Ced 250 reviewer

of 29 /29
CED 250 REVIEWER Course Description: Historical, conceptual and philosophical foundations and principles of community development Objectives: Describe the concepts and the interdisciplinary and multifaceted nature of community development Explain the components of the CD process and their interrelationships Find out how the components and principles of each component that can be applied in the CD process Explain the social, cultural, political, economic and environmental dimensions of CD and their effects on the process Appraise the various strategies of community development as to their strengths and weaknesses. Definition of Community People within a geographically bounded area involved in social interaction and with one or more psychological ties with each other and with the place they live. 4 Components of Definition Community involves people Area or territory Social interaction Psychological identification People who live within a geographically defined area and who have social and psychological ties with each other and with the place where they live (Mattessich and Monsey, 2004 as cited by Phillips and Pittman, 2009). – the definition refer first to people and the ties that bind them and second is geographic location Functions of Community 1. Production-distribution-consumption 2. Socialization – process by which society transmits prevailing knowledge, social values, and behavior patterns to its individual members. 3. Social Control –process through which a group influences the behavior of its members toward conformity with its norm. 4. Mutual Support – ex. Exchange labor Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 1

Embed Size (px)


Community development

Transcript of Ced 250 reviewer

Page 1: Ced 250 reviewer

CED 250 REVIEWERCourse Description: Historical, conceptual and philosophical foundations and principles of community development

Objectives: Describe the concepts and the interdisciplinary and multifaceted nature of community

development Explain the components of the CD process and their interrelationships Find out how the components and principles of each component that can be applied in the CD

process Explain the social, cultural, political, economic and environmental dimensions of CD and their

effects on the process Appraise the various strategies of community development as to their strengths and


Definition of CommunityPeople within a geographically bounded area involved in social interaction and with one or

more psychological ties with each other and with the place they live.4 Components of Definition

Community involves people Area or territory Social interaction Psychological identificationPeople who live within a geographically defined area and who have social and psychological ties

with each other and with the place where they live (Mattessich and Monsey, 2004 as cited by Phillips and Pittman, 2009). – the definition refer first to people and the ties that bind them and second is geographic location

Functions of Community1. Production-distribution-consumption2. Socialization – process by which society transmits prevailing knowledge, social values, and

behavior patterns to its individual members.3. Social Control –process through which a group influences the behavior of its members toward

conformity with its norm.4. Mutual Support – ex. Exchange labor

Development – process of social change aimed not only at raising the level of the material welfare of people but also maximally developing their human potentials.

Basic Fundamentals of DevelopmentHuman Being – cause and end of development

Values, knowledge, skills, spirituality, and resources + can be tapped in the development process

Characteristics of DevelopmentUndergoes stages, Not value free, Not free from politics, Not an isolated phenomenon, Implies

improvement and growth, Liberating, Integral, Pervasive, Situation – specific

Human Dignity is at the center of empowerment, participation, and justiceHuman dignity refers to the state of being, inherent worth of individual. Begins with a personal

concept of oneself and the sum of man’s potentials to be fully man

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 1

Page 2: Ced 250 reviewer

Empowerment is the sustained process in which people, through collective action and reflection, come to better understand and be more self-reliant to become authors of their lives and destiny in the pursuit of human development. The process of transferring socio-economic and political power from one center to another, or the creation of new socio-economic power centers that complement or compete with traditional centers.

Participation is the enlightened, responsible, active and sustained involvement of the community in the development process, from problem identification to planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, and benefit sharing.

Justice refers to the equitable access to and distribution of resources, services and benefits, as well as the recognition of the right of people to their cultural heritage.

Characteristics of DevelopmentUndergoes stagesNot value freeNot free from politicsNot an isolated phenomenonImplies improvement, growthLiberatingIntegralPervasiveSituation-specific

Definition of Community DevelopmentA process in which a community is strengthened in order to creatively help meet its own needs: physical, spiritual, mental, psychological, social, economic and political (Palmer, 2004)An applied social science concerned with the study and practice of people’s collective action in ensuring the holistic and corporate well-being of the people (Luna, 1997).

Community DevelopmentApplied Social Science- CD is rooted on the basic social sciences in initiating social change for the betterment of the people in the community. It employs the scientific processes in problem solving.Study and Practice – CD is concerned with both enhancement of the theory and the improvement of the practice. CD Praxis- reflection-action-reflection (RAR)People’s Collective Action – basic element of CD is initiative and involvement of the community people in the various phases of problem solving and R-A-R processHolistic and Corporate Well-Being – CD is concerned with the socio-economic-political, cultural, spiritual, and physical well-being of the people

History of CDYear Description

1930 CD introduced in the US with reference to community planning.Drew experiences in adult education, community services, and social welfare programs in the US and UK.Influenced by American and European voluntary agency efforts and missionary groups and philanthropic institutions in the developing countries.

