Baroque Revision

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Baroque Art revision, including architecture, sculpture and painting.

Transcript of Baroque Revision

  • 1. BAROQUE ART Revision

2. Cronology and geography

  • From the end of 16th century until 1750.
  • Geography: whole Europe+ America.
  • Characteristics of the period:
    • Religious and political conflicts
    • Geographical colonization
    • Scientific development
    • New astrological discoveries Sun centre of Universe

3. Baroque Style

  • The word means imperfection
  • New naturalism that reflects the scientific advances
  • Taste for dramatic action and emotion:
    • Colour and light contrasted
    • Rich textures
    • Asymmetrical spaces
    • Diagonal plans
    • New subjects: landscape, genre, still-life

4. Baroque Style

  • Variety within the style
  • Art at the service of power
  • Two main centres:
    • Rome: Popes authority
    • France: powerful monarchy
  • Influence of the Counter-Reform
  • Worry about plastic values

5. Architecture: Characteristics

  • Long narrow naves replaced by broader or circular forms
  • Dramatic use of light
  • Opulent use of ornaments
  • Large-scale ceiling frescoes
  • External faade with dramatic central projection
  • Interior a shell for painting and sculpture
  • Illusory effects
  • Onion domes in Eastern Europe

6. Architecture: Italy

  • They evolved from the Renaissance forms
  • Movement toward grand structures with flowing, curving shapes
  • Landscape was frequently incorporated
  • New elements as gardens, squares , courtyards and fountains.
  • Influence of the rebuilding of Saint Peter, in which classical forms integrated with the city.

7. Architecture: Italy

  • Maderno
    • He made the Vaticans faade
    • His work destroyed partially Michelangelos design
    • His work combined the dome with the creation of an space where the Pope could appear publicaly
    • Other works:
      • Santa maria della Vittoria
      • Palazzo Barberini

8. Architecture: Italy

  • Longhena
    • He worked mainly in Venice
    • His design was selected for building Santa Maria della Salute
    • It is building of central plan with a great dome that became the symbol of Venice.

9. Architecture: Italy

  • Bernini
    • He created a fusion of architecture, painting and sculpture
    • He used false perspective and trompe-l oeil to impact
    • He used a palace faade that became a model with massive pilasters above a rusticated base.
    • Works:
      • Saint Peters square
      • Baldaquin

10. Architecture: Italy

  • Borromini
    • His works spring from the contrast between convention and freedom
    • He used tradition as a basis, but not as a law
    • Works:
      • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
      • San Carlo Borromeo
      • Oratorio degli Fillipenses

11. Architecture: France

  • It was elegant, ordered, rational and restraided
  • It is a rectilinear model, closer to classicism
  • It aimed at showing the power of Louis XIV monarchy.
  • The main works are:
    • Louvre: Le Vay and Perrault
    • Versailles: Le Brun, Le Vau, Le Notre

12. Architecture: Central Europe

  • It began later due to the Thirty Years War
  • Austria developed the Imperial style with Fischer von Erlach and Hildebrandt
  • In Germany, in the Catholic South Jesuit models were followed while in the Protestant North works were less important
  • Palace architecture was important in the whole area

13. Architecture: England and Russia

  • In England is important Wren
  • Baroque was the style used to design town planning
  • In Russia it is very decorative, in quite traditional churches sometimes made of brick; later it was imported from the Low Countries and finally it became an extravagant art.

14. Architecture: Spain

  • At the beginning it continued the pattern of the Escorial
  • Decoration tends to concentrate just in the faade
  • The Rococo was the time of the development of the Churrigueresque style, with exaggerated decoration around the door
  • The Plateresque (last Renaissance that imitates the work on silver) and the Churrigueresque were exported to America, mainly to Mexico.

15. Sculpture

  • It is one of the most popular arts.
  • The clients are the church and the nobility.
  • It is the way of expression of different religious believes.
  • It was used as a way of advertising power
  • Works are located in public places, such as courtyards and fountains.

16. Sculpture: Characteristics

  • Creation of images that can be seen from different points of view.
  • Tendency to open structures.
  • Complicated lines, being the diagonal the most used.
  • Interest for the effects of light:
    • different treatment of surfaces
    • Resource to breaking wall to get the ideal illumination

17. Sculpture: Characteristics

  • Combination of different materials in the same work
  • Grandiloquence of the gestures
  • Human treatment of the depicted characters
  • Mythological and religious images frull of humanities and passions
  • Perfect organisation of the volumes to obtain the desired effect

18. Sculpture: Characteristics

  • Tension and drama: moment of maximum tension
  • Violent contrast of light and shadows
  • Types of sculptures:
    • Relief
    • Portrait
    • Equestrian portrait
    • Allegories
    • Mythological stories
    • Religious
    • Easter sculptures (Spain)
    • Fountains
    • Pantheons
  • Regional differences

19. Sculpture: Italy

  • Bernini
    • He created a new style in sculpture
    • Sources of inspiration were the paintings of his contemporaries
    • Sense of drama and naturalism (following Caravaggio)
    • Captured in stone frozen moment of human bodies in motion
    • Works:
      • Apollo and Daphne
      • Sainte Therese Ecstasy
      • Fountain of the Four Rivers
      • Fountain of the Triton

20. Sculpture: France

  • Girardon
    • Quite classical conception
    • He worked for Louis XIV
    • Author of fountains (Apollo Tended by Nymphs), pantheons (Richelieu)
  • Puget
    • Impassioned work
    • Formed in Italy
    • Expressed physical vigour and emotional intensity
    • Work: Milon of Crotona

21. Sculpture: Spain

  • Religious sculpture had an important development
  • It is realised for the Easter parades.
  • Characteristics:
    • Humanity (passions, mainly sufferance)
    • Symbols of sufferance: blood
    • Individual or group images
    • Wood is the most used material (polychrome)
    • Additional elements: real clothes, glazed eyes, hair
    • Common images: