Master Thesis Report Ivar Boom

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  • Tensile-compression ring A study for football stadia roof structures

    April, 2012

    Ivar Boom

    University of Technology Delft Arcadis

    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences Building Division

    Department of Building Engineering

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    Author: Name: Ivar Boom Student nr: 1277014 University: Delft University of Technology Faculty: Civil Engineering and Geosciences Master: Building Engineering Specialization: Structural Design E-mail address: i.boom@student.tudelft.nl ivar.boom@hotmail.com Tel. nr: 06 463 17 949 Address: Pannekoekstraat 22D, 3011 LG Rotterdam

  • Master Thesis Report

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    Committee information Supervisor Name: Prof. Ir. R. Nijsse Faculty: Civil Engineering and Geosciences (TU Delft) Section: Building Engineering Room: S2 R.1.36 E-mail: R.Nijsse@tudelft.nl Phone nr: 015 278 54 88 Daily supervisor Name: Prof. Ir. F. Bijlaard Faculty: Civil Engineering and Geosciences (TU Delft) Section: Steel structures Room: S2 R2.52 E-mail: F.Bijlaard@tudelft.nl Phone nr: 015 278 45 81 Name: Ir. S. Pasterkamp Faculty: Civil Engineering and Geosciences (TU Delft) Section: Building Engineering Room: S2 R1.57 E-mail: S.Pasterkamp@tudelft.nl Phone nr: 015 278 49 82 Coordinator Name: Ir. K.C. Terwel Faculty: Civil Engineering and Geosciences (TU Delft) Section: Building Engineering Room: S2 R1.54 E-mail: K.C.Terwel@tudelft.nl Phone nr: 015 278 15 12 Supervisor Arcadis Name: J. Rodenburg Company: Arcadis, Rotterdam Address: Lichtenauerlaan 100,

    3006 AE Rotterdam Section: Building Division E-mail: Jan.Rodenburg@arcadis.nl Phone nr: 010 253 2136

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  • Master Thesis Report

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    Preface This master thesis report is the result of the graduation work of BSc. Ivar Boom at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at the Delft University of Technology. The master thesis project is the final phase of the master Building Engineering to prove the graduate student is a worthy engineer. The subject of this master thesis project is:

    Tensile-compression ring; a study for football stadia roof structures

    The goal of the subject is the investigation of the use of a tensile-compression ring structure to football stadia, how to use its benefits at full extend and to become an efficient roof structure for football stadia. The thesis is written at Arcadis Building Division in Rotterdam. Due to the great amount of knowledge of the people at Arcadis about the structural design of stadia, I could do this graduation work under perfect conditions. I would like to thank ir. Andr de Roo (Arcadis) for making it possible to conduct my graduation project at Arcadis. Next I would like to thank my daily supervisor at Arcadis, Jan Rodenburg, who supported me and my project with his knowledge about stadium design. Furthermore I would like to express my gratitude to prof. ir. R. Nijsse, prof. ir. F.S.K. Bijlaard and ir. S. Pasterkamp for supervising my graduation project. At last I would like to thank ir. P.C. Kuiper and ir. M. Smith for supporting me with the FEM program Scia Engineer. I hope everyone will enjoy reading this paper and will be interested and enthusiastic for the field of structural and building engineering.

    Rotterdam, April 2012

    Ivar Boom

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  • Master Thesis Report

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    Abstract Part 1 Introduction

    A tensile-compression ring is derived from the spoke wheel principle. The wheel is one of the greatest inventions in mankind. The use of the wheel has developed through time. Engineers found out that the use of the spoke wheel as a roof structure provides many benefits. With the spoke wheel principle a lightweight, cost-efficient roof structure can be made. In recent years the spoke wheel principle has also been applied for oval shaped roofs in order to increase the application of the principle. An example is the use of the roof structure for football stadia. The problem is that the spoke wheel principle will only work at full extend when its shape is completely circular. The question rises if the use of a spoke wheel principle for football stadia roof structure is still attractive? In this thesis a study is made for the use of the spoke wheel principle for football stadia. The research question is as followed: To what extend is the application of the spoke wheel principle feasible and efficient for football stadia roof structures? For the research a design will be made of a spoke wheel roof structure, in order to gain knowledge and insight in the use of the spoke wheel principle for non-circular roofs. For the design the ground plan of a reference stadium has been used. Part 2 Analysis