1948 First used officially at the British’s Cambridge Conference on the Development of African initiatives.Was proposed to help the British African Territories prepared for independence by developing their local government and economy.

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 2

Page 3: Ced 250 reviewer

CD was seen a process in which people organize and jointly solve problems, relying mainly on local resources, with assistance, where necessary, from the government and non-government organizations.

1950 CD efforts launched primarily in British territories in AfricaProminence of CD in developing countries as a result of promotion and financial support from the US.

1952 First major CD program was initiated in India with support from US Foreign Economic Assistance Agency and Ford Foundation.

1953-1958 Establishment of CD program in Iran (1953), Philippines and Pakistan (1955), Jordan (1956), Indonesia (1957), Korea (1958)

1960 Over 60 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America had CD programs.CD was seen as a new field requiring training in community analysis, community organization, community education, and social action.CD was seen as a means to mobilize rural people to achieve socio-economic, cultural, and political objectives, and as a response to the threat of international communism during the cold war era.

1965 Most CD programs had been terminatedReasons for decline of CD programs: disillusionment of many political leaders with program performance, sharp reduction of support from US and other donors, and shifting of resources to support the green revolution program.Attributed to: the failure of the Trickle down theory of economic development to address the barriers of equity and economic growth, benefit did not accrue to the rural people, and poor majority did not respond to CD.

Beyond 1965 Many countries continued their CD programs and each country has her own story to tell

Community Development as an Art and ScienceArt Science

A person needs good people and community skills with an eye and mind of wisdom that is always looking to help the people themselves discover their own way in development.

Tools of CD to do a good job within the communities they work. Diagram venn, transect, mapping, calendaring.

Goals and Objectives of Community Development (Yemshaw, 1994)To generate socio-cultural, political, economic, ecological empowerment of the people,

participation of the people, and justice to the people.

Concepts of CDCD as a ProcessMoves by stages from one condition or state to the nextInvolves a progression of things in terms of specified criteriaExpressed chiefly in social relation

One or two people or a small elite within or outside the local community make decisions ----- local community making decisions

Minimum cooperation ----- maximum cooperation Low participation---high participation Resources and specialists come from outside----local people making use of their own

resources Emphasis is upon what happens to people socially and psychologically

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 3

Page 4: Ced 250 reviewer

CD as a MethodA means to an end; a way or working so that a goal is attainedA very useful approach to accomplish some important goalsEmphasis is upon some end, e.g. public health, improved agricultural productivity, social welfare, etc.

CD as a Program Embodies a set of activities to be carried out by officials, specialists and local people in some time sequence and at budgeted costs.Composed of problems, objectives, and solutions, and sometimes a definite time frame.Highly formalized programs tend to focus upon the program or activities and not on the people involved in the program.CD as a program comes into contact with subject-matter specialists such as health, welfare, agriculture, industry, etc.

CD as a MovementCD is a crusade/cause to which people become deeply committedNot a neutral process but carries an emotional chargeStresses and promotes the idea of community development as interpreted by its devoteesHas charismatic leaders who enunciate its ideologyCD as a SystemCD as a unitary whole made up of components or subsystems such as people, technology, resources, institutions, environment, etc. which are interrelated and interactingEmphasis is on being holistic and integrativeCD as a Field of StudyCD as a locus of scientific research As CD advances, empirical studies are neededResults of such studies are valuable inputs to the development of CD

CD Methods/Fields of CD Community ResearchInvolves gathering all information and deeper investigation about community issues, people’s awareness and responses, and what can be done to respond to the issues.Also referred to as social investigation during community organizing, training needs analysis during community training and education, and situational analysis in community planning.Participatory versus Traditional Research – role of the researcher, role of the people, who determines the research agenda, who uses the information, who is empowered?Participatory Research: Principles – people’s participation and empowerment, people as subjects of the research process, researchers and community people are both doers and learners in the research process.Participatory Research: Methods – qualitative (secondary data review, direct observation/participant observation, semi-structured interview, case studies, etc.) Quantitative (livelihood analysis, time trend, etc).Participatory Research: Process – identification of research problem, formulation of research design, data gathering, data analysis, data presentation, and planning for community action.Community OrganizingPhases: social preparation phase, community integration, consolidation and expansion, and phase out (phase over).Area-based organizing, sectoral organizing, alliance and coalitionCommunity Education

