MOW Marketing Plan

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  • 7/30/2019 MOW Marketing Plan


    Marketing Plan

    Daniel Whitford

    MKTU 605: Marketing Management

    Spring II


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    Table Of Contents

    1.0 Executive Summary 3

    2.0 Situation Analysis 3

    2.1 Market Summary ... 42.1.1 Market Demographics 42.1.2 Market Needs . 62.1.3 Market Trends 62.1.4 Market Growth ... 72.2 SWOT Analysis 72.2.1 Strengths 82.2.2 Weaknesses 82.2.3 Opportunities . 92.2.4 Threats ... 92.3 Competition .. 92.4 Service Offering 10

    2.5 Keys to Success . 102.6 Critical Issues 112.7 Macro Environment .. 113.0 Marketing Strategy . 11

    3.1 Mission .. 123.2 Marketing Objectives .... 123.3 Financial Objectives .. 133.4 Target Marketing .. 133.5 Positioning . 133.6 Strategy Pyramids .. 143.7 Marketing Mix ... 143.7.1 Services and Service Marketing .. 14

    3.7.2 Pricing . 153.7.3 Promotion 153.7.4 Service 163.7.5 Business Facilities ... 173.8 Marketing Research 174.0 Financials, Budgets, and Forecasts 17

    4.1 Break-even Analysis .. 184.2 Revenue Forecast .. 194.3 Expense Forecast 204.4 Linking Sales and Expenses to Strategy 224.5 Contribution Margin .. 225.0 Controls . 24

    5.1 Implementation Milestones 245.2 Marketing Organization . 265.3 Contingency Planning 26References 28


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    1.0 Executive Summary

    The goal of this marketing plan is to outline the strategies and various outreach programs that will makethe goals outlined for Meals on Wheels, a non-profit (501) organization a reality in the year 2012.

    MOW, unlike a typical business delivery company, receives a unique way of financial support fromgovernment subsidizes and private donation, as well as from many volunteers. The service goal is topreserve the dignity and independence of homebound elderly and disable persons by providing them withnutritious home-delivered meals with our caring support from volunteers and staff members, and otherservices, to enrich their lives. MOW is one of the charitable community service organization to providefor the elderly and disable persons who are homebound, disable, or are not able to make meals..etc.Besides elderly and disable persons, MOW is also open to serve low-income families or single familieswho receive social security benefits. The goals for MOW are (1) Reaching out homebound elderly whoare alone and isolated, by providing low cost home-delivery meals. (2) A place for community to form ateam work of volunteers support as to socialize and to share their passion of serving experiences withfriends.

    Marketing will play a vital role in the success of MOW. MOW must build a reputation of well and caringdelivery services around the senior community. It offers by consistently promoting itself through localtelevision, radio, community fair events, and schools with printed advertising. Marketing efforts are justbeginning by the time a potential consumer enters MOW for the first time. A strong emphasis will be puton keeping homebound elderly healthy and consumer brand loyalty with these seniors including focusingon making nutritious meals, training for staff and volunteers, and striving for customer satisfaction.

    Our target markets include:

    Homebound seniors or seniors who are 65 years or older from retirement community centers andsenior apartments.

    Disable persons who are receiving Medi-Cal. Low-Income families who have qualified for this service

    2.0 Situation Analysis

    Entrenched as the leader in senior food programs, MOW has been providing no-cost senior foodassistance since 1976. Operating as a non-profit which relies on donor contributions, requests for suchassistance the past several years has remained particularly high. With a growing Baby Boomer seniorpopulation, and a marked decrease in senior retirement and social benefits, MOW recognizes the need toremain the leading and central senior food organization for seniors needing help.

    Separating us from loosely organized local food bank organizations, which cater to a wider demographic,

    MOWs narrow target clientele remains senior citizens, generally over the age of 65, with limitedfinancial resources. This gives MOW a distinct advantage by targeting a specific segment of thepopulation whose only means of financial assistance is generally reduced monthly Social Securitysubsistence.

    Meals on Wheels enjoys vast support and recognition as the only leader providing readymade hot mealsto hungry seniors. Significant support from high profile celebrity, corporation, and influential membersof Congress, point to a clear stronghold in MOWs fight against senior hunger, with little to no


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    competition. Seniors have found, with MOWs long-standing tradition of providing no-cost assistance,that it is the main choice and household name in any type of food assistance need.

    2.1 Market Summary

    Meals on Wheels is a nationwide company that has committed to helping elderly or disabled persons gethot, nutritious meals delivered directly to their homes on a daily basis. The senior citizen population isgrowing year after year and more senior citizens are unable to afford meals to properly feed themselves.Meals on Wheels is targeting the senior citizen market to make sure that no senior goes hungry and thatthey are provided with nutritious meals to keep them well-fed.

    The senior population is growing at a relatively fast pace of about 12% from the 1990 Census to the 2000census. More and more people are reaching the age of 65 and are unable to afford the price of food withthe price of inflation and the decline in the economy. Therefore, Meals on Wheels sees a big demand inthe future for its services that its provides each year.

    Target Market Growth:

    Senior Citizens over the age of 65 reached 35.1 million in 2000 a 12% increase from 1990

    The population 85 years and over increased by 38 percent, from 3.1 million to 4.2 million in 2000

    The West experienced the highest percent increase of the older population, at 20 percent

    In the West, the proportion of people 65 years and over increased slightly from 10.9 percent in1990 to 11.0 percent in 2000.

    California, the most populous state, was also the state with the largest number of people 65 yearsand over (3.6 million people).

    The percent of people 65 years and over living in nursing homes declined from 5.1 percent in1990 to 4.5 percent in 2000

    Target Markets


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    2.1.1 Market Demographics

    As a not for profit 501(c), Meals on Wheels specifically markets and accepts donations on behalf of thosehungry senior citizens who may have been left behind due to insufficient Social Security or retirementbenefits to supplement an acceptable way of life. Loosely defined, the generally accepted age at which aperson becomes a senior citizen is 65. Clients of Meals on Wheels are generally women, in which 1/3rd

    live alone in low income housing, with the vast majority only receiving modest social security benefits.A significant segment of hungry seniors were minorities, which comprised nearly 40% of the hungrysenior demographic. Future market indicators show an expanding senior citizen demographic in thecoming decade, as aging baby, boomers (with longer life expectancies) begin to receive limited ordecreased social security benefits. Specifically:

    Current Market Analysis

    Older population (65+), which numbered 40.4 million in 2010, has increased 5.4 million or15.3% since 2000.

