Humanties Exam Prep

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7 Humanities 1 Exam Prep 2011

Geography Unit 1 Main Sections - Food Chains/Webs & Ecosystems - Regions - Movement

Producers and consumers how affecting one part of the food chain will have affects on consumers else in the food webWhen the food web comes unbalanced a type of consumer will not get its food. In some part of web there is an over population with animals or there in that specific area the weather is not good for the plants to grow therefore the food amount is decreased. If a animals eats toxic food, and more animals eat that animals. The number of toxins increases. This is called bio-accumulation. This affects the ecosystem because the entire ecosystem is filled dying animals. There plants will produce more because no one is eating them and they will die because no has eaten them. It has been a waste. Most toxic comes from hunters and humans, therefore we disrupt there ecosystem. Important Terms : Population explosion, carrying capacity, bioaccumulation Types of regions physical regions like mountain or the Niagara Escarpment and those defined by human uses like countries A Region = Any area with a defined set of common characteristics (criteria) Geographers use regions to organize the world into areas of study. Regions can be very large like the political region of Canada or very small like your closet or a wetland. Regions can be physical ex: mountain, desert, rock type, climate, vegetation or soil Regions can be defined by human uses ex: political boundaries, population density, cultural or time zones 3 main types of regions Wilderness = an area with tiny amount human population .vast regions ,natural vegetation ,natural landscapes Rural = countryside,townside,farming and open land Urban = many homes ,urban sprawls , more roads, more pollution . More people in urban than rural Multi-Factor Regions An ecozone is a region that combines physical and human regions Ex: the Riviera on the north coast of the Mediterranean Sea :is a regions where people go to play on the eat at good restaurant and have a good time on vacation EX: the prairie ecozone in southern Alberta /Saskatchewan combines the physical feature of :low flat land, deep fertile soils with climate features of warm summers and adequate precipitation to grow grasses like wheat Ecozones are a good way to divide up a large country like Canada so its easier to study interactions. Canada has 15 terrestrial & 5 aquatic ecozones. The Niagara Escarpment: a unique landform region p. 37 The escarpment is a unique landform region that stretches 725 km between Georgian Bay and Lake Ontario, it is one of Canadas 12 UNESCO World Biosphere Reserves an area in the world which is deemed to demonstrate a "balanced relationship between humans and the biosphere." It is a raised tableland covered with forest, wetlands and meadows. The Niagara River falls off of the escarpment at Niagara Falls where it is cutting back the escarpment through erosion in a process called Sapping. Regional Boundaries Sometimes regions are divided by natural boundaries like a river (The Ottawa River divides Ontario and Quebec )

People celebrating the fall of the Berlin Wall that was put up between East & West Germany after WWII

7 Humanities 3 Exam Prep 2011 The air above a country and the water for 3-200 nautical miles around it are also considered part of the country (3 miles for territorial waters and up to 300 miles for fishing rights ) Ontario has some physical boundaries like the St. Lawrence River and some artificial ones like the imaginary line separating for Manitoba.

How weather and man-made disasters can change regions ex: nuclear disasters on land and dead zones in the oceansEx: large parts of Queensland (NE Australia), California (USA) & New Brunswick (Canada) are currently flooded and have been declared disaster zones Weather events like El Nio or La Nina can cause massive but fairly predictable weather changes in many regions around the world (unfortunately you cant predict which years they will occur in). El Nio is characterized by unusually warm temps. in the equatorial Pacific Ocean like we saw last year La Nia is characterized by unusually cool temps. in the equatorial Pacific.

Movement of the earth, of animals (migration), of people (push factors, pull factors and barriers)Water is always moving in liquid form in rivers and oceans and in solid form as glaciers. Moving water is one of the strongest agents of erosion. Water can saturate soils and cause mudslides on very steep slopes. Moving air affects climate, moves small particles like sand, moves the water in oceans and can erode landforms In the olden times only the rich were able to travel for fun and go around to far places where as if you were poor you only travelled around couple of km away from your house unless if its a huge emergency. Over the last 250 years huge numbers of people have started to migrate to cities = URBANIZATION Push Factors: are bad things that make people want to leave like a poor quality of life, war, a lack of job or disasters ex: after Chernobyl nuclear disaster many people wanted to leave the Ukraine. Pull Factors: are good things that make you want to move to a new place ex: jobs, education, freedom etc. Barriers: are forces prevent movement ex: the country you want to move to will not let you in lack of money, not wanting to leave family behind. Animals move for two main reasons: suitable habitat and giving birth. Some animals go to a specific place to give birth for a comfortable weather.

