E_English Grammar Course Unit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials

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Transcript of E_English Grammar Course Unit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials

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E_English Grammar Course Unit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials Slide 2 1. Units realizing adverbial functions 2. Classes of adverbials 3. Adjuncts 4. Disjuncts 5. Conjuncts Issues Slide 3 Units realizing adverbial functions 1 1/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause Slide 4 Units realizing adverbial functions 1 2/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: I have never been there. Slide 5 Units realizing adverbial functions 1 3/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: I saw her last week. Slide 6 Units realizing adverbial functions 1 4/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: She sat in a dark corner. Slide 7 Units realizing adverbial functions 1 5/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: When I came to the club, I saw James sitting alone at the window table. Slide 8 Units realizing adverbial functions 1 6/7 Non-finite clause Verbless clause Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause infinitive-ing participle-ed participle He plays to win.Seeing Tom, she smiles. Whenever left alone, he cried. Slide 9 Units realizing adverbial functions 1 7/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: The baby was playing, unaware of the danger. Slide 10 Classes of Adverbials 2 1/7 ADVERBIALSADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS Integrated in clause structure Peripheral in clause structure Slide 11 Classes of Adverbials 2 2/7 ADVERBIALSADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS 1. cant appear initially in a negative declarative clause. E.g. Quickly, they didnt leave home. Slide 12 Classes of Adverbials 2 3/7 ADVERBIALSADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS 2. can be contrasted with another adverbial in an alternative interrogation (as focus of clause interrogation) E.g. Does he write to his parents because he misses them, or only because he wants some money? Slide 13 Classes of Adverbials 2 4/7 ADVERBIALSADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS 3. can be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative negation (as focus of clause negation) E.g. We didnt hate him because of his appearance, but because of his bad behavior. Slide 14 Classes of Adverbials 2 5/7 ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS 1. can appear initially before a negative clause in most cases E.g.: Naturally, he didnt come. (disjunct) Therefore, he couldnt come. (conjunct) Slide 15 Classes of Adverbials 2 6/7 ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS 2. cannot be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative interrogation. 3. cannot be focus of clause negation Slide 16 Classes of Adverbials 2 7/7 ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS Can serve as a response to an Y-N question. E.g.: A: Will he be there? B: Yes, probably. Slide 17 Adjuncts 1.Adjuncts can come within the scope of predication pro-form or predication ellipsis. E.g.:John greatly admires Bob, and so does Mary. John greatly admires Bob, and Mary greatly admires Bob. 3 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 1/21 Slide 18 Adjuncts 3 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 2. Adjuncts can be the focus of limiter adverbials such as only. E.g.:They only want the car for an hour (for an hour not for longer). 2/21 Slide 19 Adjuncts 3 3/21 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 3. Adjuncts can be the focus of additive adverbials such as also. E.g.: They will also meet afterwards. 4.Adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentence. E.g.: It was because of his injury that Mary helped Tony. Slide 20 Adjuncts 1. Can constitute a comparative construction E.g.: John speaks English more fluently than his brother does. 2. Have premodifying however E.g.: However strongly you feel about it, you should be cautious in the way you talk. 3 4/21 ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS Slide 21 Adjuncts 3. Have premodifying how E.g.: How often does she wash her hair? How carelessly he drives! 4. Have premodifying so (+ inversion) E.g.: So monotonously did he speak that everybody felt asleep. 3 5/21 ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS Slide 22 Adjuncts 3 6/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS Slide 23 Adjuncts 3 7/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS + = if we consider what we are saying from a [adj. phrase] point of view + usually in initial position E.g.: Geographically (speaking), Vietnam is a diverse country. Business-wise, its not a good idea to open a fast food restaurant in this area. Slide 24 Adjuncts 3 8/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS limiters additives exclusives particularizers alone, just, only, purely, simply chiefly, especially, mainly, etc. also, either, even, neither, nor, too, as well as, in addition Slide 25 Adjuncts 3 8/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS - Cannot be modified Eg. *very only, *extremely also - Cannot be coordinated Eg. *just and exactly, *equally and likewise Exception: purely and simply Slide 26 Adjuncts 3 9/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS emphasizers amplifiers downtoners clearly, definitely, etc. by far, well, etc. maximizers boosters completely, etc. compromisers diminishers minimizers approximators kind of, quite, etc. partly, slightly, etc. a bit, barely, etc. almost, nearly, etc. Slide 27 Adjuncts 3 10/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS + = in that way/ that way + favor final conditions + co-occur with dynamic verbs, not stative verbs E.g.: They live frugally. Tear gas was indiscriminatively sprayed on the protesters. Slide 28 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS E.g.: They walked in single file. E.g.: I go to school by car. E.g.: You can cut the apple with that knife. manner means instrument 11/21 Slide 29 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS general volitional formulaic With great unease, they elected him as their leader. deliberately, intentionally, on purpose, willingly, with reluctance, etc. please, humbly, cordially, kindly, etc. 12/21 Slide 30 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS + denote position, direction, movement, and passage + most are prepositional phrases; adverb phrases and noun phrases used frequently + used only with verbs of motions or other dynamic verbs denoting direction E.g.: She works a long way from here. Were moving some furniture into the kitchen. 13/21 Slide 31 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS direction position I take the book from the shelf. She ran past the church. I live in a small village. He is over there. 14/21 Slide 32 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS other relationships when duration frequency 15/21 Slide 33 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS other relationships when duration frequency + point of time E.g.: today, tomorrow + boundary of time E.g.: afterwards 16/21 Slide 34 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS other relationships when duration frequency + length of time E.g.: briefly + from the preceding point in time E.g.: since 17/21 Slide 35 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS other relationships when duration frequency + definite - period: E.g.: daily - number: E.g.: twice + indefinite - usual occurrence: E.g.: usually - continuous/continual: E.g.: always - high: E.g.: often - low/zero: occasionally, never 18/21 Slide 36 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS other relationships when duration frequency first, still, yet, already, etc. 19/21 Slide 37 Adjuncts 3 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS + expressing purpose, cause, reason, source or origin E.g.: He took the book from me. They symbolically buried the car as a protest against pollution. 20/21 Slide 38 Adjuncts 3 21/21 RELATIVE POSITION OF ADJUNCTS 1. In final position: process place - time E.g. He was working with his shears (process) in the garden (place) the whole morning (time). 2. The normal relative order can be changed to suit the desire for end-focus. 3. A clause normally comes after other structures to avoid ambiguity E.g. We stood talking for a very long time (A1) where the fire had been (A2). 4. Longer adjuncts tend to follow shorter adjuncts. E.g. I was studying earlier (A1) in the university library (A2). Slide 39 Disjuncts 4 1/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts Most disjuncts are prepositional phrases or clause Slide 40 Disjuncts 4 2/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts convey the speakers comment on the form of what he is saying, defining in some way under what conditions he is speaking E.g.: Seriously, do you intend to retire? Personally, I dont approve of her. Very frankly, I am tired. Slide 41 Disjuncts 4 3/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts convey the speakers comment on the content of what he is saying generally appear only on declarative clauses E.g.: Obviously, no one expected us. Understandably, they were all annoyed when reading the letter. Slide 42 Conjuncts 5 CONJUNCTS 1. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases or prepositi