Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

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Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

Transcript of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

MalaysiaAirlinesFlight3709MMRO,theaircraftinvolvedintheincident,photographedin2011IncidentsummaryDate 8March2014Summary Missing,searchongoingoneflaperonfoundSite SouthernIndianOcean(presumed)Passengers 227Crew 12Fatalities 239(all,presumed)[a]Survivors 0(presumed)[a]Aircrafttype Boeing777200EROperator MalaysiaAirlinesRegistration 9MMROFlightorigin KualaLumpurInternationalAirportDestination BeijingCapitalInternationalAirportMalaysiaAirlinesFlight370FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopediaMalaysiaAirlinesFlight370(MH370/MAS370)[b]wasascheduledinternationalpassengerflightthatdisappearedon8March2014,whileflyingfromKualaLumpurInternationalAirportnearKualaLumpur,Malaysia,toBeijingCapitalInternationalAirportinBeijing,China.Theflightlastmadevoicecontactwithairtrafficcontrolat01:19MYT(17:19UTC,7March)whenitwasovertheSouthChinaSea,lessthananhouraftertakeoff.Theaircraftdisappearedfromairtrafficcontrollers'radarscreensat01:22.[3][4]MalaysianmilitaryradarcontinuedtotracktheaircraftasitdeviatedfromitsplannedflightpathandcrossedtheMalayPeninsula.ItlefttherangeofMalaysianmilitaryradarat02:22whileovertheAndamanSea,200nauticalmiles(370km230mi)northwestofPenanginnorthwesternMalaysia.[5]:3[6]Theaircraft,aBoeing777200ER,wascarrying12Malaysiancrewmembersand227passengersfrom15nations.[7]AmultinationalsearcheffortbeganintheGulfofThailandandtheSouthChinaSea,wheretheflight'ssignalwaslostonsecondarysurveillanceradar,andwassoon[8][9]extendedtotheStraitofMalaccaandAndamanSea.[10][11][12]AnalysisofsatellitecommunicationsbetweentheaircraftandInmarsat'ssatellitecommunicationsnetworkconcludedthattheflightcontinueduntilatleast08:19MYTandflewsouthintothesouthernIndianOcean,althoughthepreciselocationcannotbedetermined[13][14][15]Australiatookchargeofthesearchefforton17March,whenthesearchshiftedtothesouthernIndianOcean.[16]On24March2014,theMalaysiangovernment,notingthatthefinallocationdeterminedbythesatellitecommunicationisfarfromanypossiblelandingsites,concludedthat"flightMH370endedinthesouthernIndianOcean."[13][14][15][17]Thecurrentphaseofthesearchisacomprehensivesearchoftheseafloorabout1,800kilometres(1,100mi)southwestofPerth,WesternAustralia,whichbeganinOctober2014.[18][19][20]Despitethelargestandmostexpensivesearchinaviationhistory,[21][22][23][24]nopieceoftheaircraftwasfoundformorethanayear,andthebulkoftheaircrafthasnotbeenfound,promptingmanytheoriesaboutitsdisappearance.On29July2015,marinedebriswasfoundonRunionIslandwhichwaslaterconfirmedtobeaflaperonfromFlight370.[25][26][27]MalaysiaestablishedtheJointInvestigationTeam(JIT)toinvestigatetheincident,workingwithforeignaviationauthoritiesandexperts.[5]:1Neitherthecrewnortheaircraft'scommunicationsystemsrelayedadistresssignal,indicationsofbadweather,ortechnicalproblemsbeforetheaircraftvanished.[28]Twopassengerstravellingonstolenpassportswereinitiallysuspectinthedisappearance,buttheywerelaterdeterminedtobeasylumseekersandterrorismhasbeenruledout.[29][30][31]MalaysianpolicehaveidentifiedtheCaptainastheprimesuspectifhumaninterventionwasthecauseofthedisappearance,afterclearingallotherpassengersofanysuspiciousmotives.