    Spoke wheel principle A spoke wheel consists of three elements: the rim, the hub and the spokes that connect the ring and hub. The interaction between these elements is what makes the spoke wheel so special. The strength and stiffness of the wheel depends on the amount of ring action of the structure. To provide ring action the rim must be compressed, for instance by pre-tensioning the spokes. When radial tensile forces act on the rim, the rim becomes compressed due to curvature of the rim. The higher the pre-tension in the spokes, the more compression forces arise, the stronger and stiffer the wheel becomes. The bicycle wheel is mainly radial loaded at the point where the wheel makes contact with the ground due to the dead load of the cyclist. In this load affected zone the spokes become compressed. By using pre-tensioned spokes, the high level of tension prevents the spoke from buckling. By pre-tensioning the spokes the wheel possess great strength for so little weight. The reason is that its principal elements, the spokes and rim, are loaded almost exclusively in normal forces, both tension and compression. The amount of bending in the wheel is minimal. The strength and stiffness of the wheel is influenced by several design parameters. The strength and stiffness increases with increasing pre-tension of the spokes, space flange of the hub (only in lateral direction), amount of spokes, tightness of the spokes, cross sectional area of the rim and load affected zone. The conditions for a spoke wheel roof structure are different compared to a bicycle wheel. First the leading load is directed transverse to the roof. To withstand the dead load of the structure and additional variable loads (snow, wind, etc.) the roof needs to have sufficient transverse strength and stiffness. The second condition difference is the way the structure is supported. In a bicycle wheel only the hub is supported by the frame of the bicycle. In a roof structure the complete ring needs to be supported. The way of supporting the roof structure is very important. To provide ring action, the roof needs to be able to translate in its radial plane. Roll supports or rocker bearings needs to be applied to provide a free translation in this direction. In the past, engineers have adapted the shape of the spoke wheel to increase its application, for instance for football stadium use. Engineers have first managed to create an opening in the roof by adding an extra inner ring to the structure. The following adaption was the deformation of the circular shape into an oval shaped roof. Although the structural efficiency of the spoke wheel decreases, the spoke wheel principle can be applied for a stadium roof structure. By adding an extra inner or outer ring, the strength of the structure could be increased to the oval shaped roofs. Instead of using pre-tensioned spokes in the form of cables, it is also possible to use non pre-tensioned spokes with regular steel profiles. In case of using regular steel profiles beam action will play a role in the stiffness capacity of the roof structure. An example is the Feyenoord stadium in Rotterdam. A By using a spatial truss system, the amount of bending moments can be reduced. Examples of cable structures (pre-tensioned spoke structure) that use the spoke wheel principle are the Commerzbank Arena in Frankfurt and the BayArena in Leverkusen. In these structures beam action does not play a role in the stiffness of the roof structure. From the theory of the spoke wheel principle can be concluded that the ring action in a spoke wheel roof structure depends on four key factors. These are: curvature of the ring, loads acting on the ring, extensional rigidity of the ring and the ability to translate. From the parameters that influence the bicycle wheel and the developments that have been made to increase the application of the spoke wheel principle, design variables can be determined that together will form a structural

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    design. In the following part, the influence of the design variables on the key factors (ring action) and the strength and stiffness of the roof are investigated. The relation between the design variables and the key factors is illustrated in figure 2.31. The design variables are the following:

    1. Shape of the (opening of the) roof 2. Double inner / outer ring 3. (Non) pre-tensioning of the spokes 4. Profile / elements 5. Supports / connections

    Reference stadium For the study of the use of the spoke wheel principle for football stadia a design of a spoke wheel roof is made. For the design a ground plan of a typical football stadium is used; the Amsterdam ArenA. Because no single shape of a stadium is equal, there has been chosen to investigate one typical ground plan of a football stadium. By using an existing ground plan, the shape of the perimeter of the roof and the place of the supports are fixed. The roof must fulfil certain requirements and con