    The number of Americans aged 45-64 who will reach 65 over the next two decades increased by 31% during this decade.

    Older women outnumber older men at 23.0 million older women to 17.5 million older men.

    In 2010, 20.0% of persons 65+ were minorities--8.4% were African-Americans. Hispanicsrepresented 6.9% of the older population. Approximately 3.5% were Asian or PacificIslander, and less than 1% were American Indian or Native Alaskan.

    About 29% (11.3 million) of non-rest home seniors live alone (8.1 million women, 3.2million men).

    Almost half of older women (47%) age 75+ live alone.

    About 485,000 grandparents aged 65 or more had the primary responsibility for theirgrandchildren who lived with them.

    The median income of older persons in 2010 was $25,704 for males and $15,072 for

    females. Median money income (after adjusting for inflation) of all households headed byolder people fell 1.5% from 2009 to 2010. Households containing families headed bypersons 65+ reported a median income in 2010 of $45,763.

    The major sources of income as reported by older persons in 2009 were Social Security(reported by 87% of older persons), income from assets (reported by 53%), privatepensions (reported by 28%), government employee pensions (reported by 14%), andearnings (reported by 26%).

    Social Security constituted 90% or more of the income received by 35% of beneficiaries in2009 (22% of married couples and 43% of non-married beneficiaries).

    According to the Census Bureau almost 3.5 million elderly persons (9.0%) were below thepoverty level in 2010.

    Future Market Analysis

    The population 65 and over has increased from 35 million in 2000 to 40 million in 2010 (a15% increase) and is projected to increase to 55 million in 2020 (a 36% increase for thatdecade).

    The 85+ population is projected to increase from 5.5 million in 2010 and then to 6.6 millionin 2020 (19%) for that decade.

    Minority populations have increased from 5.7 million in 2000 (16.3% of the elderlypopulation) to 8.1 million in 2010 (20% of the elderly) and are projected to increase to 13.1million in 2020 (24% of the elderly).


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    2.1.2 Market Needs

    The exponential growth of the senior citizen demographic, in part, largely due to a retiring baby boomergeneration, will spawn increased monetary and voluntary requirements in order to maintain increasedMeals on Wheels clientele levels. By 2025, 9.5 million seniors will experience some form of hunger intheir lives, which is a 75% increase from 2005 estimates. Eighty percent of current donations arereceived from private donors, while the vast majority of those involved with Meals on Wheels arevolunteers who prepare and deliver meals, which currently comprise 2.2 million people. As the standalone outreach program with no direct competition, Meals on Wheels must maintain current levels andaccommodate this growing senior population in the next decade. Among minority groups, aging veterans,and decreases in social security benefits, the market needs of Meals on Wheels continue to be a sustainingan increasing donation base, as well as a larger pool of volunteers to accommodate the up rise inanticipated senior hunger.

    2.1.3 Market Trends

    The vision of Meals on Wheels wishes a hunger free senior population by 2020. However, as a charitableorganization, Meals on Wheels unfortunately assumes that there will likely be a need for a serviceprogram to feed seniors who may not be able to financially feed themselves beyond 2020. Therefore,noted as a chief indicator of potential increases in senior hunger in the next decade, Meals on Wheelsrecognizes baby boomers represent a substantial future market of seniors who statistically are livinglonger than Meals on Wheels current client of seniors from the greatest generation (those born prior tothe Depression). The inherent difficulties in soliciting donations and volunteers may ebb and flow withcomparable employment and charitable giving rates of the greater population. Further adding to markettrends, estimates from social security watchdog groups maintain the insolvency of social security by2040, coupled with increasing poverty rates, will add more pressure to 90% of seniors who rely on social

    security benefits.

    Market Forecast


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    2.1.4 Market Growth

    The market for the services Meals on Wheels will offer is growing. The population of senior citizensgrew 12% from the results of the 2010 Census and more senior citizens are staying at home in their lateryears. The senior citizen population grew another 15% from 2000 to 2010 because the beginning of thebaby boomer generation is reaching senior citizen ages. In 2011, baby boomers reached the age of 65 andare just started to progress through their senior citizen years. As they progress through their life they willcontinue to need meals to sustain their quality of life and Meals on Wheels will be there to help them inthose times of need.

    Todays families live very active and busy lifestyles in this growing world of technology and rarely havetime to take care of a loved one. Most families have both parents working in the home and taking care ofthe elderly citizens is difficult. Meals on Wheels will help out busy families take care of their loved ones.Families will be able to pick out meal plans for their loved ones and be assured that they are getting thenutrition that they need.

    Meals on Wheels is here to make sure that no senior goes hungry. With the help of government grantsand the backing a strong team of volunteers, Meals on Wheels can deliver on their promise.

    Target Market Growth

    2.2 SWOT Analysis

    A SWOT analysis provides an organization a strategy formulation to better understand mission-supportedareas of internal organizational strengths, as well as potential areas of weakness that Meals on Wheelsmust address. Thoughtful and honest presentation of the opportunities and possible threats to theorganization are also examined.


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    Meals on Wheels enjoys a wide variety ofstrengths that will effectively ensure continued charitableservices to hungry seniors. These strengths include: large corporate sponsorship, mandated federalsubsidies, vast public support, and BBB charitable accreditation. As a charitable organization however,Meals on Wheels relies heavily on volunteer and charitable donation dependence, which must beaddressed as an inherent weakness in order to maintain future client services.

    Meals on Wheels future opportunities include a larger pool of aging population, expansion of othervulnerable hunger groups, and cuts into personal social security payments for seniors. Although acharitable organization that widely enjoys positive support, threats to Meals on Wheels include economicbudget cuts and lowering donation rates.

    2.2.1 Strengths

    1. Largest national meal provider for poor seniors. Supports approximately 5,000 feeding

    programs in all 50 states and U.S. territories, feeding over 1 million homebound seniors each day.

    2. Corporate Sponsorship. Charitable partnerships with deep pocketed organizations such as Wal-

    Mart, Bank of America, Subaru of America and Bridgestone Tires, have collectively donatedover $10.1 million dollars annually to the feeding of hungry senior citizens.

    3. Tax Free Status. Operating as a charitable organization, Meals On Wheels Association of

    America is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization recognized by the IRS which is exempt from

    paying federal taxes, thus, a higher percentage of donated funds received from donors go directly

    to feed hungry seniors.

