SATURDAY SEMINAR Sports & Leisure October 6, 2012.
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of SATURDAY SEMINAR Sports & Leisure October 6, 2012.
SATURDAY SEMINARSports & Leisure
October 6, 2012
Today’s Writing Practice• Time to discuss and practice writing basic claims and
evidence from a piece of writing today.• Reading and writing about content (always in curricular
context)• The article: “The Shame of College Sports,” by Historian
Defining an author’s claim…
• Isn’t always that easy to do.
• Takes practice.
• Helps us understand how to better state our own claims.
• Remind your partner of the definition of a claim.
• Come up with three adjectives to describe a great claim.
• Write a claim you heard from John this morning (1 sentence).
The Shame of College SportsA litany of scandals in recent years have made the corruption of college sports constant front-page news. We profess outrage each time we learn that yet another student-athlete has been taking money under the table. But the real scandal is the very structure of college sports, wherein student-athletes generate billions of dollars for universities and private companies while earning nothing for themselves. Here, a leading civil-rights historian makes the case for paying college athletes—and reveals how a spate of lawsuits working their way through the courts could destroy the NCAA.
This is the introduction to
a recent article in The
Atlantic. Given this
introduction, what do you
think the author’s super claim is? Be as specific as
possible. Write down a one sentence
SHARE OUT YOUR CLAIMS.What details were necessary to include in the claim statement beyond: “College athletes should be paid”? How did you use the 4 E’s to add make your claim statement?
WHAT WE DON’TWANT TO DO:QUOTING OUT OF CONTEXT
Otherwise known as…
QUOTE MINING or
CONTEXTOMY (think surgery to remove the context)
Example from Darwin: Origin of Species• “To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to
different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.”
• The quote in context is…
• To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree. Yet reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a perfect and complex eye to one very imperfect and simple, each grade being useful to its possessor, can be shown to exist; if further, the eye does vary ever so slightly, and the variations be inherited, which is certainly the case; and if any variation or modification in the organ be ever useful to an animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, though insuperable by our imagination, can hardly be considered real.
Movie “Blurb” Examples of Quote Mining
Se7en• The ad copy for New Line
Cinema’s 1995 thriller Se7en attributed to Owen Gleiberman, a critic for Entertainment Weekly, used the comment “a small masterpiece.”
• Gleiberman actually gave Se7en a B− overall and only praised the opening credits so grandiosely: “The credit sequence, with its jumpy frames and near-subliminal flashes of psychoparaphernalia, is a small masterpiece of dementia.”
Hoodlum• United Artists “contextomized”
critic Kenneth Turan’s review of their flop Hoodlum, including just one word from it — “irresistible”.
• The real quote: “Even Laurence Fishburne’s incendiary performance can’t ignite Hoodlum, a would-be gangster epic that generates less heat than a nickel cigar. Fishburne’s ‘Bumpy’ is fierce, magnetic, irresistible even… But even this actor can only do so much.”
An Example From “The Shame of College Sports”• In talking about the Olympics, Anne Audain, world record holder in
track-and-field, once proclaimed, “It’s like losing your virginity.”
• FOR ALL OUR queasiness about what would happen if some athletes were to get paid, there is a successful precedent for the professionalization of an amateur sports system: the Olympics. ….The International Olympic Committee expunged the word amateur from its charter in 1986. …This sweeping shift left the Olympic reputation intact, and perhaps improved. Only hardened romantics mourned the amateur code. “Hey, come on,” said Anne Audain, a track-and-field star who once held the world record for the 5,000 meters. “It’s like losing your virginity. You’re a little misty for awhile, but then you realize, Wow, there’s a whole new world out there!”
WHAT WE DO WANT TO DO: QUOTING & PARAPHRASING
QUOTING & PARAPHRASING CORRECTLY
• if you can’t say it any better and the author’s words are particularly brilliant, witty, edgy, distinctive, a good illustration of a point you’re making, or otherwise interesting.
• if the source is very authoritative and has particular expertise.
• if you are taking a position that relies on the reader’s understanding exactly what another writer says about the topic.
• Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources.
• Avoid “plop quotations.” Introduce, discuss, or follow-up on every quote. Quotes don’t normally work well in their own sentence.
Paraphrasing• Specific section of text (not a summary
of text)• Not just changing or rearranging of
author’s words• Set your source aside and restate the
sentence or paragraph in your own words…then start writing.
• Indicate the author you are paraphrasing
• Explain how the paraphrase matters and link it to your other points clearly (reasoning).
Helpful Words for Quote AttributionAny of these words can be placed in the past tense as well.
add remark exclaim
announce reply state
comment respond estimate
write point out predict
argue suggest propose
declare criticize proclaim
note complain opine
observe think note
Quoting With Confidence
Answer the following questions: • Who said this? • In what context?
• What does it mean? • How can we use this to support the claim? (What is
our reason for using this quote?) Then, create a passage that successfully integrates the quote (and contextualizes it and introduces it).
Paraphrasing with Confidence• Think about the essence of the passage that you care
• Change the structure of the sentence(s) that you are paraphrasing from – start and end in a different way.
• Then, change the actual words to ensure that your thought is your own.
• Check – do you have any groupings of words that match the original that could be changed and keep the meaning the same?
Check Out the Sample Paraphrase Handout
• Read “A.” This is a piece from which people will paraphrase.
• Now read “B.” Approximately what percentage of the paragraph is in the author’s own words?
