Spiritual tourism unwto vietnam noakes
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International Conference on Spiritual Tourism for Sustainable Development
Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Ninh Binh City, Vietnam, 21 and 22 November 2013.
Panel session: Sustainability in spiritual tourism destinations – Inclusive development and responsible
management. Topic: Can ‘spiritual tourism’ add value for environments, communities, tourism businesses and tourists?
Presenter: Steve NoakesPacific Asia Tourism Pty LtdNGOs: Global Sustainable Tourism Council, Sustainable Travel
International &Judge: Wild Asia Responsible Tourism Awards
My topics:Chủ đề của tôi:
• Planet/Hành tinh
• People/Nhân dân
• Profits/ Lợi nhuận- from spiritual tourism adding value to sustainable practices: applying an example from India
Image source: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Earth
View of Asia & the Pacific
Image from Voyager 1 (1977)
Beyond our moon
11.7 million km from Earth
for the photo.
Physical forces beyond human control …
Antares is not the biggest star.
Thought to be a star called VY Canus Majoris - about 2,000 times the size of our sun - or more than twice the
size of Antares.
Our sun is a star - makes up 99.8% of the mass of the entire solar system.
Without the sun's intense energy there would be no life on Earth.
The Universe – beyond our Solar System
Image source: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Beyond
Different forms of spirituality helps some people understand the: nature of the evolutionary dynamics of the universe role & purpose of humanity in the unfolding story of earth & cosmos
Human species on spaceship earth. Impacts & resource use
Vietnam’s population hits 90 million
Sustainability – need or greed? ‘Regretfully, human activities have also contributed to the severe degradation of our natural ecosystems and its regenerative capacity.
Our reckless behavior puts pressure on our biodiversity, fresh water & food access.’
H.E. Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudoyona, President of the Republic of Indonesia – at the launch of the UN SDSN Southeast Asia Regional Hub, Bali. 6 Oct. 2013
Air pollution, China
More people More people travelling
More people travelling for purposes of ‘spirituality’pilgrimage, religion, secular
Spiritual tourism: adding value for environments, communities, tourism businesses & tourists.Example: India
Rich in its culture – varied attractions - many places of worship – for centuries
For followers of major religion & sects: Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism & Christianity
Architecturally lavish temples, mosques, monasteries & churches across the nation = dispersal of spiritual travellers
Image source: http://www.incredibleindia.org/travel
Small steps towards 'greening’ pilgrimage.12th century Jagannath Temple - holy pilgrimage centre in Puri, east India. Photo from 1890s.
Image source: http://www.oldindianphotos.in/2011/02/various-photograhs-of-jagannath-temple.html
The Trip Advisor test
• Community-based initiative - commenced 2009 on UNWTO World Tourism Day. • Financed (non-polluting) 24 new rickshaws - soft loan from State Bank of India +
donations from tourists. • Pro-poor: Started with 40 Green Riders – now 75 + Green Riders on the streets of
Puri. • New skills - rickshaw-pullers trained on basic etiquettes of greeting & hosting
Green rider rickshaw service, Puri.
Winner ‘Inspiring Stories from Destinations’ Competition.Now recommended in Lonely Planet guide book for Puri.
Addressing environmental challenges to the 12th century shrine
"An NGO will be engaged in distributing saplings among pilgrims. The saplings will be given at the entrance of the temple and some other places in Puri. We will also distribute leaflets with environment-friendly messages," Arvind Padhee, Temple’s Chief Administrator
‘Battery-operated vehicles would soon be pressed into service to reduce carbon footprints. "We have consulted some companies. It will take final shape shortly," said Padhee
Some challenges Some solutions
Sustainability issue. Sustainability tools.
Lack of awareness on sustainability principles.
Distribute leaflets with locally relevant environment-friendly messages in range of targeted
languages – locals & visitors.
Reduce local carbon footprint. Battery operated vehicles between Market Square & Jagannath Temple.
Green rider service.
Poor drainage & sanitation around the temple.
Increase public resources for basic infrastructure – public health issue.
Waste management - temple's kitchen, generates nearly 80 tonnes of garbage every day - often dumped along the boundary wall of the temple.
Increasing resources & skills in local Urban Development Authority for effective waste
Traffic congestion for all visitors: pilgrims, tourists, locals - vehicles & foot traffic on roads, narrow pathways, bridges etc
Off-site carparks & green rider rickshaw transfer services.
Green Rider NGO deploy on key streets for regulation of traffic during nine-day festival.
Innovative techniques for visitor circulation.
Sustainable Spiritual Tourism: Puri
Some challenges Some solutions
Avoiding or reducing potential for host/visitor misunderstanding or conflict.
Provide information to visitors on appropriate codes of conduct at spiritual sites: rites & rituals,
sacrifices, meditation, worship, penance, donations
Prescribe special/restricted areas for the devout.
Understand there will be a diversity of religious motivations among
tourists & pilgrims.
Encroachments by micro-enterprises.
Ensure authenticity & integrity of the original character of spiritual site.
Minimise/avoid/remove unplanned visitor facilities & illegal encroachments.
Boost local economies from tourists without annoying tourists.
Learn how to encourage responsible/ethical local entrepreneurship & manage misbehaviour from
both tourists & locals.
Sustainable Spiritual Tourism: Puri
Can ‘spiritual tourism’ add value for environments, communities, tourism businesses & tourists?Transport GHG Policies to encourage use of Sustainable Aviation
Fuels (SAF) - advanced turbine biofuel.Introduce electric powered tourist coaches..
Safety & security Disaster prevention plans and implementation training & resources.
Overcrowding Allocate different access points & parking spaces for buses, cars, rickshaws/tuk-tuks, bicycles etc – helps
prevent delays, bottlenecks, air & noise pollution.
Local community/people changes in attitudes, values or behaviour resulting from observing & imitating tourists (Demonstration effect)
Identify & harness positives from contact with foreign ways of life to the host population and
minimise the negatives.
Long-term cultural change from tourism (Acculturation)
Strategies to balancing ‘commodification’ & revitalisation & strengthening of cultures.
Displacement of locals for tourism related development
Understand & ethically manage the power relationships between key stakeholders in tourism
development, government & local communities
Thank you/Cảm ơn bạnwww.gstcouncil.org
‘ A tourist is half pilgrim, if a pilgrim is half tourist’ Turner & Turner 1978
Brunet, S., Bauer, J. & De Lacy, T. (2001) Tourism Development in Bhutan: Tensions between Tradition and Modernity, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 9, No. 3.
Jafari, Jafar and Scott, Noel Robert (2014) Muslim world and its tourisms. Annals of Tourism Research, In Press : .
Smith, V. (1992) Introduction: The quest in guest. Annals of Tourism Research, 19 (1), 1-17
Turner, V. & Turner, E. (1978) Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978, p.20
Venugopalan T. Emerging dimensions in tourism: India specific. http://www.du.ac.in/fileadmin/DU/Academics/course_material/Lesson21-23.pdf
Winter, C. (2007) The Intrinsic, Instrumental and Spiritual Value of Natural Area Visitors and the General Public: A Comparative Study, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 15, No. 6.