# Engaging Students in Scientific Practices with Modeling Instruction

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Laura RitterK-12 Science CoordinatorTroy School Districtlritter2@troy.k12.mi.uslritter77@gmail.comEngaging Students in Scientific Practices with Modeling InstructionWhat does good instructional practice look like?

How do we know that our students are not just engaged, but also really learning?

The story of Malcolm WellsMalcolms students were engaged, but not learning. Students would not always abandon their misconceptions.

Malcolm also asked.How do I know that my students are really learning?

Malcolms missionMalcolm Wells joined David Hestenes and Ibrahim Hallhoun to research student preconceptions and impact on student learning

Newtons 3rd LawFor every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Elaborate on each mans project, and how they came to work together.4The Force Concept Inventory (FCI)

Force Concept Inventory (FCI)30 questions, multiple choiceFCI pretest average is about 26% (random guessing score: 20%)60% considered threshold for understanding Newtonian mechanics

(Jackson, Dukerich, Hestenes 2008)Current Research-Based PracticeThe work of Wells, Hestenes & Hallhoun is still valued today along with other well-respected researchers of their time

The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards are challenging us to really consider:How are our students learning?How do we create thinking-centered classrooms?How do we promote deep understanding?Common Core ELAEvidence-based claims

Reasoning

Engaging in argument

Next Generation Science StandardsCommon Core Math

Making sense of problems & asking questions

Developing & using models

Obtaining information from text

Cross-Curricular PracticesIn science, we are challenged to shift our thinkingFrom thinking that one scientific method fits allTo thinking about how to engage our students in the practices of scientists

Asking questions and defining problemsDeveloping and using modelsPlanning and carrying out investigationsAnalyzing and interpreting dataUsing mathematics and computational thinkingConstructing explanations and designing solutionsEngaging in argument from evidenceObtaining, evaluating and communicating information

In science, we are challenged to shift our thinkingFrom thinking that hands-on science is ESSENTIALTo thinking that engaging students EVERY DAY in scientific practices and thinking is POWERFUL

10Modeling Instruction is ahead of the curve!Modeling provides a constructivist framework for instruction

Modeling instructors mindset is How will my students learn about? rather than How am I going to teach?

NSF funded program from 1989-2005

US Department of Education designated as exemplary program in 2001

Physics, chemistry and physical science are well-developed and supported by decades of research

11What is Modeling Instruction?How is it different from regular classroom instruction?

Is it inquiry teaching?

The Modeling CycleModel DevelopmentModel Deployment(Model Revision or Failure)

Loosely based on the 5-E learning cycle:

The Modeling Cycle: Stage 1Model DevelopmentTeacher elicits students preconceptions

Questions about a phenomenon are raised

Students investigateStudents have a role in experimental designStudents must be allowed to fail, receive feedback and revise

The Standards Connection

CCSS Mathematics:Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.Use appropriate tools strategically.Attend to precision.

NGSS:Asking questions and defining problemsDeveloping and using modelsPlanning and carrying out investigationsThe Modeling Cycle: Stage 1Model DevelopmentStudents analyze resultsFirst, in small groups while teacher asks Socratic questionsThe class convenes as a group and compares results looking for patterns

Teacher often assists in the generalization of model

The Standards Connection

CCSS Mathematics:Model with mathematics. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.Look for and make use of structure.

NGSS:Developing and using modelsAnalyzing and interpreting dataUsing mathematics and computational thinkingConstructing explanations and designing solutionsEngaging in argument from evidence

Model Development: Eliciting Students Preconceptions& Designing the Investigation

Model Development: Investigating & Preparing for Discussion

The WhiteboardStudent constructed

Students take ownership

Tool for communication

Discussions promote a culture of a positive learning community

Model Development: Whiteboard Discussions

The Modeling Cycle: Stage 2Model DeploymentStudents practice what they have learnedContinue to develop a deep understanding through problem solvingDiscuss with whiteboards

Students apply what they have learned in lab practicum, tests/quizzes.

The Standards Connection

CCSS Mathematics:Make sense of problems and persevere in soling them.Reason abstractly and quantitatively.Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.Use appropriate tools strategically.Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

NGSS:Developing and using modelsUsing mathematics and computational thinkingConstructing explanations and designing solutionsEngaging in argument from evidence

Model Deployment: Whiteboard Discussions

Model Deployment: Lab Practicum

Given certain parameters, students must make measurements and calculations to make a cart rolling down a ramp collide with a battery-powered car moving at a constant speed.22Force Concept Inventory (FCI)30 questions, multiple choiceFCI pretest average is about 26% (random guessing score: 20%)60% considered threshold for understanding Newtonian mechanics

(Jackson, Dukerich, Hestenes 2008)What do students say about their experience in high school science?

Why is teacher training ESSENTIAL?Teachers must have a depth of understanding of content and pedagogy

Authentic to instructional approach

During a 3-week summer course, teachers have the opportunity to:learn about and discuss the pedagogylearn about the modeling curriculum frameworkengage in hands-on activities, labs, etc.practice instructional strategies such as Socratic dialogue The History of Modeling Instruction in Michigan3-week physics workshops in 2000, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 in metro-DetroitFollow-up sessions for physics cohorts throughout the school year1-week chemistry workshop in 2013 in metro-DetroitMSP Grant for 2014 & 2015. 3-week workshops in different regions of MI.

For more informationMichigan: Laura Ritter 734-649-7039 celllritter77@gmail.com

Mike Gallagher (Oakland Schools)mike.gallagher@oakland.k12.mi.us

Nationwide: www.modelinginstruction.org

http://modeling.asu.edu

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