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 4

Page 5: Ced 250 reviewer

Community value formation, skills development for collective action, and conscientizationEnsures that people become aware and critical of their situation such that they realize that they can play a role in changing their situation to make it more just and responsive to their needs.Phases: 1.Preparatory Phase (TNA, formulation of training design, modules, training aids, formation of the training team, preparation of logistics)2.Training Implementation3.Training EvaluationCommunity PlanningWhat can the community people do to respond to the identified problems, considering the available time and resources?Principles: responsiveness, participation, flexibility, feasibility, and coordinationCommunity Resource Management: environmental conservation and rehabilitation, social enterprises, and community economic enterprises

Community Development Approaches1. Community-Based Approach A development program/project conducted at the stakeholder’s locality. CD happens in the specific geographic boundaries of the community. Programs and action plans and their administration are done ad intra. Technically encompassing and comprehensive. Envisions to create self-reliant communities with strengthened local capability and leadership. Organizers may either be outsiders or community members.2. Area-Based Approach

Covers a wider area (compared to community-based approach) which may include a district or a province.Focused on common thrusts like forestry or agriculture.Areas cover a wider geographic scope involving different individuals and communities.Considers the vast area as one program area coverage for management effectiveness and efficiency.Envisions transfer of the project upon completion to the municipalityExamples: Bicol River Basin Development, Laguna Lake Development AuthorityOther Features: Office located in the site, funded by foreign donors, community organizing becomes peripheral, with limited time or project duration, managed by a line agency, autonomous of local leadership, taps local organizations as partners.

3. Welfare ApproachAddresses immediate community, individual, group or marginalized people’s needsWorks with vulnerable groups e.g urban poor, street children, differently-able, elderly, orphans, etc.Programs are implemented for these sectors so that they can join mainstream development. Examples of Programs: Rehabilitation of drug patients, home for the elderly, etc.Requires professionally trained personnelInstitutions are established e.g. Home for the Aged, Boy’s Town, etc.

4. Spiritual-Psychosocial ApproachCarries a tinge of religiosity towards values transformation, personal development, and social commitmentUnderscores the tenets of faith, its theological and hermeneutical implications to social action.Envisions to transform and develop human individuals through conversion of the heartExamples: Marriage encounter groups, Church renewal programs, Basic Eccesiastical Communities

5. Life-Cycle and Rights-Based ApproachPromotes the basic and primary rights of human individuals according to their life stagesA priori rights

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 5

Page 6: Ced 250 reviewer

Focused on Total Development of the Human Potential (TDHP)TDHP program planned and implemented within specific age-chronology category e.g. early childhood (0-6), children and youth (7-17) adult (18-60), elderly/senior citizens (61+)Programmatic response implemented in each age category, as a promotion of individual rights toward the development of human potentialExample: Early Child Care Development (ECCD) Program – a system that refers to the full range of health, nutrition and early childhood education, and social services programs that provide for the holistic needs of young children and mothers from birth to six years old, to promote their optimum growth and development.

6. Armed Revolution ApproachEmbraces a comprehensive system transformation through armed revolutionJustifies that armed revolution is the only way to overhaul the oppressive system that causes povertyProponents believe that the powerful and their state machineries will never entertain change or development for the poor majoritySeeks to establish a socialist systemAdvocated by MarxistsSeeks to eradicate poverty and eliminate the oppression against the poorArmed resistance will fight against the elite which dominates the society

Philosophical Foundations of CDDefinitions of PhilosophyThe knowledge of the ultimate causes of things. It gives an individual a critical look upon life’s real values and upon human conduct.A system of thoughts by which it is sought to understand the world view, the meaning and values.A world view or doctrines of values, meanings and purposes of human life.

The Need for CD PhilosophyProvides for efficiency in CD work.Guides us in the use of proper methods in CD work.Links the CD philosophy with our personal outlook in life.

Nature of CD Philosophy Aimed at the well-being of people. As an inspiration to the people and the will to achieve the goals. Linked with the ideals of democracy, liberty, justice, peace, brotherhood, and dignity of the

individual. Statement of the basic ideas that expresses the ultimate causes of CD. It is the enunciation of

the nature, origin, aims and the distinctive principles and methods of CD.

Community Development Philosophy Community development is about helping people to help themselves. It works by harnessing

individual potential and transforming it through education and strong partnerships into just and sustainable solutions that build better futures for all.

Generally, before people can start to look for sustainable solutions to their existing problems, they need new skills. They need to be empowered. Education and capacity building are the most effective tools for empowering people and the more that are involved in the learning process, the more powerful the change for good will be.

The key finding seems to be that development tends to fail when it is based on a top-down model and it seems more likely to succeed when based on a grass roots movement.

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 6

Page 7: Ced 250 reviewer

CD Philosophy (Surf-Aid International, 2005)The development of people, and the fulfillment of their potentials.