[32]Powerwaslosttotheaircraft'ssatellitedataunit(SDU)atsomepointbetween01:07and02:03theSDUloggedontoInmarsat'ssatellitecommunicationnetworkat02:25threeminutesaftertheaircraftlefttherangeofradar.[5]:22Basedonanalysisofthesatellitecommunications,theaircraftturnedsouthafterpassingnorthofSumatraandflewforfivehourswithlittledeviationinitstrack,endingwhenfuelwasexhausted.[5]:34[33][34][35]Atthetimeofitsdisappearance,andifthepresumedlossofallonboardisconfirmed,Flight370wouldhavebeenthedeadliestaviationincidentinMalaysiaAirlines'historyandthedeadliestinvolvingaBoeing777.[36][37]Itwassurpassedinbothregards131dayslaterbythecrashofanotherMalaysiaAirlinesBoeing777Flight17thatwasshotdownoverUkraine.[38]MalaysiaAirlineswasstrugglingfinancially,aproblemwhichwasexacerbatedbyadeclineinticketsalesafterFlight370disappearedandbeforethecrashofFlight17theairlinewasrenationalisedbytheendof2014.TheMalaysiangovernmentreceivedsignificantcriticism,especiallyfromChina,forfailingtodiscloseinformationinatimelymannerduringtheearlyweeksofthesearch.Flight370'sdisappearancebroughttothepublic'sattentionthelimitsofaircrafttrackingandflightrecorders,includingseveralissuesraisedfouryearsearlierbutnevermandatedfollowingthelossofAirFranceFlight447.AtaskforcesetupbytheInternationalAirTransportAssociation,withthesupportoftheInternationalCivilAviationOrganization,proposedanewstandardthat,byDecember2015,commercialaircraftmustreporttheirpositionevery15minutes.[39][40]TheMalaysianMinistryofTransportissuedaninterimreporton8March2015.[41][42]Contents1Disappearance1.1Departure1.2Communicationlost1.3Radar1.4Satellitecommunicationresumes1.5Responsebyairtrafficcontrol1.6Announcementofdisappearance1.7Timelineofdisappearance1.8Presumedloss1.9Reportedsightings1.10Debrisdiscovered2Search2.1SoutheastAsia2.2SouthernIndianOcean2.2.1Initialsearch2.2.2Underwatersearch2.2.3Marinedebris3Aircraft3Aircraft4Passengersandcrew4.1Crew4.2Passengers5Investigation5.1Internationalparticipation5.2Analysisofsatellitecommunication5.2.1Background5.2.2Communicationsfrom02:25to08:19MYT5.2.3Deductions5.2.4Analysis5.3Possibleinflightevents5.3.1Powerinterruption5.3.2Unresponsivecreworhypoxia5.4Possiblecausesofdisappearance5.4.1Passengerinvolvement5.4.2Crewinvolvement5.4.3Cargo6Aftermath6.1Informationsharing6.2MalaysiaAirlines6.2.1Financialtroubles6.2.2Compensationforpassengers'kin6.3Malaysia6.4China6.4.1Relativesofpassengers6.4.2Boycotts6.5Airtransportindustry6.5.1Aircrafttracking6.5.2Transponders6.5.3Flightrecorders6.5.4Safetyrecommendations7Timelineofevents8Inpopularculture9Seealso10Notes11References12Externallinks12.1Reports12.2Pressreleases/MediaDisappearanceFlight370wasascheduledredeyeflightintheearlymorninghoursof8March2014fromKualaLumpur,MalaysiatoBeijing,China.ItwasoneoftwodailyflightsoperatedbyMalaysiaAirlinesfromitshubatKualaLumpurInternationalAirport(KLIA)toBeijingCapitalInternationalAirportscheduledtodepartKnownflightpathtakenbyFlight370(red),derivedfromprimary(military)andsecondary(ATC)radardata.ExternalvideoATCconversationswithFlight370(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q13aTqdMAFw)AudiorecordingsofconversationsbetweenATCandFlight370frompredeparturetofinalcontact(00:2501:19).at00:35localtime(MYTUTC+08:00)andarriveat06:30localtime(CSTUTC+08:00).[43][44]OnboardFlight370were227passengers,10cabincrew,twopilots(acaptainandfirstofficer),and14,296kg(31,517lb)ofcargo.[41]:1,12,30Theplannedflightdurationwas5hours,34minutes,whichwouldconsumeanestimated37,200kg(82,000lb)ofjetA1fuel.