    4. Federally subsidized. As a charitable organization, Meals on Wheels receives a portion of a

    Congressionally mandated $1.7 billion annual federal social services block grant issued from the

    United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

    5. No direct competition. As a non-profit 501(c), Meals on Wheels has no inherent need for

    competition from similar agencies or local food for hungry establishments. Often cooperating

    and partnering with local food banks and other similar food for hungry programs.

    6. High Public Support. Enjoys widespread support and sponsorship from celebrities, politicians,

    and highly influential individuals.

    7. BBB accredited. Meets Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Standards for non-profit

    501(c) charitable accountability.

    2.2.2 Weaknesses

    1. Volunteer dependent. Meals on Wheels estimates between 800,000 to 1.7 million volunteers

    provide senior assistance, meal preparers, and drivers whom deliver food to needy seniors.

    However economic fluctuations in unemployment rates and higher overall consumer prices may

    play a significant role in volunteerism rates.

    2. Charitable dependent. In 2010, Meals on Wheels received over $4.4 million in private donor

    contributions. In order to maintain client services to feed hungry seniors, Meals on Wheels can

    only rely on generous donations made primarily from private donors.

    3. Little advertising. No large-scale marketing budget or advertising campaign to elicit donations,

    volunteer efforts, or market the plight of 8.3 million hungry seniors.


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    2.2.3 Opportunities

    1. Larger pool of aging clients. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the 77 million Baby

    Boomers (individuals born between 1946-1964), have begun to reach retirement age which may

    increase the likelihood of future food service provisions provided by Meals on Wheels.

    2. Expanding vulnerable group participation. Meals for Moms, Veterans, and Children

    campaigns designed through Meals on Wheels research, these groups have been identified as

    most likely to be at risk of hunger.

    3. Proposed social security cuts. Discussed and proposed social security budget cuts would

    substantially increase Meals on Wheels presence of those seniors who rely on this benefit.

    According to the Social Security Administration (SSA), the average retiree currently receives

    $1240 per month in social security benefits. If a cut of 3% is initiated in benefits, a poor senior

    may lose $37 in food purchasing power.4. Seeks to end Senior hunger by 2020. By expanding participation with local food banks, other

    charitable organizations, and reaching out to new streams of volunteers and donors, Meals on

    Wheels envisions ending hunger for 8.3 million seniors by 2020.

    2.2.4 Threats

    1. Economic Budget Cuts. Bantered about in Congress seeking a solution, the nations debt

    currently stands at $16 trillion. In talks to reduce the debt, proposed cuts to social programs for

    the poor include cutting the $1.7 billion Social Services Block Grant from HHS.

    2. Declining donation rates. Meals on Wheels competes for a tightening American donated dollar

    with other food for hungry non-profit 501 (c), such as Loaves and Fishes, Friendship Trays, and

    local food banks and homeless missions.

    2.3 Competition

    Meals on Wheels is a service provider that faces competition from other food delivery services and seniorcitizen homes. Meals on Wheels will position itself as the leader in the food delivery service business byoffering services throughout the country. Meals on Wheels will become a common household name andbe considered by everyone who has needs for food delivery services to elderly and homebound seniorcitizens.

    Meals on Wheels does not have any direct competitors that provide the same nutritious hot meal deliveryservice across the country. Although in select markets, the competition will have to be evaluated to verifyif there is any direct competition for Meals on Wheels in the area.

    One of the indirect competitors for Meals on Wheels is Dine Wise an online frozen food based mealdelivery program designed for busy families and people on the go, but can be used for homebound seniorcitizens. Dine Wise is considered a follower in the market for Meals on Wheels, because it does notprovide the same home delivery service. In order for consumers to use Dine Wise, they must be able toaccess the Internet and pick the meals that they want. Most senior citizens do not have direct access to


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    the Internet or do not know how to properly navigate through websites to order meals. Thereforethrough the use of home delivery of hot, nutritious, customized meals, Meals on Wheels will be the leaderin the market.

    Meals on Wheels has created a niche market by offering services to a targeted senior population. Seniorcitizens that are homebound due to age, illness or the inability to drive can use the services that Meals on

    Wheels offers. Senior centers offer hot meals, but also cost a lot more than the prices of meals fromMeals on Wheels, which are low cost due to government subsidies. Most consumers of Meals on Wheelsare on a fixed budget and cannot afford to move to a senior citizen home. Meals on Wheels fills that voidof consumers not being able to live in a senior Citizen home due to cost and still provides nutritious mealsto the elderly in their own homes at a small cost or free due to the government grants and subsidies.

    2.4 Service Offering

    Meals on Wheels will provide its seniors with full access to nutritious, ready-made meals with door-to-door delivery. People can order meals through phone or Internet 7 days in advance. Meals on Wheels willmail monthly newsletter with menu. Each meal will be prepared according to individuals needs withvegetarian and diabetic packages. People will be ordering through touch-tone phone ordering system forthose who are not frequent Internet users. For those who use Internet frequently or have difficultyhearing, Meals on Wheels will provide website for them to order online. There will be Customer servicerepresentatives answering phone calls for those who want to cancel the meals or have not received theirmeals yet. Home delivery and easy to order services are available to Meals on Wheels clients are listedbelow:

    Meals include assorted breakfast cereals and breads, milk and juice Main dish includes hot entre and sides for lunch with salad and dessert.

    A ready-made meal (not frozen foods, no heating required)

    Volunteer drivers will deliver meals with daily visits offering friendly greetings and dependable,reliable contact.

    Customers can sign up for Meals on Wheels personal account. This account will be used forpeople to choose what kind of meals they want, to build their personal diet preference, or to pickany meals from the monthly menu.

    Delivery time will be from 11am to 1:00pm, five days a week.

    Meals on Wheels allow clients the dignity and comfort of remaining self-sufficient at their own homes.Also, Meals on Wheels will also provide monthly lectures about how to eat healthy and diabetes issues.People who are the Meals on Wheels clients are encouraged to attend these lectures at no cost. Theseclasses will be held in the afternoon and late in the evening. By providing these classes, Meals on wheelswill build a personal connection and relationship with clients getting familiar with its services. Meals onWheels will provide many opportunities for people who want to become a volunteer serving seniors andother people in need. In addition, Meals on Wheels will also provide free access to community activities

    and recognition awards for the volunteers.