CD is about helping people to help themselves. CD works by harnessing individual potential and transforming it through education and strong partnerships into just and sustainable solutions that build better future for all.

For development to be successful it has to be sustainable and community-led. Communities have a right to participate in decisions that affect their living and working

conditions. Only community development that gives people decision-making power is sustainable. Genuine participation requires community involvement in all phases of change (planning,

implementation, maintenance, and monitoring phases) Participation must build on gender equality and include youth and the elderly. Capacity development is essential to promote equal participation from women, men, and

youth. Communities are prime stakeholders among development actors to identify problems, improve

and maintain their settlements. Charity makes communities depended upon aid.

Theory – branch of science or art consisting of its explanatory statements, accepted principles, and methods of analysis as opposed to practice. A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena.

Those who prefer action to theory is not bound by traditions or narrowly defined strategies based on unproven or probably unprovable theories of human behavior or social organization. Believe that theory cannot inform practice because it is generated at a distance.

CD Theory Network of theoretical elements ranges beyond a few normative propositions. Involves a wide variety of descriptive theories drawn from the social sciences and social

philosophy. Theoretical base is the product of eclectic approach to theory building. Eclectic Approach to Theory Building – CD borrows and will continue to borrow models and

theories from other sciences that seem helpful (sociology, psychology, ecology, anthropology, economics, communication)

Requires constant situational theory building due to: variety in communities, variations in circumstances from place to place and time to time, rapid changes going on in the environment, and varying CD objectives and conditions

Jumble of definitions and theoretical bits and pieces constantly being arranged, modified, and re-arranged.

CD theory revolves around and anchored on a core of coherent definitions and propositions which is provisional and subject to change.

Core Concepts of the CD TheoryCharacteristics of CD

Focus on a unit called community Conscious attempts to induce non-reversible structural change Use of paid professionals/workers Initiation by groups, agencies or institutions external to the community unit Emphasize public participation Participate for the purpose of self-help

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 7

Page 8: Ced 250 reviewer

Increase dependence on participatory democracy as the mode for community (public decision-making

Use of holistic approach not sectoral “Unless the element of self-help and the incremental opening of the decision-making systems

to participation are features of an approach to community improvement, it should not be designated community development” (Cook, 1994).

Functions of Theory in CD Objects of CD practice is improvement in operating communities Normative in nature – deals with what ought to be or what is better Theory is needed to provide a guide for behavior in very specific circumstances Primary Functions of CD Theory – to provide norms or prescriptions for the practitioner’s

actions and a model of practical help to the communities Theories are classified by function But CD theories are organized based on the questions they attempt to answer

Empowerment- To give power to another, to provide the means of exerting or asserting power as a behavior

practiced by individuals. Means giving or providing power to another (Kenneth Pigg, 2002).- A multi-dimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives. It is a

process that fosters power in people, for use in their own lives, their communities, and in their society, by acting on issues that they define as important (Page and Czuba, 1999).

- Expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in, negotiate with, influence, control, and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives (World Bank, 2002).

Empowerment Process1. Powerlessness – characterized by a lack of access to financial, political, legal, institutional or

media resources. Psychologically it is characterized by low energy and feelings of apathy, dependency, hopelessness or helplessness.

2. Protesting – characterized by active critiques and confrontation or challenges of the status quo. Psychologically, it involves high emotional energy, anger, frustration and hostility. Shortages of power are typically blamed on the powerful group, and there is a notable lack of empathy to power group. Because polarization is common, appropriate facilitation during this phase involves use of techniques to encourage dialogue and problem solving and discourage violence. Interventions may be needed to facilitate the movement of groups from protesting what they do not want to examining what they do want.

3. Proposing – after a degree of awareness and protest, groups want to withdraw and look inward-rethinking their own values and establishing their identity as different from the power group. At a psychological level it involves introspection and assertion of the group’s independence, often involves an attitude of superiority of one’s values or a (re) discovery and celebration of cultural or group identity. Facilitating movement from protesting to proposing involves asking the group for its vision of what it wants and for concrete proposals to solve problems or implement that vision. Thus visioning, strategic planning, values clarification, cultural and identity related activities are most effective at this stage. Facilitating movement towards renewed interaction and shared activities involves a process of reconciliation or forgiveness. When individuals and groups have a strong sense of their own identity, they are able to move to more equal power relationships.

4. Partnering – characterized by shared decision-making and shared access to resources. Psychologically there is an awareness of the value of working together with the previous power group, to accomplish mutual goals. It is a recognition of inter-dependence or perhaps more descriptively, inter-dependence, in that the relationship is one of equals. Both parties are free from and free to interact as appropriate in the situation. Appropriate activities or

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 8

Page 9: Ced 250 reviewer

interventions during this phase involves structures that support shared decision-making among relatively equal partners.

