Fate of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Guardia_Mid-Atlantic_06.  Br Br Br Br Br Br...

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Transcript of Fate of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Guardia_Mid-Atlantic_06.  Br Br Br Br Br Br...

  • Fate

    of P

    olyb

    rom

    inat

    ed D

    iphe

    nyl E

    ther

    s Fa

    te o

    f Pol

    ybro

    min

    ated

    Dip

    heny

    l Eth

    ers

    (PBD

    Es) i

    n W

    aste

    wat

    ers

    (PBD

    Es) i

    n W

    aste

    wat

    ers

    Mar

    k J.

    La

    Guar

    dia

    Mar

    k J.

    La

    Guar

    dia

    Virgin

    ia I

    nst

    itute

    of

    Mar

    ine

    Sci

    ence

    Virgin

    ia I

    nst

    itute

    of

    Mar

    ine

    Sci

    ence

    Colle

    ge

    of

    Will

    iam

    and M

    ary

    Colle

    ge

    of

    Will

    iam

    and M

    ary

    Glo

    uce

    ster

    Poin

    t, V

    irgin

    iaG

    louce

    ster

    Poin

    t, V

    irgin

    iam

    arkl

    mar

    kl@@

    vim

    svi

    ms ..

    edu

    edu

  • Poly

    brom

    inat

    ed D

    iphe

    nyl E

    ther

    s (P

    BDEs

    )Po

    lybr

    omin

    ated

    Dip

    heny

    l Eth

    ers

    (PBD

    Es)

    O

    BrBrBr

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Br

    BrBrBr

    BD

    E-2

    09

    O

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Bro

    min

    ated

    Flam

    e-re

    tard

    ants

    G

    lobal

    2001 d

    eman

    d 6

    7,3

    90 m

    etric

    tons

    (MT)

    Thre

    e co

    mm

    erci

    al f

    orm

    ula

    tions

    D

    eca-

    BD

    Es,

    ~80%

    , pla

    stic

    s in

    com

    pute

    rs,

    TVs,

    O

    cta-B

    DEs,

    ~7%

    , pla

    stic

    s

    Pen

    ta-B

    DEs,

    ~13%

    , poly

    ure

    than

    e fo

    am

    s

    sim

    ilar

    IUPA

    C n

    amin

    g s

    chem

    e as

    PCBs

    98%

    of

    Penta

    -use

    d in N

    ort

    h A

    mer

    ica

    BD

    E-1

    83

    O

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Br

    Br

    BD

    E-9

    9

  • PBD

    E Ex

    posu

    re

    U.S.

    bloo

    d lev

    els 19

    73 a

    nd 2

    003

    (pg/

    g, lip

    id wt

    ., n=

    100)

    Sc

    hect

    er e

    t al.,

    200

    5

    110100

    1000

    1000

    0

    1000

    00

    1000

    000

    Diox

    ins

    Dibe

    nzof

    uran

    sCo

    -Pla

    nar P

    CBs

    Mon

    o-Or

    tho

    PCBs

    PBDE

    s

    pg/g (ppt)

    1973

    2003

    Com

    par

    ison

    Bet

    wee

    n C

    once

    ntr

    atio

    ns

    of P

    BD

    Es

    in B

    reas

    t M

    ilk

    fro

    m N

    orth

    Am

    eric

    a an

    d E

    uro

    pe

    Sam

    plin

    g Y

    ear

    1975

    1980

    1985

    1990

    1995

    2000

    Concnetration (ng/g lipid weight)

    050100

    150

    200

    Nor

    th A

    mer

    ica

    Sw

    eden

    Fin

    land

    Sa

    mp

    les

    co

    lle

    cte

    d i

    n

    Au

    sti

    n &

    De

    nv

    er

    Sa

    mp

    les

    co

    lle

    cte

    d i

    n N

    ew

    Yo

    rk S

    tate

    Ca

    na

    dia

    n

    Mil

    k B

    an

    k

    Ca

    na

    dia

    n

    Mil

    k B

    an

    k

    4

    Ca

    nad

    ian

    Milk

    Ba

    nk

    an

    d N

    ew

    Yo

    rk S

    tate

    fro

    m R

    yan

    an

    d P

    atr

    y 2

    00

    0,

    De

    nve

    r an

    d A

    ust

    in r

    esu

    lts

    fro

    m P

    apke

    et

    al

    20

    01

    ; S

    we

    dis

    h d

    ata

    fro

    m M

    eir

    on

    yte

    Gu

    vern

    ius

    an

    d N

    ore

    n 2

    00

    1,

    Fin

    nis

    h d

    ata

    fro

    m S

    tra

    nd

    ma

    n e

    t al

    . 2

    00

    0

    PBD

    E Ex

    posu

    re

    Cla

    ssic

    PO

    P g

    lobal

    red

    istr

    ibution

    D

    etec

    ted in:

