Human-Centered Design. Users’ tasks and goals are the driving force behind development Users are...
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Transcript of Human-Centered Design. Users’ tasks and goals are the driving force behind development Users are...
Users’ tasks and goals are the driving force behind development
Users are consulted throughout development
All design decisions are taken from within the context of the users, their work, and their environment
Attentive to human abilities, goals, and desires
Why is HCI Important? UI is the major part of work for “real”
programs approximately 50%
Bad user interfaces cost money
5% satisfaction up to 85% profits reputation of organization (e.g., brand loyalty) lives (Therac-25)
User interfaces hard to get right people are unpredictable intuition of designers often wrong
Nearly 25% of all applications projects fail. Why? overrun budgets & management pulls plug others complete, but are too hard to learn/use
Solution is user-centered design. Why? easier to learn & use products sell better can help keep a product on schedule
finding problems early makes them easier to fix! training costs reduced
User Interface Development Process
According to the ISO: The effectiveness, efficiency, and
satisfaction with which specified users achieve specified goals in particular environments
This does not mean you have to create a “dry” design or something that is only good for novices – it all depends on your goals
Usability/User Experience Goals
Set goals for early & later use to measure progress
Goals often have tradeoffs, so prioritize Example goals
Learnable faster the 2nd time & so on
Memorable from session to session
Flexible multiple ways to do tasks
Efficient perform tasks quickly
Robust minimal error rates good feedback so
user can recover Discoverable
learn new features over time
Pleasing high user
Who Creates UIs?
A team of specialists (ideally) graphic designers interaction / interface designers information architects technical writers marketers test engineers usability engineers software engineers customers
Design Applied Psychology Computer Science
There are multiple strands, sometimes in parallel, sometimes cross-fertilizing. Goal is not to advocate, but explain.
“Form Follows Function” -- Walter Gropius: funder of Bauhaus
school The shape of a building or object should
be primarily based upon its intended function or purpose
Design for People, design for manufacturing.
Le Corbusier’s assertion that “a house is a machine for living in.”
Capturing, Storing, Retrieving, Sharing Information
Interactive! Human-Centered Founds NSF/DARPA
and of University research at scale as forming the leading edge of applied research
The world’s first hypertext The idea is that all the world’s
information would be available on a knowledge worker’s desktop.
Information storage and retrieval were key parts of this vision.
What’s especially prescient is the vision outlined a plan for sharing ideas.
People could author “trails” through the world’s information, save them for later use, and share them with others.
But, you’re not always at your desk You want technology to come with you. And knowledge workers need to produce
content as well as consume it. And the world isn’t just textual, it’s also
visual. So, Bush imagined you’d wear a camera
and use it to capture stuff. -- most of us keep our mobile
computation and camera in our pocket.
Feb 14, 1946 ENIAC -- Designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. was the first large-scale, electronic,
digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems
weighed almost 30 tons. Input was possible from an IBM card reader, while an IBM card punch was used for output.
Compilers The idea of creating tools to empower
users has a long and storied history, beginning with the first compiler -- Grace Hopper’s invention in the early 1950s She conceptualized how improved tools could
provide a much wider audience with access to computation.
In the intervening years, good programming environments for the desktop and web enabled legions of developers to create the content that helped put a PC on every desks.
Memex Inspires Doug Engelbart
Memex inspires Mouse, Hypertext
Memex inspires Alan Kay
PARC, where he fleshes out his vision of a Dynabook – (laptop, tablet pc) “The best way to predict the future is to
“Good artists borrow, great artists steal” - Pablo Picasso
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
19th century Fang sculpture
This story demonstrates several principles that form the core values of this course. First, as Vannevar Bush showed us
designs are for people. The success of our field is determined by how much we empower people. Second,
People Prototype - rapid prototyping is both essential
and tractable, even for highly futuristic technologies, helps us evolve our ideas, learn from their use, and communicate to others.
Alan Kay built the Dynabook out of cardboard! Bush didn’t just say Memex would help knowledge work. He painted a rich picture of how, and even produce sketches and an implementation plan.
Course Values People Prototype Compare
Third, it’s essential to create, evaluate, and compare many alternatives. Doug’s group made a whole lot of input devices before settling on the mouse. Fourth, designs often improve through iteration.
Course Values People Prototype Compare Iterate
After the input bake-off, Engelbart’s group wasn’t done. They used the best ideas themselves, watched others use them, and continued both controlled and informal experiments. Fifth,
Course Values People Prototype Compare Iterate Principles
theory can help inspire designs, and clarify what their salient differences are. The theories of Alan Newell, Stu Card, and colleagues helped guide PARC’s designers.