    2.5 Keys to SuccessThe keys to the success for Meals on Wheels (Meals on Wheels) are to:

    Build a larger capacity of external awareness of the Meals on Wheels program, through website,

    email, and multi-media technological advances in order to widely disseminate needed

    information regarding hungry seniors.


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    Maintain a lean, dedicated, and productive network of available volunteers and GPS equipped

    serviceable vehicles that are available at short notice.

    Sustain two-way communication channels among congressional leaders of both political parties

    in Washington DC, as well as local representatives in each state for the purposes of maintaining

    both federal and state funding, as well as protected 501(c) status.

    Increase annual private donations percentages each year while ensuring administrative costs are

    kept to a minimum.

    Maximize restaurant and grocery outlet corporate sponsorship by providing not only needed

    funds, but free or reduced meals to seniors.

    2.6 Critical Issues

    The risks involved for Meals on Wheels (Meals on Wheels) are:

    Will the demand for senior hunger rise while donations to Meals on Wheels decrease?

    Will the fluctuation in volunteer rates for Meals on Wheels increase and decrease concurrently

    with the U.S. unemployment rate?

    Will funding from federal and state agencies be cut in order to address budget deficits?

    Will administrative, food, fuel, and operating costs rise during economic downturns?

    How much of the future American donation dollar is being swayed by other charitable

    organizations offering similar services?

    Will corporate sponsorship fade with economic downturns in employment and lowered profitmargins?

    2.7 Macro Environment

    With 2,000 volunteers MOW is one of the largest charitable community organization that servehomebound seniors. Most volunteers donate 2 to 4 hours a week to prepare for meals at most seniorcenters and to deliver meals by using their own vehicles. Some staff members serve as customersrepresentative to answer phone calls and other specific task. A number of business also participatethrough Make it your day which allows interested employees to become volunteers to deliver meals

    during their lunch hours.

    The popularity of the meal delivery is growing exponentially. Those volunteers who are familiar with themeal delivery service are well aware of how fun and rewarding this can be. By providing nutritionalmeals and friendship support, MOW can improve the health, independence, dignity and well-being of ourelderly and disabled citizens, and to enhances the quality of life for the entire community.

    3.0 Marketing Strategy


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    Meals on Wheels has four main strategies. The first strategy focuses on attracting homebound seniorsreceiving social security benefits. By advertising through senior apartment and retirement community,Meals on Wheels will ensure that they will provide a friendly delivery to these seniors. Meals on Wheelshopes to get a loyal client base that desperately needs this service in order to continually receiving grantfrom the federal and state government.

    The second and most important strategy focuses on recruiting more volunteers to help with Meals onWheels organization. The target volunteers include drivers and deliverers. The places to market Meals onWheels includes community college, high school, community fair, government agency and adult school.Also, drivers and deliverers must be reliable and friendly to serve as community ambassadors. This groupof volunteers serves an important function at Meals on Wheels. Without these volunteer serving attitude,Meals on Wheels will be unable to function well.

    The third strategy focuses on expanding participation with local food banks, other charitable

    organizations, and reaching out to new streams of volunteers and donors. By 2020, Meals on Wheels

    anticipates ending hunger for 8.3 million seniors from expanding charitable participation.

    The fourth strategy will be actively reaching out for private donations through Meals on Wheelscampaign and also proposing more grants from the government. There will be data analysis and survey

    numbers pulled out from the senior population as well as from vulnerable low income groups receiving

    social security program as supported documents. According to the Social Security Administration (SSA),

    the average retiree currently receives $1240 per month in social security benefits. If a cut of 3% is

    initiated in benefits, a poor senior may lose $37 in food purchasing power. Without financial support from

    the donors and government consistently, it will be hard to make the best service to the seniors clients.

    3.1 Mission

    Meals on Wheels mission is to provide national leadership to end senior hunger.

    Meals on Wheels is a company dedicated to providing delicious and nutritious meals to elderly citizens ofthe community throughout all 50 states of the country. Through the use of government funding and adedicated team of volunteers, Meals on Wheels provides thousands of meals each day to senior citizensthat may otherwise go hungry.

    Everything that Meals on Wheels performs in its business is based on ending senior hunger. From thevolunteers that dedicate their time making and delivering meals to the office workers receiving grantsfrom the government, each area is dedicated to ending senior hunger. By focusing on the mission ofending senior hunger, Meals on Wheels has been able to recruit volunteers that support our mission andare dedicated to helping senior citizens in their own communities.

    With this mission in mind throughout every process at Meals on Wheels, we hope to end senior hunger bythe year 2020. If you think you can, you will. We can and we will end senior hunger.

    3.2 Marketing Objectives

    Meals on Wheels marketing objectives for the next two years of operation include:


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    Providing healthy, delicious and nutritious meals especially for low-income seniors in affordableprices and with on-time delivery five days a week.

    Design less cholesterol, less fat and less sodium diets approved by registered dietician.

    Offer a variety of meals choices including vegetarian, diabetic and special made meals designedfor individual needs.

    Expand reach to more volunteers and donors willing to contribute to Meals on Wheels program,

    to end hunger for 8.3 million seniors by 2020. Implement quick order system and easy to choose menu for seniors where customers are able to

    call from home or order online for time efficiency,

    Advertise Meals on Wheels program to community and senior facilities to recruit more volunteersfor senior assistance, meal preparers, and drivers.

    3.3 Financial Objectives

    The goal of this marketing plan is to outline the marketing strategies, tactics, and programs that will makethe vision outlined in the Meals on Wheels plan a reality in the year 2012. The vision outlined in thebusiness plan including federal grant and donation of roughly $85,000 in the next two years with thatfigure increasing 20% annually.

    3.4 Target Marketing

    Meals on Wheels intends to deliver both to low income and homebound seniors who want a healthy,nutritious meal that fits their needs. Furthermore, Meals on Wheels will be serving seniors living alone,unable to prepare nutritious meals or obtain meals from another source, as well as those who have somephysical impairment or disabilities that limit their ability to drive. Another new target market for Mealson Wheels is minority populations who have limited resources or income to provide for families andchildren. Therefore, Meals on Wheels marketing team will be advertising through the newspaper, Internet(such as Facebook), or community health fairs to spread the words.

    Our primary target markets include:

    Seniors. The large senior population is an important part of the Meals on Wheels targeting base.The senior citizen populations continues to grow with 77 million Baby Boomers reachingretirement age, and are likely to need future food service provisions provided by Meal onWheels. Homebound seniors with low income, or senior citizens who have physical injuries thatare not able to drive and living alone are the most needed.

