in is tipped on its side and no detail in cloud covercloud cover
Life: no life, too cold, atmosphere and Life: no life, too cold, atmosphere and surface would not allow life as we know surface would not allow life as we know it.it.
Neptune the GodNeptune the God
Neptune is the Neptune is the Roman god of Roman god of the sea.the sea.
The Romans The Romans modeled him modeled him after the Greek after the Greek god Poseidon.god Poseidon.
NeptuneNeptune Neptune rotates on its Neptune rotates on its
axis every 18 hours.axis every 18 hours. It takes 165 years to It takes 165 years to
revolve around the sun revolve around the sun once.once.
Has the mass of 17 Has the mass of 17 Earths.Earths.
Has 13 moons.Has 13 moons. Diameter is almost 4 Diameter is almost 4
times larger than times larger than Earths.Earths.
Blue-green color is Blue-green color is from the methane in from the methane in the atmosphere.the atmosphere.
At times it is the At times it is the furthest planet from furthest planet from the sun.the sun.
Neptune AtmosphereNeptune Atmosphere
80% hydrogen, 80% hydrogen, 19% helium, and 19% helium, and 1.5% methane.1.5% methane.
Has icy clouds Has icy clouds and enormous and enormous storms.storms.
Has the fastest Has the fastest winds in our solar winds in our solar system.system.
TritonTriton Neptune's largest moon is Neptune's largest moon is
named Triton. Triton is much named Triton. Triton is much larger than any of the larger than any of the planet's other moons.planet's other moons.
Triton is a very cold place, Triton is a very cold place, so the moon is covered with so the moon is covered with ice. Even though Triton is ice. Even though Triton is cold there is a lot going on cold there is a lot going on there. It has geysers like the there. It has geysers like the ones at Yellowstone Park on ones at Yellowstone Park on Earth.Earth.
The geysers shoot ice 8 km The geysers shoot ice 8 km (5 miles) high into Triton's (5 miles) high into Triton's thin atmosphere! There may thin atmosphere! There may be water under the ice at be water under the ice at Triton. It is even possible Triton. It is even possible that there might be life in that there might be life in that water. The interior of that water. The interior of Triton is probably Triton is probably geologically active.geologically active.
Neptune’s RingsNeptune’s Rings Neptune's rings are Neptune's rings are
much darker than much darker than Saturn's bright rings.Saturn's bright rings.
Saturn's rings are Saturn's rings are made of ice, which made of ice, which reflects lots of light. reflects lots of light. Neptune's rings are Neptune's rings are probably made of probably made of rocks and dust.rocks and dust.
Rocks and dust don't Rocks and dust don't reflect as much light. reflect as much light.
Neptune FactsNeptune Facts Diameter: 4 times the size of EarthDiameter: 4 times the size of Earth Distance: 30 AuDistance: 30 Au Atmosphere: 80% Hydrogen 19% Helium Atmosphere: 80% Hydrogen 19% Helium
1.5% Methane1.5% Methane Features: At times it is the furthest planet Features: At times it is the furthest planet
from the sun. Icy clouds and enormous from the sun. Icy clouds and enormous storms, one called the Great Dark Spot.storms, one called the Great Dark Spot.
Life: possible life on one of its moons Life: possible life on one of its moons called Tritoncalled Triton