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Transcript of Baroque week
Baroque weekLesson 1 An Introduction
In todays lessonLearn about the Baroque era of music
Discover one of the most famous Baroque composers
Listen to some music from the Baroque periodThe baroque eraRefers to a period in time from 1600-1750
More elaborate playing styles and ornamentation, greater choice of instruments
Developments in notation
Vocal forms Opera, Mass, Oratorio and Concerto were established we will discuss these later in the weekThe baroque eraCan we name any Baroque composers?J.s. bach (1685-1750)German composer, regarded as one of the most famous and influential composers of all time
During his lifetime he was widely know as an organist, rather than a composer
Wrote a variety of music; including keyboard music, chamber music, orchestral music and large-scale works such as opera
Activity 1Passacaglia and Fugue in Cm: J.S. Bach
Passacaglia: Variations over a ground bass.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ie52xH8V2L4Task: Listen to an excerpt from the piece and write down as many musical concepts as you can hear. If it makes it easier, you can group them under the headings: StyleMelody/HarmonyRhythm/TempoTexture/Structure/FormTimbre/dynamics
Passacaglia Ground Bass
Any others?Activity 2Canon in D: Pachelbel - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcJuZIUeBME
Task: Listen to an excerpt from the piece and follow the score above - write down as many musical concepts as you can see/hear. Activity 2Pachelbels Canon is a combination of the forms canon and ground bass. The 3 violins play a canon and the bass part (basso continuo) plays a ground bass.Also:RepetitionImitationOrnamentTrillCounter MelodyBaroque concepts lesson 1Round where parts enter one after another, playing the exact same melody. Like singing Londons Burning!Organ keyboard instrument usually found in churches. Usually has more than one keyboard.Ornament short, extra notes added to decorate a melody.Repetition a musical idea heard more than once.Imitation melody is immediately copied in another part.Canon strict imitation. Parts enter after each other playing the exact melody (see Round)Trill fast, repeated movement between two adjacent/neighbour notes.Counter Melody a second, complimentary melody played at the same time as the main melody.Ground Bass a repeated bass line, while parts above vary.Basso Continuo Baroque bass line, played by cello/bass/bassoon/harpsichord/organPassacaglia variations over a ground bass.Baroque weekLesson 2 The Concerto
In todays lessonLearn about the solo concerto in the Baroque era
Look at the use of ornamentation in Baroque music
Learn to recognise different textures in music from the Baroque era
But firstlets recap!1. What is the period of time that is referred to as the Baroque era?2. Name a famous Baroque composer.3. What are some characteristics of music from the Baroque period?4. Complete the sentence: A _____ is where parts enter immediately after each other playing exactly the same melody.5. Complete the sentence: The name given to the bass line in Baroque music, often played by the cello, bass, bassoon or harpsichord/organ, is known as the _____ _________.6. What is a Passacaglia?The baroque concertoThere are two types of concerti in the Baroque period the solo concerto and the concerto grosso.
Concerto is the name given to a work for a solo instrument accompanied by a larger group, usually an orchestra.
In the Baroque, a concerto would usually have 3 sections, or movements fast, slow, fast.
We will discuss concerto grosso later in the week.
The baroque concertoSolo instrument would play an embellished melodic line, adding ornaments for decoration
Trill: fast, repeated movement between two adjacent/neighbour notes.Acciaccatura: a crushed note a very short note played just before, or on, the beat.Mordent: an ornament where the main note is sounded, then the note above, then the main note again.What do you think an inverted mordent could be?
The four seasons vivaldiSpring Mvt.1Listen to this movement from a violin concerto, by the famous Baroque composer Vivaldi. Listen out for the ornaments in the solo violin part http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRxofEmo3HAThere is a lot of repetition and imitation in this piece, how does Vivaldi create interest in the music?
What ornaments do you hear?Contrast in dynamics, timbre and addition of ornamentsTrills and mordents can be heardtexturesTexture in music refers to the way the rhythms in different parts interact and intertwine with each other.Look at this example from Spring below see how the accompanying parts move all at the same time
This is known as homophonic movement when all the parts move together rhythmically, they sound together.1min 58secs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRxofEmo3HAtexturesWatch the first movement of J.S. Bachs Double Violin Concerto listen to how the violins rhythms weave around each other at different times
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJh6i-t_I1QThis is called polyphonic movement when the parts weave in and out independently of each other, literally different sounds or voices. Also referred to as contrapuntal.Listen againListen carefully to the end of this first movement again, what do you notice about the last chord of the piece? Does it differ at all to what you were expecting?Tierce de Picardie: the final chord of a piece in a minor key is changed to major, e.g. the first movement in A minor ends in an A major chord.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJh6i-t_I1QMvt. 1 ends at 4:19
Baroque concepts lesson 2Concerto a work for solo instrument accompanied by orchestra.Homophonic when parts move rhythmically at the same time.Polyphonic when parts move rhythmically at different times, independently from each other.Contrapuntal Texture in which each of two or more parts has independent melodic interest, similar meaning to polyphonic.Tierce de Picardie when a piece in a minor key ends in a major chord.Acciaccatura an ornament where a short, crushed note is added before the main note either before, or on, the beat.Mordent an ornament where the main note is sounded, then the note above, then the main note again.Baroque weekLesson 3 The Concerto Grosso
In todays lessonLearn about the concerto grosso form from the Baroque era
Listen to excerpts from one of J.S. Bachs famous Brandenburg Concertos
But firstlets recap!1. What is the name for a piece for a solo instrument, accompanied by orchestra?2. What is a Tierce de Picardie?3. The series of violin concertos called The Four Seasons were written by which Baroque composer?4. What is the name of this ornament? What does it mean?5. What is the name of this ornament? What does it mean?6. What is the difference between homophonic and polyphonic?
RipienoConcertinoConcerto grossoIn a concerto grosso, there is a group of soloists rather than just one. This group of soloists are called the concertino and group that accompany are called the ripieno.24Brandenburg concerto no.2j.s. bach - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haRanlw9eSgThe concertino and ripieno are often used in a question and answer style and frequently contrast with each other.
The main theme, usually announced and played by the ripieno, is known as the ritornello. This is frequently repeated at points during the piece.
Listen out for the basso continuo it continues for the whole piece, even throughout the solo concertino sections. What instruments could be playing the basso continuo?Concerto grosso Op.6 No.1handelListen to this movement from a Concerto Grosso by Handel movement begins at 1:50 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAvFbMCpGDo
Listen out for the clear contrast in textures from the concertino and ripieno groups
Listen out for the repetition and use of sequences when a melodic phrase is immediately repeated at a higher or lower pitch.Sequence: A melodic phrase which is immediately repeated at a higher or lower pitch.
Concerto Grosso: A type of Baroque concerto in which a group of soloists (Concertino) is combined and contrasted with a larger group of (Ripieno).
Concertino: The name given to the small group of soloists, as opposed to the accompanying group (Ripieno).
Ripieno: The main group of instrumentalists, that accompany the soloists (Concertino).
Ritornello: The main theme played by, usually, the Ripieno group. It may frequently return throughout the movement.Baroque concepts lesson 3Baroque weekLesson 4 Baroque Vocal Music
In todays lessonLook at types of vocal music from the Baroque era Highers we will also look at 2 concepts from the RenaissanceBaroque opera - dido and aeneasBaroque opera by PurcellDrama set to music has soloists and a chorus, acting and accompanied by orchestraWhen I am Laid In Earth aria sung by DidoAria begins at 1:31 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACY03VwWmnAOpera A drama set to music with soloists, chorus, acting and orchestral accompanimentAria A song in an opera or oratorio with orchestral accompaniment.Chorus a group of singers with several people to each part (like a choir) the music written for these singers.When I am laid in earthAria from an operaGives the character time to express their emotions.The memorable bit!Listen to this aria and write down as many concepts as you can hear. Think about:
The type of voice The style of accompaniment The instruments The tonalityThen watch and follow the score to help identify answers begins at 0:57 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGQq3HcOB0YOther features in operaRecitativeMore speech-like, moves the plot forward in between arias and chorusesOften features question and answer type dialogue, or rapid repetition of the one noteMuch less melodic than arias
Sacred vocal musicPre-Baroque = RenaissancePlainchantMode/Modal
BaroqueOratorioMassrenaissancePlainchant unaccompanied and sacredNo regular time signature they follow the rhythm of the Latin text
They are modal written in a mode.
Mode a type of early scale, used before major and minor scales were invented.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GbiZulU70J0oratorioLarge-scale work for orchestra plus singers soloists, chorus and orchestra.
Sacred not secular like opera. Oratorios tend to take inspiration from biblical stories or the lives of saints.
Similar to opera, in that they feature arias, recitative and choruses.
Can be performed with scenery and props, but strictly speaking these are concert pieces.
Handels Messiah is one of the most famous oratorios of all time. Watch a performance of a chorus from the work http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUZEtVbJT5cmassSacred choral compositionLatin textCan be a cappella accompanied by instrumental obbligatos or accompanied by full orchestra.Characterised by 5 distinct movements
1. Kyrie2. Gloria3. Credo4. Sanctus and Benedictus. 5. Agnus DeiMass in b minor j.s. bachListen to the beginning of each movement from Bachs Mass in B minor and listen carefully to notice each of the following features1. Kyrie - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKiCphIiO6c 2. Gloria imitation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izVzruuk1lc 3. Credo imitation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ulxV7WOC5xI 4. Sanctus and Benedictus obbligato - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcSteU9o1aA 5. Agnus Dei imitation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5Ea4j-Si3M Baroque concepts lesson 4Opera A drama set to music, with soloists, chorus acting and orchestral accompaniment.Aria A song in an opera or oratorio with orchestral accompanimentChorus (i) A group of singers with several people to each part. (ii) The music written for these singers.Recitative A type of vocal writing where the music follows the rhythm of speech. It is used in operas and oratorios to move the story or plot on.Plainchant Unaccompanied melody set to the words of the Roman Catholic liturgy. Modal, and have no regular metre they follow the rhythm of the words.Mode a type of early scale used before major/minor. Used in Plainchant.Oratorio a large sacred work for soloists, chorus and orchestra usually a concert piece. Often based on biblical stories or the lives of saints.Mass A large sacred work containing very specific movements Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus and Agnus Dei.