    People with physical disabilities. People with physical disabilities that are unable to drive orwalk. Meals on Wheels volunteers can deliver meals to their door with nice greeting andassistance.

    Minority population with low income. The minority population is growing rapidly especially inCalifornia, and there many underprivileged families who have limited resources and income, willbe our targeted population.

    Patients or children with diabetes and other health issues with diet restriction. It is importantto keep body healthy with nutritious meals; people nowadays with busy life are easily to developdiabetes, even childrens meals have too much sugar in it. Meals on Wheels goal is to bring


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    healthy meals to those people and children to improve their daily diet intake, also registereddietician and nurses will keep track of those peoples diet improvement with their doctor.

    3.5 Positioning

    Meals on Wheels will position itself as a charity based non-profit organization sponsored by the federaland state government, as well as from community donation and volunteers participation. Senior peopleand other targeted group will use Meals on Wheels as a way to get healthy meals without worrying abouttaking transportation or asking people to shop for them. In addition, Meals on Wheels will provide anykinds of meals adjustment upon request, or with doctors note for patients diet restriction. Also, Meals onWheels will be a place and an opportunity for students, retired people, or housewife becoming volunteersto serve the community. It is a good place for volunteers to give their passion back to people who needassistance. This program especially is designed to let seniors know that they are not alone, that peoplefrom the community care about them, giving any health and emotional support they need. The power ofdelivery and caring will help building the relationship between seniors and the people around thecommunity.

    3.6 Strategy Pyramids

    The following are the three key strategies that Meals on Wheels will focus on:

    Meals on Wheelss first strategy focuses on attracting senior citizens to the program. The bottom pyramidon attracting these seniors by:

    Providing nutritious portion of hot meals. A registered dietician will approve meals. Meals on Wheels will be staffed by trained volunteers and health care consultants to focus on

    serving the seniors citizen needs.

    Advertising through printed media in AARP and other publications for seniors Offering free events and workshops for senior clients through the city. These free events will be

    designed to help seniors to socialize and meet new friends, and workshops will be lecturing onhealth issues and other interesting topic for seniors to enjoy, such as traveling, photography...etc.

    Targeting through oldie radio music channels and news programs.

    Meals on Wheelss second strategy will be focused on attracting volunteers who will provide animportant function for Meals on Wheels. Without volunteers participation, Meals on Wheels will not beable to provide the best service to the senior consumers.

    Providing free access to community activities and recognition awards for the volunteers.

    Recruiting volunteers through IMC, such as sending flyers through high schools, communitycollege, or community fair events. Or community newsletter, newspapers, as well as word-ofmouth...etc

    Providing well-trained staff to assist volunteers in taking care seniors and delivering meals.

    Meals on Wheelss third strategy focuses on actively seeking for private donations through the Meals onWheels campaign. Meals on Wheels will also propose more grants from the government. There will bedata analysis and survey numbers pulled out from the senior population as well as from vulnerable lowincome groups receiving social security program as supported documents. Without financial support fromthe donors and government grant consistently, it will be hard to make the best service to the seniorconsumers.


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    3.7 Marketing Mix

    Meals on Wheels marketing efforts will focus on building a wide distribution of charitable donors in

    order to feed senior citizens struggling with hunger due to lack of sustained financial or family support.

    3.7.1 Services and Service Marketing

    As Meals on Wheels continues to grow at an exponential rate, easy and affordable access to the dailymeals is quickly becoming a necessity of life. Meals on Wheels provides the opportunity for seniors to getconnected with the community and with volunteers. It has a positive impact on both the receptors andgivers. Seniors will enjoy the healthy meals made by the volunteers; in return, volunteers will feelrewarded for serving. Meals on Wheels will create an environment where their volunteer drivers, kitchenpreparers and deliverers will be happy to work as a team. Therefore, people of all ages and culturalbackgrounds will be delighted to support Meals on Wheels and continually ordering meals through thisorganization

    3.7.2 Pricing

    As the stand alone charitable market leader for feeding seniors, and to maintain its current and

    compassionate mission to end senior hunger, MOW does not have any direct pricing associated with

    servicing its clientele. Additionally, determining a fair market price per meal is unwarranted because of

    MOWs status as a charitable non-profit 501(c) organization, which receives more than 80% of its funding

    from private donations, which may see charging hungry seniors for meals as an unkind gesture. With no

    direct competition, a hypothetical baseline minimum price range cannot be assessed. However, according

    to data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the minimum, typical food price for

    an individual between 51-70 years of age is $36.30 per week, or $5.18 per day. This total falls slightly

    for those seniors over 70 years of age. The reliance among donations and volunteers to prepare and

    deliver meals is paramount. As a charitable organization, MOW prides itself with feeding seniors whootherwise may go hungry on a given day, and will never transfer the cost to a hungry senior citizen.

    3.7.3 Promotion

    Meals on Wheels, in 2009 received over $6 million in private contributions and governmental grants, and

    expended $3.6 million in senior services and management operations of the organization. Less than 3%

    of the total annual revenue budget of MOW was utilized in marketing efforts, and will continue to

    maintain that low amount. Meals on Wheels relies heavily on three pillars of promotion: historical

    precedent as the leader in providing hungry seniors with meals at no-cost, Word of Mouth (WOM)

    advertising, and widespread public knowledge/support for its cause to end senior hunger. In order to

    maintain these charitable efforts, MOW supports a write-in and public rally/awareness campaign to lobby

    members of Congress to maintain or raise existing Social Security Benefits for seniors and increase grant


    A few Specific Marketing Efforts:

    Targeted local TV spots in high density and low cost areas


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    Targeted print media in magazines and other publications for seniors

    Local Newspaper announcements in targeted areas

    Targeted radio spots on older music listening channels and news programs

    MOW awareness Community Walk-through in targeted cities and rural areas

    Meals on Wheels Food Drive during start-up of local center and during the holiday times when

    more food is needed to reach out to more seniors

    2-Day Investor tour and help session to let investors learn about the charity and volunteer a day to

    help seniors in need

    Eat & Learn events throughout the year, which provides information about senior health care and


    State-of-the-Art website will be implemented to provide seniors with up-to-date information andadjustments to meals and to provide an education to investors and community volunteers.