• Read “C.” What is the problem here? Take two of the underlined portions and rewrite them in your own words.
• Read “D.” Compare it to passage “A.” Tell your partner what the lesson of this handout is.
Support The Claim: College Sports Has Become Very Big Business
The United States is the only country in the world that hosts big-time sports at institutions of higher learning. This should not, in and of itself, be controversial. College athletics are rooted in the classical ideal of Mens sana in corpore sano—a sound mind in a sound body—and who would argue with that? College sports are deeply inscribed in the culture of our nation. Half a million young men and women play competitive intercollegiate sports each year. Millions of spectators flock into football stadiums each Saturday in the fall, and tens of millions more watch on television. The March Madness basketball tournament each spring has become a major national event, with upwards of 80 million watching it on television and talking about the games around the office water cooler. ESPN has spawned ESPNU, a channel dedicated to college sports, and Fox Sports and other cable outlets are developing channels exclusively to cover sports from specific regions or divisions. With so many people paying for tickets and watching on television, college sports has become Very Big Business. According to various reports, the football teams at Texas, Florida, Georgia, Michigan, and Penn State—to name just a few big-revenue football schools—each earn between $40 million and $80 million in profits a year, even after paying coaches multimillion-dollar salaries. When you combine so much money with such high, almost tribal, stakes—football boosters are famously rabid in their zeal to have their alma mater win—corruption is likely to follow.
QUOTE • What words or phrases should the author be
noted for because they are unique or written in a way that paraphrasing could not appropriately capture?
• Introduce your quote. • Do not quote more than 10 words.
PARAPHRASE• What is the best information to support this
claim?• First, change the structure of the sentence(s)
– start and end in a different way.• Then, change the actual words to ensure that
your thought is your own.• Check – do you have any groupings of words
that match the original that could be changed and keep the meaning the same?
Paraphrase the Paragraph
• The debates and commissions about reforming college sports nibble around the edges—trying to reduce corruption, to prevent the “contamination” of athletes by lucre, and to maintain at least a pretense of concern for academic integrity. Everything stands on the implicit presumption that preserving amateurism is necessary for the well-being of college athletes. But while amateurism—and the free labor it provides—may be necessary to the preservation of the NCAA, and perhaps to the profit margins of various interested corporations and educational institutions, what if it doesn’t benefit the athletes? What if it hurts them?
After reading this paragraph, push it away from you
and tell your partners what
the most important idea in the paragraph is.
Then, start a sentence that
does not begin in the same way as
any sentence you read.
Elaborate with one detail in your
Understand Well to Quote Well
“The Plantation Mentality”
“Ninety percent of the NCAA revenue is produced by 1 percent of the athletes,” Sonny Vaccaro says. “Go to the skill positions”—the stars. “Ninety percent African Americans.” The NCAA made its money off those kids, and so did he. They were not all bad people, the NCAA officials, but they were blind, Vaccaro believes. “Their organization is a fraud.”
Explain the “plantation mentality” in your own words in the apace below (no statistics…just a basic description).
Write out the entire quote from Sonny Vaccaro, without the textual interruptions of the author.
Now quote Vacarro in your own sentence with an introduction and ending. Use only the “meat,” the most important part of the quote, in your sentence.
Summarize four paragraphs.A deeper reason explains why, in its predicament, the NCAA has no recourse to any
principle or law that can justify amateurism. There is no such thing. Scholars and sportswriters yearn for grand juries to ferret out every forbidden bauble that reaches a college athlete, but the NCAA’s ersatz courts can only masquerade as public authority. How could any statute impose amateur status on college athletes, or on anyone else? No legal definition of amateur exists, and any attempt to create one in enforceable law would expose its repulsive and unconstitutional nature—a bill of attainder, stripping from college athletes the rights of American citizenship.
FOR ALL OUR queasiness about what would happen if some athletes were to get paid, there is a successful precedent for the professionalization of an amateur sports system: the Olympics. ….The International Olympic Committee expunged the word amateur from its charter in 1986. Olympic officials, who had once disdained the NCAA for offering scholarships in exchange for athletic performance, came to welcome millionaire athletes from every quarter, while the NCAA still refused to let the pro Olympian Michael Phelps swim for his college team at Michigan.
This sweeping shift left the Olympic reputation intact, and perhaps improved. Only hardened romantics mourned the amateur code. “Hey, come on,” said Anne Audain, a track-and-field star who once held the world record for the 5,000 meters. “It’s like losing your virginity. You’re a little misty for awhile, but then you realize, Wow, there’s a whole new world out there!”
Without logic or practicality or fairness to support amateurism, the NCAA’s final retreat is to sentiment. The Knight Commission endorsed its heartfelt cry that to pay college athletes would be “an unacceptable surrender to despair.” Many of the people I spoke with while reporting this article felt the same way. “I don’t want to pay college players,” said Wade Smith, a tough criminal lawyer and former star running back at North Carolina. “I just don’t want to do it. We’d lose something precious.”
A summary is a shortened
version of a longer segment of text into one’s
own words. Summarize these four
paragraphs, which represent
against the counterclaim in two sentences.
How can you summarize? 1)
Agree on the four main points.
2) Write four short (not complex)
sentences. 3) Combine sentences.
Reflection & Application• What happens when you have to work with a group to
quote and paraphrase?
• Could you use something like this with a reading you are doing soon in your classes?
• Why is it important to choose specific passages for students to quote and paraphrase?