Outer Planets (Jovian Planets)€¦ · Outer Planets (Jovian Planets) -planets beyond the asteroid...
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Outer Planets (Jovian Planets)
-planets beyond the asteroid belt
- also known as the gas giants
- all 4 have a ring system made of dust and icy debris
Jupiter - -5th from the sun, Largest
Its mass is more than 300 Earth’s
Revolution = 11.86 years (˜12 years)
Fastest rotation = 9 hrs. 50 min.
Atmosphere – very thick mostly hydrogen(92%), helium, ammonia, methane, and traces of water vapor.
(if Jupiter was a little bigger it may have became a star)
Temperature of outer surface is - 160°C
Because of different chemical make up
and motions of Jupiter – various color
bands and storms are observed (lighting
also) Example: Great Red Spot – High
pressure storm = 3 Earths’ in size
(observed for 400 years)
Has several thin rings (sulfur and dust)
69 plus moons (4 largest called Galilean moons)
Io – active volcano’s
Europa – thick icy crust (may have liquid water)
Ganymede – also icy crust largest moon
Callisto – heavily cratered
Gravity 2.5 times more than Earth
Saturn – 6th planet from the sun
-ringed planet (2nd largest)
Revolution = 29.5 years
Rotation = 10 hrs. 39 min.
Very cold -176°C
Atmosphere – hydrogen, helium, ammonia, etc.
(many color bands in atmosphere)
Lowest average density (could float on water)
Rings – very complex – made of several broad rings, each composed of hundreds of ringlets. Made of countless dust, rock, and ice particles.
61 + moons – Largest is Titan (1/2 size of Earth) its atmosphere of nitrogen, argon & methane
Space probe : Cassini, July, 2004 took best pictures of Saturn and landed a smaller probe on Titan.
Other Space probes sent to Jupiter/Saturn:
Pioneer I & II 1973-75
Voyager I & II 1979-82 (Voyager I farthest spacecraft)
Galileo 1995 – Jupiter & its moons
Uranus – 7th from the sun
god of harvest discovered by William Herschel (1781)
Revolution = 84 years
Rotation = 17 hrs (retrograde)
has the most tilted axis 87° (tilted on
atmosphere – hydrogen, helium, some methane (gives it a blue-green color)
temperature average = -214°C
12 thin rings largest is Triton
Neptune – 8th planet from the sun
-god of the sea, discovered in 1846 mathematically
Revolution = 165 years
Rotation = 16 hrs.
Atmosphere – hydrogen, helium, methane (make it bluish – twin of Uranus)
Temperature = -225°C
Space probes have found great dark spot and white spots showing active storms
6 thin rings, which are thicker in some areas
14 moons largest called Triton
Dwarf Planets: 8 + are know
Trans- Neptunian objects -
Kuiper Belt objects
- mostly ice chunks debris
Pluto – 9th object from the sun
- god of the underworld/dead
- discovered in 1930
- revolution = 248.5 years
- temperature = -235°C
- 5 moons largest called Charon
New Horizon space took 9 years to reach Pluto – 1st space probe to gather info on (July 2015)