    Meals on Wheels volunteers will be challenged in preparing, delivering and communicating with

    customers and will be rewarded with a free meal for their hard work and dedication.

    Attending career events at local community colleges to recruit volunteers in the community

    Establish relationship with local stores that provide free services or items to senior participating

    in local Meals on Wheels program. Example, 7-Eleven providing free coffee to seniors.

    Meals on Wheels will also ask for reduced advertising rates, and partner with local and national TV

    stations for free Public Service Announcements (PSA), on the plight of hungry senior citizens in the

    United States.

    3.7.4 Service

    Meals on Wheels is a service business that is dedicated to making sure that no senior citizen goes hungry.The success of Meals on Wheels is based on the quality of service we offer and the commitment that wemake to our customers. Without our customers, Meals on Wheels is not a business and we strive to makesure that each customer that we serve is treated like a guest in our own home.

    Dedicated to Quality Service Programs:

    Meals on Wheels works with a team of volunteers that are dedicated and committed to thebusiness and philanthropy of our business. Each volunteer will be rotated through each positionso they can understand the business as a whole and not just a part. By understanding the businessas a whole, volunteers can talk candidly and professionally about the Meals on Wheels programto people that they meet. This will help increase awareness of our program and will help thequality, as volunteers will understand the business thoroughly at each process.

    Meals on Wheels will operate a customer assistance telephone line for customers. This will allowcustomers to call in with any concerns that they may have. Each concern will be recorded and a


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    customer service representative will be tasked with researching the concern, investigating wherethe problem may lie, implementing a countermeasure to make sure the concern will not happenagain and then finally following up with the customer once again to let them know their concernhas been taken care of.

    Meals on Wheels will evaluate the satisfaction of each customer through the use of a survey.Each meal that is delivered to a customer will contain a survey. This survey will allow the

    consumer to effectively grade the quality, presentation and politeness of the food and staff thatwaited on the customer. Results will be tallied and improvements will be made where needed,once again increasing the quality of the service that is provided by Meals on Wheels.

    With these three Quality Service Programs in place, Meals on Wheels can be sure that they are providingthe right, quality and service that the customers expect.

    3.7.5 Business Facilities

    Meals on Wheels will be located in Orange County, California in the city of Orange. Orange is centrallylocated in Orange County and will allow Meals on Wheels direct access to all of the senior citizens thatneed our services. Surrounding areas include Santa Ana, Westminster and Atwood where lower incomesfor the county are seen and seniors are in the most need will be.

    Our facility will be located in the industrial district of Orange. Our facility will be a warehouse that isroughly 3,000 square feet. This building will be transformed into three different sections. One will be awarehouse to store donations and food supplies. Two will be the kitchen area, which will be a fullyfunctioning kitchen to prepare meals and food for the meals that need to be delivered. In the kitchen areawill also be a large walk-in freezer that will allow meals to be prepared in advance and then frozen untilneeded. All meals will be prepared at this facility, if demand increases more time will be allocated to thepreparation and preserving of meals in the freezer. Third, will be the office location where websitedevelopment and clerical positions will be located.

    Volunteers will report to this facility during the hours of 6 AM to 8PM. During these hours of operation,meals will prepared and delivered three times a day to the seniors who need our services by our volunteerstaff. During our hours of operation we will have 2 shifts for volunteers. The first shift will be from 6AM to 1 PM and the second shift will be from 12 PM to 8 PM. This will allow for a one-hour overlap tohelp transition from shift to shifts. Volunteers will use our transportation vehicles to deliver meals, whichwill include two Ford Econoline Vans. These vehicles will be stored and maintained at the warehousefacility.

    3.8 Marketing Research

    In 2011, the U.S. Census posted the result from the 2010 Census survey results. Meals on Wheels willcontinuously review the information provided by the U.S. Census to evaluate the market that we operate

    in. The U.S. Census provides key data for the target market of senior citizens and outlooks on where thesenior citizen population is headed. This information is crucial to establish for the success and growth ofMeals on Wheels.

    In addition to the results of the U.S. Census, Meals on Wheels will perform their own marketing researchto find the competition, pricing and audience that are in the market area. This research will be conductedon an annual basis and will be performed through the use of internal and external associates. Surveys,focus groups and market studies will be performed to find out key consumer preferences such as pricing,


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    meal requirements and tastes and service availability. Information collected from the research will beused to establish pricing, services, marketing, advertising and growth of Meals on Wheels.

    4.0 Financials, Budgets, and Forecasts

    The marketing plan is built on these truths:

    1. The marketing budget is based on a percentage of seniors and other targeted consumers needs.2. Building a strong financial connection and clients loyalty is critical to the success of MOW.

    3. Marketing is a critical component of the MOW charitable plan. MOW provides consumers notable to live in a senior citizen home due to cost and still provides nutritious meals to the elderly intheir own homes at a small cost or free due to the government grants and subsidies.

    4. Our understanding for seniors need for strong bounding with low cost delivered meals givesMOW a positive outlook on the future forecasting budgets over other potential competitorsdelivery services in the United States

    4.1 Break-even Analysis

    As a non-profit 501(c), Meals on Wheels operates as an industry leader that provides services to clientsfree of charge, and therefore does not maintain a mission based on profit or supporting gross margins.However, included as analysis, MOWs variable (operating) costs, such as administrative, insurance, andfundraising are equal to roughly 58% of per-total unit of revenue. It is our hope that as we move into thefuture and continue to build relationships with contributors, this value will decrease further, approachinga value of 20%.

    Monthly (program) fixed costs for MOW equal approximately $11,000. Fixed costs include: meal costs,kitchen supplies, vehicle transportation and other costs MOW must maintain on a monthly basis. Thesecosts are generally fixed and aren't impacted by an increase or a decrease in public contributions.

    Currently, MOW will break even at 1,084 units (meals) per month.


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    Break-even Analysis

    Monthly Units Break-even 1,084Monthly Revenue Break-even $10,840


    Average Per-Unit Revenue $8.00

    Average Per-Unit Variable Cost $2.00

    Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost $8,672

    4.2 Revenue Forecast

    Revenues for the MOW first year of operation are based on an almost 5% growth rate from month tomonth. This is an annual estimate and we feel that our strong emphasis on marketing to funding raisingand private donations will have positive results. Annually, beyond the first year of operations, we'repredicting a growth rate of roughly 20%. It is our hope that as we move into the future and continue tobuild relationships with contributors, this value will increase further, approaching a value of 40%.