Transformational Model of Empowerment (Barlett, 2004) Empowerment involves a transformation: when people are empowered there is a

profound and lasting change in the way people live their lives. Three elements of this transformation: means, process, and ends. The means: enabling factors, including rights, resources, capabilities and

opportunities. The process: making choices. The process involves a number of steps: analysis,

decision-making and action. And the process can be carried out by individuals or groups.

The ends: people taking greater control of their lives. All three elements of the transformation are needed for empowerment to take place. A

change of means, on its own, may produce certain benefits such as access to services; but without process those benefits are a form of patronage rather than empowerment. On the other hand, attempts to change process without the means being in place will result in frustration and failure.

In many cases this transformation is cyclical, with a change in ends bringing about a further change in the means of empowerment.

Social CapitalSocial Capital – the aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to

possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance or recognition (Bourdieu, 1980).

Social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them (Putnam, 2000).

Social capital reflects access to power, organization, connection to resources and power brokers (Flora and Flora, 2008).

Categories of Social Capital1. Based on whether social capital involves socio-economic institutions and networks or

relates to individual states of mind.Structural Form (observable social structures such as networks, organizations and rules they

embody; also called institutional capital)Cognitive Form (norms, values, attitudes, also called relational capital)2. Based on the level of economic structure that social capital affect:Macro level (national)Meso level (regional and community)Micro level (household or individual)3. Based on functions that social capital works inside one community or between several

organizations and/or individuals in different communities:Bonding type (intra-community tie)Bridging type (intercommunity horizontal tie)Linking type (vertical connection)Bracing type (vertical and horizontal connection within a limited actors)

Dimensions of Social CapitalDimensions of Social Capital DescriptionNetworks and Memberships Networks – size, internal diversity, and the extent of assistance in case

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 9

Page 10: Ced 250 reviewer

of trouble are measured as standards.Membership – the numbers of groups and associations, the frequency of joining group activities, the extent of involvement in groups, and the membership diversity are well used.Network and membership have positive effects on the well-being of community dwellers and then community development.

Social trust Key factor for enhancing individual well-being as well as socio-economic development at the community level.

Collective action and reciprocity Outcome of social capital.

Community Social Capital Extent to which members of a community can work together effectively.Includes the abilities to develop and sustain strong relationships; solve problems and make group decisions; and collaborate effectively to identify goals and get work done.Attribute of a community, not of any specific members.The level depends upon the number and strength of ties and bonds that community members have with one another.Involves interconnections among people who reside in the same community.

Influence of Social Capital to DevelopmentInfluences community development in two ways: structural and cognitive.Structurally, interconnections among people within a community create a web of social networks.Cognitively, interconnections create a shared sense of purpose, increase commitment, promote mutual trust, and strengthen norms of reciprocity among community residents.

Role of Social Capital in CDBy recognizing the existence of social capital, our understanding of the way communities operate and how they function is enhanced and directs CD strategies towards interventions that will help (re) build social capital.Social capital may be a useful concept for practitioners, researchers and policy makers in bringing the missing social into economic and fiscal policy debates.

Purpose of Development Work – to collectively bring about social change and justice by working with communities to: identify their needs, opportunities, rights, and responsibilities; plan, organize, and take action; evaluate the effectiveness and impact of action (National Occupational Standards in Community Development Work)

Community Development Work – seeks to engage communities actively in analyzing the issues which affect their lives, and setting goals for improvement and taking action, by means of empowering and participative process.

CD vs. Rural Development (RD)Item CD RD

Objective Aims to improve the overall well-being of the people in the community holistically

Aims to improve the socio-economic, political, cultural, psychological, and ecological well-being of people in a community with common interest.

Aims to enhance the ability and capability of the rural poor to better manage their resourcesAims to increase output and productivity without attempting to restructure existing pattern of property and wealth.

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 10

Page 11: Ced 250 reviewer

Target Community as a whole, rural as well as urban areas

Majority of the poor people in the rural areas

Process Continuous educational process Continuous educational and technological processes

Approach More bottom up, less top-down More top-down, less bottom-upPolitical Interference Local government or communities

themselvesNational and provincial governments for the implementation of the projects

Imposition No imposition, more on empowerment and stimulation

More chances of imposition rather than empowerment or stimulation

Change Agent Minimum role, if needed Maximum role, always with the people during the initial project stages

CD vs Extension Education (EE)ITEM CD EE

Goals/Objective Development of literacy, managerial skills, governance, political will, environment, etc.