    US,

    Euro

    pea

    n a

    nd A

    sian

    fis

    h,

    Arc

    tic

    seals

    , dee

    p o

    cean

    s w

    hal

    es,

    terr

    estr

    ial

    birds/

    eggs,

    chic

    kens,

    ,

    hum

    ans

    PBD

    Es

    mim

    ic t

    hyr

    oid

    horm

    ones

    critica

    l in

    ea

    rly

    dev

    elopm

    ent

    (mg/K

    g (

    ppm

    ), b

    ody

    wei

    ght)

    PBD

    Es

    per

    sist

    ent

    & b

    ioac

    cum

    ula

    te

    PBD

    E r

    estr

    ictions/

    legis

    lation

    Pen

    ta-

    and

    Oct

    a-fo

    rmula

    tion

    s

    2004,

    ban f

    rom

    Euro

    pea

    n m

    arke

    ts

    2005,

    volu

    nta

    ry p

    roduct

    ion h

    alt

    in t

    he

    US

  • Fish

    Tis

    sue

    and

    Sedi

    men

    t Con

    tam

    inan

    ts

    Fish

    Tis

    sue

    and

    Sedi

    men

    t Con

    tam

    inan

    ts

    Mon

    itorin

    g Pr

    ogra

    m

    Mon

    itorin

    g Pr

    ogra

    m --

    VA D

    EQVA

    DEQ

    Virg

    inia F

    ish S

    urve

    y (To

    tal-P

    BDEs

    )

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    050

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    Numb

    er of

    Sam

    ples

    mirco-g/Kg (wet wt.)

    2000

    Virg

    inia F

    ish S

    urve

    y (To

    tal-P

    BDEs

    )

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    050

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    Numb

    er of

    Sam

    ples

    mirco-g/Kg (wet wt.)

    2000

    2001

    Virg

    inia

    Fis

    h Su

    rvey

    (Tot

    al-P

    BD

    Es)

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1600

    010

    020

    030

    040

    050

    0N

    umbe

    r of S

    ampl

    es

    mirco-g/Kg (wet wt.)

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2000

    322 s

    ample

    s (6

    9 n

    d),

    24 (

    7%

    ) >

    50g/K

    g,

    max

    . 417g/K

    g

    2001

    413 s

    ample

    s (6

    7 n

    d),

    26 (

    6%

    ) >

    50g/K

    g,

    max

    . 220g/K

    g

    2002

    386 s

    ample

    s (2

    4 n

    d),

    53 (

    14%

    ) >

    50g/K

    g,

    max.

    14

    09

    g

    /K

    g

    ww

    w.d

    eq

    .vir

    gin

    ia.g

    ov/

    fish

    tiss

    ue/

    ho

    mep

    ag

    e.h

    tml

  • Parti

    tioni

    ng o

    f PBD

    Es in

    WW

    TPPa

    rtitio

    ning

    of P

    BDEs

    in W

    WTP

    Lit

    tle R

    iver

    WW

    TP

    , W

    ind

    sor,

    On

    tari

    o,

    Can

    ad

    a

    an

    aero

    bic

    dig

    estion (

    Dec

    a-BD

    Es)

    hal

    f-liv

    e ~

    700 d

    ays

    (Ger

    ecke

    et a

    l.,

    (Chem

    osp

    her

    e, 2

    006)

    re

    duct

    ive

    deb

    rom

    ination (

    pro

    duct

    s nona-

    and o

    cta-

    BD

    Es

    (Ger

    ecke

    et a

    l.,

    (ES&

    T,

    2005)

  • PBD

    Es in

    Effl

    uent

    & E

    fflue

    nt D

    omin

    ated

    PB

    DEs

    in E

    fflue

    nt &

    Effl

    uent

    Dom

    inat

    ed

    Rec

    eivi

    ng S

    tream

    Rec

    eivi

    ng S

    tream

    Pent

    a- (f

    orm

    ulat

    ion)

    BD

    Es

    02468101214

    BD

    E47

    BD

    E100

    BD

    E99

    BD

    E154

    BD

    E153

    PBD

    E co

    ngen

    ers

    ng/L (ppt)

    Efflu

    ent

    Stre

    am

    PBD

    Es

    det

    ecte

    d in W

    WTP e

    fflu

    ent

    (ppt

    to p

    pb)

    lo

    w n

    g/L

    (ppt)

    for

    Pen

    ta-

    g/L

    (ppb)

    leve

    ls f

    or

    Dec

    a-B

    DEs

    Ass

    oci

    ated

    with p

    articl

    es

    Sim

    ilar

    effluen

    t an

    d s

    trea

    m c

    once

    ntr

    ations

    Eff

    luen

    t-dom

    inat

    ed s

    trea

    ms

    Tex

    tile

    & p

    last

    ics

    indust

    ries

    pote

    ntial

    sourc

    es t

    o W

    WTPs

    In

    dust

    rial

    pre

    trea

    tmen

    t (D

    eca-

    reduct

    ion)

    Dec

    a- (f

    orm

    ulat

    ion)

    BD

    Es

    02,

    000

    4,00

    06,

    000

    8,00

    010

    ,000

    12,0

    0014

    ,000

    BDE2

    07BD

    E206

    BDE2

    09