[41]:1,30Theaircraftcarried49,100kilograms(108,200lb)ofjetfuel,includingreserves,whichallowedanenduranceof7hours,31minutes.[41]:1,30TheextrafuelwasenoughtodiverttoalternateairportsJinanYaoqiangInternationalAirportandHangzhouXiaoshanInternationalAirportwhichwouldrequire4,800kg(10,600lb)or10,700kg(23,600lb),respectively,toreachfromBeijing.[41]:30DepartureAt00:42,Flight370tookofffromrunway32R,[41]:1andwasclearedbyairtrafficcontrol(ATC)toclimbtoflightlevel180[c]approximately18,000feet(5,500m)onadirectpathtonavigationalwaypointIGARI(locatedat656'12N10335'6E).VoiceanalysishasdeterminedthattheFirstOfficercommunicatedwithATCwhiletheflightwasonthegroundandthattheCaptaincommunicatedwithATCafterdeparture.[41]:21Shortlyafterdeparture,theflightwastransferredfromtheairport'sairtrafficcontrolto"LumpurRadar"airtrafficcontrolonfrequency132.6MHz.AirtrafficcontroloverpeninsularMalaysiaandadjacentwatersisprovidedbytheKualaLumpurAreaControlCentre(ACC)LumpurRadaristhenameofthefrequencyusedforenrouteairtraffic.[45]LumpurRadarclearedFlight370toflightlevel350[c]approximately35,000ft(10,700m).At01:01,Flight370'screwreportedtoLumpurRadarthattheyhadreachedflightlevel350,whichtheyconfirmedagainat01:08.[41]:12[46]CommunicationlostTheaircraft'sfinalautomatedpositionreportandlasttransmissionusingtheAircraftCommunicationsAddressingandReportingSystem(ACARS)protocolwassentat01:07[5]:2[47][48]:36amongthedataprovidedinthemessagewastotalfuelremaining43,800kg(96,600lb).[49]:9ThefinalverbalcontactwithairtrafficDatafromMalaysianmilitaryradarshowingFlight370(green)crossingtheStraitofMalaccaandAndamanSeatowhereitwaslastseenbyradar.TheleftofthetwosegmentsoftheflighttrackfollowsairrouteN571betweenwaypointsVAMPIandMEKARthewhitecircleappearstohighlightasectionwheretheaircraftwasnottrackedbyradar.controloccurredat01:19:30,whenCaptainShah[41]:21acknowledgedasendoffbyLumpurRadartoHoChiMinhACC:[d][41]:2[46][50]LumpurRadar:"Malaysianthreesevenzero,contactHoChiMinhonetwozerodecimalnine.Goodnight."Flight370:"Goodnight.Malaysianthreesevenzero."ThecrewwasexpectedtocontactairtrafficcontrolinHoChiMinhCityastheaircraftpassedintoVietnameseairspace,justnorthofthepointwherecontactwaslost.[51][52]ThecaptainofanotheraircraftattemptedtoreachthecrewofFlight370"justafter[01:30]"[53]usingtheinternationaldistressfrequencytorelayVietnameseairtrafficcontrol'srequestforthecrewtocontactthemthecaptainsaidhewasabletoestablishcontact,butonlyheard"mumbling"andstatic.[53]CallsmadetoFlight370'scockpitat02:39and07:13wereunansweredbutacknowledgedbytheaircraft'ssatellitedataunit.[5]:18[48]:40RadarAt01:20:31,Flight370wasobservedonradarattheKualaLumpurACCasitpassedthenavigationalwaypointIGARI( )intheGulfofThailandfivesecondslater,theModeSsymboldisappearedfromradarscreens.[41]:2At01:21:13,Flight370disappearedfromtheradarscreenatKualaLumpurACCandwaslostaboutthesametimeonradaratHoChiMinhACC,whichclaimstheaircraftwasatthenearbywaypointBITOD.[41]:2[46]Airtrafficcontrolusessecondaryradar,whichreliesonasignalemittedbyatransponderonaircrafttherefore,after01:21thetransponderonFlight370wasnolongerfunctioning.Thefinaldatafromthetransponderindicatedtheaircraftwasflyingatitsassignedcruisealtitudeofflightlevel350[c]andwastravellingat471knots(872km/h542mph)trueairspeed.[54]Therewerefewcloudsaroundthispointandnorainorlightningnearby.[41]:3336LateranalysisestimatedthatFlight370had41,500kg(91,500lb)offuelwhenitdisappearedfromsecondaryradar.[41]:30Atthetimethetransponderstoppedfunctioning01:2