Compact Neutron Generator Technology Models: JNG-2-DD/DT & JNG-3-DD/DT
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Compact Neutron Generator TechnologyModels: JNG-2-DD/DT & JNG-3-DD/DT ---Robert Goldstein Technical Associates, North American DistributorOVERHOFF TECHNOLOGY
A Brief Overview of Neutron SourcesNaturally Occurring/EnvironmentalCosmicThe Solar Wind. High energy charged particles which hit nuclei in the earths atmosphere creating secondary particles including neutrons. Intensity varies inversely with solar activity.Terrestrial Spontaneous fission mostly U-238, less than 10% naturally induced U-235 fission. 232 Cf
A Brief Overview of Neutron SourcesIntentionalRadioisotope sourcesPhotoneutron SourcesAccelerator sourcesNuclear reactorsSpallation sourcesNeutron generators
A Brief Overview of Neutron SourcesIntentionalRadioisotope sources 252 Cf SP life 100yr, E(n) 2.3MeV
Table 1.1 Properties of commonly used (,n) sourcesSourceEa (MeV)T 1/2Yield (n/a)210Po+BE5.30138.4 days0.7 x 10-4226Ra+Be4.78, 4.591.622 x 10 3 years1.8 x 10-4239Pu+Be5.152.44 x 10 4 years0.6 x 10-4241Am+Be5.484.60 x 10 2 years0.7 x 10-4242Cm+Be6.11163 days1.1 x 10-4241Am+B5.482.44 x 10 4 years1.0 x 10-5241Am+F5.482.44 x 10 4 years4.0 x 10-6
A Brief Overview of Neutron SourcesIntentionalPhotoneutron Sources
Radioisotope decay with Gamma energy exceeding the neutron binding energy of a nucleus can eject a Be or D2 neutron, called a photo-neutron
Table 1.2 Properties of commonly used photoneutron sourcesSourceE7 (MeV)T 1/2Yield (n/) cm 2 gm -124Na+Be2.75715.1 h3.8 x 10-624Na+D2O2.75715.1 h7.3 x 10-672Ga+D2O2.5114.3 h1.9 x 10-6124Sb+Be1.69160.9 days5.1 x 10-6140La+Be2.5140.2 h0.08 x 10-6
A Brief Overview of Neutron SourcesIntentionalAccelerator SourcesThe simplest way to use an accelerator to generate neutrons is to use the bremsstrahlung from electron accelerators such as synchrotron or beta tron to produce photoneutrons. This gives a continuous energy distribution which is not very useful.
Pulsed electron linacs can also be used, for example electron bombardment of Uranium can produce 30MeV neutrons.
A Brief Overview of Neutron SourcesIntentionalNuclear reactors and Spallation sourcesAre beyond the scope of this presentation.
A Brief Overview of Neutron SourcesIntentionalNeutron GeneratorsA subset of the accelerator category which are also fusion devices. First used in 1933. These small electrostatic accelerators use one of two exothermic reactions (produces energy):D + 2H --> 3He3 + n 3.26 MeVD + 3H --> 4He3 + n 17.6 MeV
A Brief Overview of Neutron SourcesIntentionalNeutron GeneratorsA Metal Hydride Target is UtilizedAfter the Reaction:The He and n travel in opposite directions producing high neutron yields.Energy at different angles is given by:4En = En d +2(2 En Ed )1/2cos = 3Q
JNG-2 Neutron GeneratorBenefits:PortabilityReduced Power Input RequirementsIncreased Neutron OutputAdaptable for Tailoring to Specific Customer Needs.Reduced Manufacturing CostsHigh Reliability and Long Operating Life
Applications: Non-Destructive TestingHomeland Security / MilitaryNuclear IndustryMining and DrillingMedicineCivil, Aeronautical, & Nautical EngineeringResearch Laboratories
Typical Target Based Neutron Generators versus JNG-2
Typical Neutron GeneratorsJNG-2DesignComplicated with Many Electronic and Physical ComponentsSimple, mechanically basedPower ConsumptionTens of Kilowatts90 WattsNeutron Output10*6 n/s to 10*8 n/s at applied voltages in the range of hundred kV+DD 1*105 n/sDT 1*107 n/sCase DiameterVaries13 cmCase LengthVaries65 cmWeight33 lbs 362 lbs28 lbsOperationDeuterium Deuterium DDDeuterium Tritium - DTDeuterium Deuterium DDDeuterium Tritium - DTProjected Lifetime1,200 hours 4,000 hours3-5 Years with Option to Refuel and Service at End Time
Neutron Generator Basic Process
Homeland Security / MilitaryDetection of Explosives & Fissile Material in Cargo or LuggageChemical Analysis of Questionable ContentsLand Mine DetectionShipping Container EvaluationNarcotics Detection
Nuclear IndustryCompliance with the GALL ReportNUREG-1801 (2010)
Measuring Radiation Structural DamageContainment VesselsCooling PoolsPipes
Nuclear IndustryGeneric Aging Lessons Learned (GALL)The GALL report evaluates existing programs for providing structural and component safety in Nuclear Power Plants. As these plants age and come up for renewal the GALL report facilitates the renewal process.
Its focus is on the staff review on the augmented existing programs for license renewal. Incorporation of the GALL report into NUREG-1800 and 1801 improves efficiency of the license renewal process.
Mining & DrillingOil Well LoggingOn-Line Assaying of Materials i.e. Coal, Cement, etcBorehole LoggingFuel ReprocessingMining of a Wide Variety of Minerals
MedicineNeutron RadiographyNeutron SpectroscopyNeutron BrachytherapyBoron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)
Civil, Aeronautical, & Nautical EngineeringStructural InspectionGas & Oil Tank WallsBridge IntegrityAirplane/Ship Components Piping
Research LaboratoriesMaterial ScienceNano TechnologyNon-Invasive Analysis
Specifications for JNG-2 & JNG-3
JNG-2 DD & DTJNG-3 DD & DTNeutron Output:105 n/s using D-D107 n/s using D-T106 n/s using D-D108 n/s using D-TNeutron Energy2.45 Mev using D-D14 MeV using D-T2.45 Mev using D-D14 MeV using D-TCooling SystemAir ConvectionAir ConvectionVoltage45kV65kVCurrent2mA5mAPower Consumption90 W325 WMaximum Input Power250 W250 WLength65 cm65 cmDiameter13 cm13 cmTotal Weight13 kg13 kgProjected Lifetime3-5 Years with Option to Refuel and Service at End Time3-5 Years with Option to Refuel and Service at End Time
Replaces Need for 252Cf Sources & Other Radioisotpe SourcesSafer to OperatorSafer to the PublicEliminates Storage Issues of Source MaterialNo risk of theft of radioactive material
Additional Benefits of the JNG-2 and JNG-3Ideal for Calibrating Neutron Detectors for Spontaneous Fission NeutronsCalibrate Neutron Detectors for Higher Energies Including AmBe when Energy Correction Factor is establishedJNG-2-DT Produces 14.1 MeV Neutrons and is available as a Neutron Interrogator
CertificationThis instrument has been tested and certified by independent university tests at the University of Sydney, Australia
Neutron GeneratorsTable 1.1 and 1.2Neutrons, Nuclei and Matter; An Exploration of the physics of Slow NeutronsBy James Byrne (1994)