The benefits and drawbacks of different forms of transportation ex: plane vs bicycleForms of Transportation Bicycle Benefits = no fuel ,cheap, exercise ,no pollution , be used in many paths Drawbacks = short range only , not fast as cars , How this mode of transportation has changed the world = decided to create motorcycles Car Benefits = fasts, protective , more than 1 person, more stuff obtain ,racing , Drawbacks = pollution ,money, insurance , materials, accidents ,road kill, How this mode of transportation has changed the world = Inspired other forms of transportation. Allowed people to work farther from home and for cities to spread out = urban sprawl

18 Wheel Truck Benefits = Take heavy loads very fast, goods more cheaply, door to door, Drawbacks = more traffic, pollution, blindspots Trains Benefits = can transport huge loads, build new areas,takes people to regional areas, cheaper than airplane fees. types of trains, like hotel trains and scenery trains Drawbacks = more pollution ,slowed than an airplane , isnt used in towns, used for longer land travel, need tracks How this mode of transportation has changed the world = gave motivation to create airplanes, move stuff long distances, ties the countries. Ships Benefits = can transport big loads, people on water ,longer distances ,cheap Drawbacks = only on water,pollution ,only work on water How this mode of transportation has changed the world = created international trade Airplanes Benefits = carry mail ,cargo and people around the world ,quicker Drawbacks = takes huge amount of land to store and transport planes, expensive, pollution, make pollution in a sensitive areas, crases How this mode of transportation has changed the world =allows people to move around quickly and safely inspired helicopters epidemics and pandemics Pipelines Benefits = can hold natural gas very fast,damage environment Drawbacks = installation,creation ,leak How this mode of transportation has changed the world =allowed us to get clean water and the disposal we produce wont stay there for much of a time

How transportation has changed the worldex. Travel for fun, trade between far off places, cars allowing urban sprawl to develop

Patterns of movement (area, points/nodes, lines and volume of traffic)

7 Humanities 5 Exam Prep 2011

Patterns of movement: linear, radial and grid Linear: People originally built homes and villages along rivers so that they had access to water & transportation. This created linear settlements & movement patterns as can be seen here in China & Canada. Radial: One major city is in the center and spread out from that point Grid: the city is lay out on a grid format

Geography 2 What is the difference between Climate and weather? Climate = the overall patterns of yearly temperature and precipitation (long term) Weather = the day to day temperature and precipitation (short term) Seasons are created by: The tilt of earth as it orbits the sun. Sometimes your home is closer to the sun (summer), sometimes your home is further from the sun (winter), sometimes it is in between (spring and fall). The seasons in the northern and southern hemispheres are opposite. Australia celebrates Christmas during their summer.

7 Humanities 7 Exam Prep 2011 Climate graphs are used to analyze and compare climates in different places. Date is shown by month along the bottom. Temperatures are always graphed with a red line and precipitation is always shown using blue bars. Sites in the Northern Hemisphere with summer in JJA will look like sad faces Sites in the Southern Hemisphere with summer in NDJ will look like happy faces The smiley factor becomes more pronounced the closer you get to the poles. Sites close to the equator where it in summer-like all year are straight non-committed faces . . .

Summer = the hottest month no matter which months Winter = the coldest months Rainy season = the months that receive the most rain not all places have a rainy Temperature range = ex: -10 in winter & +10 in summer = a range of 200

Climate Graph for Toronto Ontario Climate data for Toronto, ON - Latitude: 43.38N Longitude: 079.24W Altitude: 77m

Total Precip. (mm)Mean Temp C

J 46-6

F 46-5

M 570

A 646