Development of KASAP

Locus of Subject Multi-faceted/integrated needs Technology-basedTarget/Focus Groups Individuals/familiesDecision-Makers Groups Individuals/familiesChange Agent Proficient in team building,

organizingSubject matter specialists with high level of SIR

Locus of Operation Rural and urban Rural and urbanProcess Educational EducationalStructure May not have a program for

which people will be organizedUsually with a program

Community Organizing – process which builds/mobilizes people and other community resources towards identifying and solving their own problems, establishing people’s awareness and capacities to stage their own future, taking action collectively considering the bureaucratic structure and restrictive institutional arrangements.Nature of Community Organizing: process by which a community identifies its problems and finds solution to them through collective mobilization of community people and resources. The ultimate goal/objective of community organizing is to effect changes in the social and environmental institutions so that people can direct their own lives.Benefits from Community Organizing: from a social welfare point of view, it can contribute significantly to the efficiency and effectiveness of public programs by improving their acceptance, design and chances of long-term success. Second, it can increase both social equity and self-reliance of local residents.Aims/Goals of Community Organizing: to achieve effective power for the people so they can determine their own development and shape their own future. To establish and sustain relatively permanent organizational structures which best serve the people’s needs. To build or join alliances that is useful to the people.

Principles of Community Organizing

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 11

Page 12: Ced 250 reviewer

1. Community organizing involves consciousness-raising through experiential learning. (Central to the community organizing process is the development of awareness and motivation among the people to act upon their problems

2. Community organizing is participatory and mass-based.3. Community organizing is based on democratic leadership. (group-centered, not leader-


Steps in Community Organizing1. Entry into the community2. Integration with the people3. Social investigation4. Problem identification and analysis5. Planning and strategizing6. Core group formation7. Organization development and mobilization8. Evaluation and reflection9. Turn-over and phase-out

Community Development Worker (CDW)A CDW is a community-based, resource person who collaborates with other community workers to help fellow community members to obtain information and resources from service providers. The aim is to assist the community to learn how to progressively meet their needs, achieve their goal, realize their aspirations and maintain their well-beingOften act as a link between communities and local government and other statutory bodies. They are frequently involved in addressing inequalities, and projects tend to target communities perceived to be the work disadvantaged.Participatory change agents working within communities from where they are selected, where they live, and to whom they are answerable for their activities.They are supported financially and functionally by a range of government spheres and departments.

Other Names for CDWChange agent, change actor, initiator, facilitator, intermediary, consultant, and interventionist.

Tasks of Community Development WorkerIdentify community issues, needs and problemsDevelop new community-based programs and resourcesEvaluate and monitor existing community programsEnlist the cooperation of government bodies, community organizations and other private institutions.Help raise public awareness on issues relevant to the community.Provide leadership and coordination of programs.Act as facilitator to promote self-help in the community.Prepare reports and policiesNetwork to build contacts and fundraisingDevelop strategies

General Characteristics of CDWTechnical capability, administrative capability, smooth interpersonal relationship (SIR), job orientation, and leadership capability

4 Key Roles of CDW

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 12

Page 13: Ced 250 reviewer

Change agentCapacity builderAccess facilitatorService development

Other Roles: Planner, catalyst, advocate, solution giver, process helper, resource linker, mediator and negotiator, network builder, coordinator, educator, and leader.

Knowledge Requirements of CDWRange of human needs, values and motives, change, KASP (knowledge, attitudes, skills, practices), issues at hand (cultural, social, and health), community groups including excellent awareness of language spoken by the community, informed and practical view of his role, community support and development.

Work Guidelines of CDWWork with the poor and oppressed, not for themDevelopment is an awakening processLet people growBuild up the people’s solidarityBuild up the people’s organizationCommitment towards social justice and empowermentCommunity autonomyMaintain confidentiality of informationFocus and service for the communityOpenly acknowledge any potential conflict of interestUse processes, methods, and tools responsiblyStrive to engender an environment of respect and safety where all participants trust that they can speak

freely and where individual boundaries are honoredUse of skills, knowledge, tools, and wisdom to elicit and honor the perspectives of allPractice stewardship of process and impartiality toward content

Attitudes and Beliefs of CDWPrimary concern for the benefit of the ultimate userPluralistic altruismBelief that change should provide the greatest good for the greatest number of peopleBelief that people have needs and a right to understand why changes are being made and to participate in choosing among alternative change and endsRespect for existing institutions

Skills Requirement of CDWConflict management, networking, resource generation, advocacy, leadership development, negotiation, communication skills both verbally and in writing across various contexts and organizations, ability to work with a range of people in different settings including professionals from statutory and voluntary organizations and members of the public, ability to work independently and organize own workload , ability to work across a range of organizations and stakeholders, ability to help design, deliver, and evaluate community needs, flexible approach and ability to work independently and on own initiative, ability to deal with complex issues facing vulnerable groups in the community, and good organizational and interpersonal skills.

Issues, Problems, and Trends in Community Development

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 13

Page 14: Ced 250 reviewer

Issues – defined as the result of an event that has occurred and has a positive or negative impact on the project and should be analyzed and dealt with via actions

Problem – an obstacle which makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal, objective or purpose; an unresolved issue

Issues in Community DevelopmentIssues DescriptionTop-Down Approach CD programs being planned by the top management

Blueprint of CD programsInduced community needsDesired: Bottom-Up

Selection of Community Development Worker (CDW)

CDW as a generalist or a specialistDiversity of CDW roles (catalyst, process helper, solution giver, resource linker, etc.)Complexity of the client system and the environment

Dual Loyalty of the CDW “Serving two masters at the same time.”Work for the agency he represents?Work with the people he serves?

Use of Model Program A successful program in one place is recommended nationwide.Boxed program

Difficulty of Interagency Collaboration

Different agencies work for CD with their own objectivesDuplication of programsConfusion to the people

Politicizing CD Program With a change in political leadership, there is a change in the CD programPolitical interferencesCD programs being used to influence votes

Problems in Community DevelopmentLimited Community Resources

Resource-poor communities, conflict in resource use (intra village, inter-village), role of CDW as resource linker

Social FactorsHigh population growth rate, inadequate services and facilities, low/limited education, social

inequality, and clientele resistance towards change/development

Political FactorsWeak leadership, vested interest, poor implementation of laws and policies, political

interferences, and lack of political will

Economic FactorsPoverty, low productivity, low income, lack of capital, landlessness, and lack of facilities

Organizational FactorsBureaucracy, graft and corruption, inadequate salary structure, lack of dedicated and

committed workers, wide geographical coverage of CDW, and institutional resistance

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 14

Page 15: Ced 250 reviewer

Cultural FactorsFatalism, values and attitudes, and traditions

Environmental FactorsNatural calamities, deforestation, health and sanitation, pollution, and climate change

Trends in Community DevelopmentTrends DescriptionCommunity Resource Management

Giving the communities the opportunity and responsibility to manage their own resources, define their own needs, goals and aspirations, and make decisions affecting their well-being

People’s Participation Has been very elusive, ladder of participation, and genuine participationParticipation should focus on the following aspects: Social, economic, and cultural issues; Needs mechanisms/structures to operationalize the process from the village to the highest level of government; Process of raising critical consciousness of people about their problems; Participatory research

Community Organization

CD in the millennium should focus on its performance in terms of the following questions: What organization and under what conditions have worked best? Should it be formal or non-formal? Who should initiate? What social preparation is needed? When are the people ready for community organizing? Is the cooperative the answer to a CO?

Community Education Concerned with developing people’s capability: Community value formation (cooperativism, collective concern, nationalism, etc.), Skills development for collective actions, Conscientization = “learning to perceive social, political, and economic contradictions, and to take action against oppressive elements of reality”

Community Empowerment

“A sustained process in which people, through collective action and reflection, gain a deep understanding of the causes of their powerlessness and the confidence in themselves to take responsibility for their own development”.“Giving local officials autonomy and responsibility in planning and allocating local resources in the task of uplifting their own social and economic conditions”.Elements of Empowerment – Local Government (autonomy and responsibility – planning and resource allocation), people’s initiatives, basic services and infrastructure provided by government, sustainable development, and equitable economic growth)

Realization of the 8 Millennium Development Goals by 2015

Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerAchieve universal primary educationPromote gender equality and empower womenReduce child mortalityImprove maternal health careCombat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management

Disasters are becoming more frequentCommunity-Based Disaster Management (hazard mapping, vulnerability assessment, capacity assessment, planning, community organizing, and community mobilization and volunteerism)

Lessons Learned in Community Development

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 15

Page 16: Ced 250 reviewer

For development to be successful it has to be sustainable and it has to community-led. Communities have a right to participate in decisions that affect their living and

working conditions. Only community development that gives people decision-making power is

sustainable. Genuine participation requires community involvement in all phases of change: that

means at planning, implementation, maintenance and monitoring phases. Participation must build on gender equality and include youth and the elderly. Capacity development is essential to promote equal participation from women, men

and youth. Communities are prime stakeholders among development actors to identify problems,

improve and maintain their settlements. Charity makes communities dependent upon aid.

Community development recognizes that the most important outcome of community change is empowered communities that can solve serious issues by working together. Given clear information and appropriate capacity, education and financial support, poor men and women can effectively organize themselves to identify community priorities and address local problems.

The community development process is long and tricky. But given time, dedication and skills, it works well.