    We'll have a better idea of potential growth rate beyond year one as we make our way through our firstyear. The plan will be updated as we receive more information.

    Revenue Forecast


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    Revenue Forecast

    2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    Other 1,000 2,100 2,500 2,800 3,000


    10,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,800


    20,255 25,280 27,908 28,199 30,219

    Fundraising 54,777 60,255 66,280 72,908 80,199


    58,000 69,600 83,520 100,224 120,269


    144,032 172,235 196,208 221,131 252,487

    4.3 Expense Forecast

    The annual marketing budget will equal approximately 10% of total revenue (contributions) received peryear, maxing out at $20,000 a year starting in the 4th year of operation. One of our strongest strengths isbeing a market leader and having widespread public support and loyalty. These valuable assets allowsMOW to maintain a small marketing budget, while ensuring the bulk of the contributions continue to flowwithin the operating cost of feeding hungry seniors.

    Currently, the marketing budget beyond year one remains at 10% or below of revenue. It is our hope tomaintain or decrease this amount should broader public support and administrative efficiencies of scaleallow us to do so.

    Explanation of Major Marketing Expenses:

    National TV spots... Although not our main marketing focus, by expanding into national TVadvertising, we will ask the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), which distributesmonthly 30 seconds of free TV advertising, to depict (in a PSA) the plight of hungry seniors andhow the public can help. We will elicit the assistance of volunteers to supply ad content. Because

    of the cost of regular TV ads, if MOW cannot secure free PSAs, we will not enlist the marketingefforts of regular TV advertising.

    Print Materials... Print materials always require a significant budget. They include: brochures,direct mailers, magazines ads, and anything else that may fit into this category.

    Local Newspapers... An important part of our marketing efforts in reaching out to those seniorswho may not have other means of communication. Newspapers ads will give us a two-foldvehicle for consistently getting our message/brand in front of a large number of potentialcustomers and volunteers. Additionally, ads in the first few pages of the newspaper will provide


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    us with a means for communicating with our contributors. Print media is expensive, andrepresents the largest percentage of our marketing budget.

    Local Radio Spots... Along with TV, the NAB also funds 30 second PSA spots on the radio.Therefore, MOW will ask the NAB to fund radio ads targeting both seniors who may need ourhelp, and those donors/volunteers wishing to contribute.

    (Other) Meals on Wheels Events... This will include local radio events in low-cost, senior

    citizen areas of a city where radio stations broadcast from the MOW tent offering information,monetary donation capabilities, and counseling services to customers requiring such assistance.Meals on Wheels will also run educational programs and community events throughout the year.Based on availability and site rental rates, MOW tent events may incur significant costs as well.

    (Other) Website Support: In an attempt to cast a wide net in attracting as many hungry seniorsand contributors/volunteers as possible, MOW will maintain a state-of-the-art, easy to accesswebsite. This website will be dedicated in disseminating social media information and point ofcontact access. Costs associated with maintaining this site, along with social networkingcapabilities also has a substantial burden on the marketing budget of MOW.

    Marketing Expense Budget

    Marketing Expense Budget

    2013 2014 2015 2016 2017Newspaper

    (60%) $8,400 $10,200 $11,400 $12,000 $12,000



    (20%) $2,800 $3,400 $3,800 $4,000 $4,000

    Other $2,800 $3,400 $3,800 $4,000 $4,000


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    Expenses $14,000 $17,000 $19,000 $20,000 $20,000

    Percent of

    Costs 9.70% 9.87% 9.68% 9.04% 7.92%

    4.4 Linking Sales and Expenses to Strategy

    Our marketing expenses are tied directly to the revenue that Meals on Wheels generates throughgovernment grants, individual/company donations and fundraising activities. As revenue increases, themarketing expenses will increase. Currently our marketing expenses equal roughly 5% of sales, and wehope to increase that value in the future. The marketing programs that will be implemented are to create

    awareness and support for the Meals on Wheels program. Meals on Wheels is based on volunteers anddonation providers either through work, money or food donations. Our marketing programs that areimplemented will help to generate more revenue for the program so we can continue to stay in businessand take care of more senior citizens that are unable to provide their own meals. Remember our missionis to make sure that no senior goes hungry and we can make sure that everyone understands our missionand what we do through the use of marketing.

    As we implement new marketing programs we will check for effectiveness and adjust our programs asneeded. In the beginning, to get things started we will start with local print ads and radio spots along witha food drive to build inventory for the business. As senior citizens start joining the Meals of Wheelsprogram, we will ask where they heard of the business to check effectiveness of ads. Also, we will makesure to ask where volunteers and food drive contributors heard of the program to make sure that we

    continue to invest in those medias that are most effective.

    Revenue vs. Expenses


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    4.5 Contribution Margin

    The Contribution Margin chart and table presents a strong use of the revenue that Meals on Wheelsgenerates. A small contribution margin means that Meals on Wheels is effectively using the funds thatare provided through government grants and donations from both individuals and businesses for themeals, services and fixed costs that they have. If the contribution margin increases, excess funds will bedirected to a savings account for a rainy day.

    1. Revenue generation increases on average 20% from year to year2. Cost of services increases 5% per year3. Food, service and fixed costs continue to use up the majority of the revenue generated

    4. The marketing budget is close to 10% for the first few years of opening to make sure thatconsumers know of Meals on Wheels and their mission.

    5. The marketing budget will max out at $20,000 in the 4th year of operation and continue to stayaround this price moving forward.

    6. A strong focus on local newspaper is apparent in the expense breakdown.

    Contribution Margin Forecast


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    Contribution Margin

    Contribution Margin

    2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    Revenue $144,032 $172,235 $196,208 $221,131 $252,487

    Direct Cost of Service $104,064 $109,267 $114,730 $120,466 $126,489

    Other Variable Costs of

    Service$26,016 $27,316 $28,681 $30,115 $31,620

    ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------Total Cost of Service $130,080 $136,583 $143,411 $150,581 $158,109

    Gross Margin $13,952 $35,651 $52,796 $70,549 $94,378

    Gross Margin % 9.68% 20.69% 26.90% 31.90% 37.37%

    Marketing Expense Budget 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    Newspaper $8,400 $10,200 $11,400 $12,000 $12,000

    Print Materials $2,800 $3,400 $3,800 $4,000 $4,000

    Other $2,800 $3,400 $3,800 $4,000 $4,000

    ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------

    Total Marketing Expenses $14,000 $17,000 $19,000 $20,000 $20,000

    Percent of Revenue 10.07% 9.87% 9.68% 9.04% 7.90%


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    Contribution Margin -$48 $18,651 $33,796 $50,549 $74,378

    Contribution Margin /

    Revenue-0.03% 10.82% 17.22% 22.85% 29.45%

    5.0 Controls

    The goal of this marketing plan is to outline the strategies, tactics, and programs that will make the goalsoutlined in the MOW charity plan a reality in the year of 2012. We have these marketing obstacles toface:

    Social security budget cut that affects the need for more financial support and rely on privatedonation, client sponsorship, and fundraising events, in order to maintain high quality nutritiousmeals for our senior clients.

