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Transcript of Knowledge and Systems Science _ Enabling Systemic Knowledge Synthesis

  • Knowledge and Systems Science Enabling Systemic Knowledge Synthesis

    2014 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • Knowledge and Systems Science Enabling Systemic Knowledge Synthesis

    Yoshiteru Nakamori

    2014 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • CRC PressTaylor & Francis Group6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

    2014 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLCCRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

    No claim to original U.S. Government worksVersion Date: 20130520

    International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-9301-5 (eBook - PDF)

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    2014 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • K20590 2013/6/3 page v

    Contents

    Preface ix

    Acknowledgments xi

    1 Issues of Systemic Synthesis 11.1 Yin and Yang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.1.1 Difficulty in observing environments . . . . . . . . . 21.1.2 Difficulty in selecting information . . . . . . . . . . 41.1.3 Difficulty in creating knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.2 Discussion of Systemic Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.3 Complexity in Thoughts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    1.3.1 Opinions in the scientific-actual front . . . . . . . . 121.3.2 Opinions in the social-relational front . . . . . . . . 131.3.3 Opinions in the cognitive-mental front . . . . . . . . 141.3.4 Main opinions and task diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    1.4 Discussion of Systemic Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.5 Appendix on Opinion Organizing Methods . . . . . . . . . . 19

    1.5.1 Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.5.2 The Delphi method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.5.3 Affinity diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    2 Systems Approaches 232.1 Complexity and Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.2 Methodological Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    2.2.1 Cybernetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.2.2 General systems theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.2.3 Soft systems thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    2.3 Soft Systems Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.3.1 Process of soft systems methodology . . . . . . . . 352.3.2 Soft systems methodology: Exercise . . . . . . . . . 38

    v 2014 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • K20590 2013/6/3 page vi

    vi CONTENTS

    2.4 Oriental Systems Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392.4.1 Shinayakana Systems Approach . . . . . . . . . . . 392.4.2 WSR Systems Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    2.5 Hints for Questions and Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442.6 Appendix on Systems Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    2.6.1 Organizational cybernetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512.6.2 Critical systems heuristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542.6.3 Postmodern systems thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . 562.6.4 Total systems intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    3 An Integrated Systems Approach 613.1 Principles of Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613.2 Intercultural Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    3.2.1 Incommensurability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643.2.2 Occidental and Oriental cultures . . . . . . . . . . . 653.2.3 Discussion of intercultural understanding . . . . . . 68

    3.3 An Informed Systems Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693.4 A Knowledge Integration System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    3.4.1 The i-System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723.4.2 Discussion of characteristics of the i-System . . . . 743.4.3 Types of integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    3.5 Application to Technology Archiving . . . . . . . . . . . . 813.5.1 Knowledge collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813.5.2 Knowledge archiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

    3.6 Application to Technology Roadmapping . . . . . . . . . . 873.7 Appendix on Systems Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

    3.7.1 The Analytical Hierarchy Process . . . . . . . . . . 903.7.2 The Interpretive Structural Modeling . . . . . . . . 92

    4 Mathematical Information Aggregation 994.1 Complexity in Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994.2 Data Collection and Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

    4.2.1 Evaluation experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044.2.2 Data screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064.2.3 Mathematical data description . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074.2.4 Data matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

    4.3 Degree of Fit between Requests and Products . . . . . . . . 1104.3.1 Statistical data processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1114.3.2 Probabilistic data processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174.3.3 Fuzzy-set theoretical data processing . . . . . . . . 118

    2014 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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    CONTENTS vii

    4.3.4 Direct modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1224.4 Information Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

    4.4.1 Non-additive measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1244.4.2 Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) operators . . . 1274.4.3 Prioritized maxmin operators . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

    4.5 Answers to Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344.6 Application of Specialized Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

    5 The Emergence of Knowledge Science 1435.1 Knowledge Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

    5.1.1 The value of knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445.1.2 Information and knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1455.1.3 Knowledge management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1465.1.4 Tacit and explicit knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1475.1.5 SECI spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

    5.2 Epistemes in the Knowledge-Based Society . . . . . . . . . 1495.2.1 Toward establishing a new episteme . . . . . . . . . 1505.2.2 School of Knowledge Science . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

    5.3 Approaches to Knowledge Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525.3.1 Approaches from information science . . . . . . . . 1535.3.2 Approaches from management science . . . . . . . 1555.3.3 An approach from systems science . . . . . . . . . . 157

    6 Knowledge Creation Models 1596.1 Organizational Knowledge Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

    6.1.1 Bottom-up Socialization, Externalization, Combina-tion, Internalization (SECI) spiral . . . . . . . . . . 160

    6.1.2 Top-down Objectives, Process, Expansion, Closure(OPEC) spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

    6.2 Academic Knowledge Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1666.2.1 Inter-subjective Enlightenment, Debate, Immersion,

    Selection (EDIS) spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1666.2.2 Experimental Enlightenment, Experiment, Interpre-

    tation, Selection (EEIS) spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . 1686.2.3 Double EDIS-EEIS spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1696.2.4 Hermeneutic Enlightenment, Analysis, Immersion,

    Reflection (EAIR) spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1706.2.5 Triple helix model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

    6.3 Application to Academic Research Evaluation . . . . . . . . 1726.4 Knowledge Creation Modeling: Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . 177

    2014 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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    viii CONTENTS

    7 Knowledge Synthesis or Construction 1797.1 Sociological Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

    7.1.1 Structure complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1827.1.2 Agency complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1867.1.3 Action complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1897.1.4 Universality of the i-System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

    7.2 Application of Interdisciplinary Integration . . . . . . . . . 1927.2.1 Scientific-actual front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1947.2.2 Social-relational front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1967.2.3 Cognitive-mental fro