Important Notes Community development takes on the mantle of developing stronger communities of people

and the social and psychological ties they share. The development of community in part includes the building of social capital. The level of a community’s social capital influences the way community development evolves

for that specific community; it also influences the pace at which community development efforts may occur.

Sample Questions 1. How is community development related to development?2. What are the ethical standards to which professional community developers should adhere?3. What can leaders do to facilitate community and development?4. What is the purpose of conducting community assessment?5. Why is it important to assess the local economy for community and economic development

decisions and policy making?6. How is economic impact analysis useful in community and economic development decisions?7. Describe a process to encourage citizen participation in neighborhood planning and

development decision-making?8. What are community development indicators and why are they useful?9. What are some types of community development indicators?10. Why is there no single ideal sustainable community?11. Explain community development concepts/principle and use a framework to show that people

is the central of community development?12. What are the approaches of community development?13. What are the analytical tools used to analyze community development activities and projects.

What are the contributions of those tools for policy improvement?14. Explain methods that usually used to develop skills and knowledge of people in community

development.15. Cite 3 components of community development?16. What are the functions of community development?

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 16

Page 17: Ced 250 reviewer

17. What are the strategies of community development?18. What are the attitude and ethics of community development workers?19. What are the roles of community development workers?20. What are the knowledge and skills of community development workers?21. What are the issues in community development?22. How are you going to implement a community development project?23. Present a case study. What are the major problems? What are your programs and activities to

handle the problems? What are your approaches? What are your expectations?Explain community development as discipline/academic discipline?Answer: Academic discipline acquire knowledge and skills able to apply in the formulation and translating the knowledge (concepts, theories, principles and methods) and skills through the process of scientific investigation and empirical research (process of research evaluation and formulation/implementation of programs/projects/activities), problem identification, setting objectives, hypothesis, assumption, gathering of data (analysis, recommendations and conclusion) during the implementation conduct, formation evaluation (mid-year and year-end review of in-house and field), after completion of research ex-post evaluation, and ex-post facto evaluation (facts as benchmark information for evaluation).

Explain, discuss and relate community development in global scenario in the context of modernization or industrialization?

Answer: Community development in global scenario in the context of modernization or industrialization has undergone various transformation or changes in terms of its goals, objectives, principles and approaches/strategies. Table 1 explained the various changes that occur in community development.

Aspect Before NowCD Goals Economic growth and

productivity (GNP and GDP indicators for development)

Economic growth, efficiency, equity and sustainability (more focus on social and human development indicators)

CD Objectives Social welfare

Peace and political stability

National reconstruction

Cultural growth

Ecological management

Social well-being

Mutual cooperation among different groups of societyReduction of poverty

Respect of local culture and the environmentSocial and moral integrationEcological sustainability

CD Principles Respect of culture

People-oriented, must start where the people are

Understand and learn the cultural pattern of the communityCD program should be based on the felt needs of the people in the community

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 17

Page 18: Ced 250 reviewer

Democratic in spiritVoluntary participation

Cooperation and coordination with the development oriented organizations

People’s participation, empowerment and social justice at all levels and democratic processEquitable sharing of benefits and sustainable use of local resourcesSocial integration and social relationsEmpowerment of marginalized, excluded vulnerable and oppressed people.Ecologically sound programs, projects and activities and ecologically sustainable

CD Approaches/Strrategies

Top down, centralized planning, M & E and decision-making processGrowth-oriented and welfare orientedBasic needs

Sectoral or piecemeal projects and activities

Literacy and education among adult people, local institution building and leadership

Bottom-up, decentralization in planning, M & E, decision-making process

Responsive, integrated, holistic and multi-sectoral convergenceNeeds assessment approach and felt needs of the people in the communityMass mobilization and participation, social action, public advocacy and mutual support and coordinationLeadership developmentCommunity education and KASAP programs for the communityNetworking and coordinative efforts of undertakingsCo-management to self-help

Furthermore, community development in the world context before was a dole-out program

and projects. But later on, the process changes through self and self-reliance where the community involved in the planning, decision-making and implementation.

As a conclusion, community development in global scenario played important role in the development process in the community life of local people, as well as the whole society whether living in an urban and rural area in the context of modernization or industrialization.

Comprehensive questions July 27, 20121. What is community development?2. What are empowerment, participation, social justice and human dignity?3. Framework of the mentioned above.4. How are you going to develop a community project and how are going to evaluate the project.

What is evaluation model that are you going to apply to measure your project achievement?5. If you are assigning as a CD worker, what do you should equip yourself to be fully serve your


Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 18

Page 19: Ced 250 reviewer

Prepared by: Kanh, 5.15.2012 Page 19