    The establishment and more marketing for MOW as a community server for senior andvolunteers socialization.

    The competition with other home delivery for-profit service. The strategies that differentiate andstand out from other competitors in order to provide low-cost meals for our seniors and otherindividual with special needs.

    Our marketing efforts will be focused on building the image outlined above. We have goals to meet andmarketing plan outlining in detail. It will be critical to use this marketing plan for MOW asliving/working documents. They must be used as an objective for the future success of MOW.

    5.1 Implementation Milestones

    The milestones chart below outlines key dates that our organization must meet. The milestones listed inthe table below outline key advertising, promotion, direct marketing and development projects that willhelp people learn more about our business and help us learn about our customers. Each key project has astart and end date listed along with a project manager for each event that will be in charge of overseeingthe project from start to finish. Each project is crucial to the success of Meals on Wheels. Meals onWheels will review the milestones each quarter to see if each project is on track and to check the resultsfrom each completed project. This will allow us to determine which projects were the most successfuland which projects we should continue to use in the future of the business.



    Direct Marketing Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department

    Food Drive Event 7/15/2012 7/30/2012 $150 Chris Promotions

    Community Walk Through

    Event8/1/2012 8/2/2012 $100 Chris Promotions


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    Investor Tour 10/15/2012 10/16/2012 $250 Chris Promotions

    Total Direct Marketing


    Advertising Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department

    TV Ad Creative from NAB 7/1/2012 7/15/2012 $0 Marley Marketing

    Radio Spot 1 Creative 7/15/2012 7/30/2012 $750 Marley Marketing

    Radio Spot 2 Creative 12/1/2012 12/15/2012 $750 Marley Marketing

    Newspaper Ad 1 Creative 7/1/2012 7/15/2012 $1,250 Marley Marketing

    Newspaper Ad 2 Creative 11/10/2012 11/20/2012 $1,250 Marley Marketing

    Newspaper Ad 3 Creative 12/1/2012 12/15/2012 $1,250 Marley Marketing

    Newspaper Ad 4 Creative 3/15/2013 3/31/2013 $1,250 Marley Marketing

    Senior Living Magazine Ad 12/1/2012 12/31/2012 $1,000 Marley Marketing

    Other $1,000 Marley Marketing

    Total Advertising Budget $8,500

    Customer Satisfaction Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department

    Customer Satisfaction Rep 7/15/2012 8/15/2012 $1,000 JoyceCustomer


    Customer Survey 8/1/2012 9/1/2012 $500 Joyce



    Other $250 JoyceCustomer


    Total Customer Satisfaction


    Web & Phone Development Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department

    Meals on Wheels Website 7/15/2012 1/31/2012 $250 Daniel IT

    800 Hotline 7/1/2012 1/31/2012 $250 Daniel ITOther $250 Daniel IT

    Total Web & Phone

    Development Budget$750

    Other Start Date End Date Budget Manager Department


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    Total Other Budget $1,000

    Totals $12,500

    5.2 Marketing Organization

    The current national Vice-President of Marketing, Marley Rave, holds a BS degree in marketingand communications, and will head our marketing efforts. Further marketing assistance will beprovided by the Department of Business Development, who will coordinate and collaboratepromotional proposals from Marketing among various outside businesses and organizations.Also included as part of our marketing organization is the Manager of Individual Giving, whoshall oversee regional districts advertising campaigns and set up targeted tent events, to attractboth seniors and donors. An integral member of our marketing organization will be ourProducer of Multimedia Services, who will create updated (clientele/donor) marketing brochures,mailings, print media, and PSA senior hunger awareness television and radio spots. All

    members of this marketing strategy team will report and coordinate their efforts through our VPof Marketing.

    5.3 Contingency Planning

    Although this plan was written with marketing successes in mind, problems may arise in whichunforeseen events may play a factor in its outcome. Issues outside our SWOT analysis may arisein which we have to be pro-active in the unlikely event that our projections contained within thisplan are unrealized. We also have to prepare ourselves for both contingencies of excessivesuccess as well as potential setbacks.

    The following are some possible scenarios:

    Donations exceed projections - A strong increase in revenues through private and corporatedonation rates over projections will give us an opportunity to increase our marketing budgetabove the allocated 10%. We'll be able expand into regular TV advertising spots, increase socialmedia outlets, and establish a toll free 1-800 hotline for those seniors needing immediate foodassistance, or for those wishing to find more information on how to help.

    Revenues miss projections- With large numbers of working adults struggling to find work andmeeting their own household obligations coupled within our nations current economic

    circumstance, the threat of missing our projection is a distinct possibility. As a non-profit,chiefly relying on contributions and volunteers, we may have to consider re-doubling ourmarketing efforts. With decreased funds, this calculation however may entail a larger role forour dedicated cadre of volunteers, who may have to sacrifice more time and energy in relayingour message and mission, with less funds. Corporate sponsorship has been a vital aspect inMOW success. Along with asking our volunteers to increase their efforts, we may have to askfor increased donation percentages from corporate America, as well as cost saving measureswithin our own internal organizational workforce.


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    Substantial increase in our clientele base- Although we may reach our targeted projectionsfor revenue, relying on government statistics however, we may have underestimated the actualneed for senior food assistance. Estimates of 8 million hungry seniors may have been under-reported, and the fact that our marketing efforts are actually working, may cause more hungryseniors to seek our help, above our revenue projection needed to sustain the earlier projected

    number of hungry seniors.


    Meals on Wheels. (2012).About Us. Retrieved May 27, 2012, from Meals on Wheels:

    U.S. Census Bureau. (2010).Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics. RetrievedMarch 16, 2012, from U.S. Census Bureau:


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